Basal forebrain

Forebrain cholinergic nuclei
The basal forebrain structures are located in the forebrain to the front of and below the striatum.wikipedia
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Nucleus accumbens

nucleus accumbens shellnucleus accumbens coreaccumbal
They include the ventral basal ganglia (including nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum), nucleus basalis, diagonal band of Broca, substantia innominata, and the medial septal nucleus.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.

Diagonal band of Broca

diagonal bandnucleus of the diagonal bandNucleus of diagonal band
They include the ventral basal ganglia (including nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum), nucleus basalis, diagonal band of Broca, substantia innominata, and the medial septal nucleus.
The diagonal band of Broca is one of the basal forebrain structures that are derived from the ventral telencephalon during development.

Nucleus basalis

basal nucleus of MeynertNucleus basalis of Meynertbasal optic nucleus of Meynert
They include the ventral basal ganglia (including nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum), nucleus basalis, diagonal band of Broca, substantia innominata, and the medial septal nucleus.
The nucleus basalis, also known as the nucleus basalis of Meynert or nucleus basalis magnocellularis, is a group of neurons located mainly in the substantia innominata of the basal forebrain.

Acetylcholine

cholinergicAChacetylcholine (ACh)
These structures are important in the production of acetylcholine, which is then distributed widely throughout the brain. This results in hyperpolarization of cholinergic neurons, which inhibits the release of acetylcholine.
In the CNS, cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus support the cognitive functions of those target areas.

Substantia innominata

substantia innominata of Meynert
They include the ventral basal ganglia (including nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum), nucleus basalis, diagonal band of Broca, substantia innominata, and the medial septal nucleus.
It is part of the basal forebrain structures and includes the nucleus basalis.

Cholinergic

cholinergic systemCholinergic agonistCholinergic neurons
The basal forebrain is considered to be the major cholinergic output of the central nervous system (CNS) centred on the output of the nucleus basalis. Adenosine acts on A1 receptors of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. The nucleus basalis is the main neuromodulator of the basal forebrain and gives widespread cholinergic projections to the neocortex.
Neuromuscular junctions, preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system, the basal forebrain, and brain stem complexes are also cholinergic, as are the receptor for the merocrine sweat glands.

Wakefulness

awakeawakeningwaking
Stimulating the basal forebrain gives rise to acetylcholine release, which induces wakefulness and REM sleep, whereas inhibition of acetylcholine release in the basal forebrain by adenosine causes slow wave sleep.
Wakefulness is produced by a complex interaction between multiple neurotransmitter systems arising in the brainstem and ascending through the midbrain, hypothalamus, thalamus and basal forebrain.

Adenosine A1 receptor

A 1 adenosine A 1 receptoradenosine A 1
Adenosine acts on A1 receptors of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain.
A 1 receptors are implicated in sleep promotion by inhibiting wake-promoting cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain.

Neuromodulation

neuromodulatorneuromodulatorsvolume transmission
The nucleus basalis is the main neuromodulator of the basal forebrain and gives widespread cholinergic projections to the neocortex.
The cholinergic system consists of projection neurons from the pedunculopontine nucleus, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and basal forebrain and interneurons from the striatum and nucleus accumbens.

Adenosine

Aadenosine analogAdenoscan
Adenosine acts on A1 receptors of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain.
The principal component of marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) induce sleep in rats by increasing adenosine levels in the basal forebrain.

Forebrain

prosencephalonfore-brainforebrains
The basal forebrain structures are located in the forebrain to the front of and below the striatum.

Striatum

ventral striatumdorsal striatumcorpus striatum
The basal forebrain structures are located in the forebrain to the front of and below the striatum.

Ventral pallidum

pallidumposterior ventral palladum
They include the ventral basal ganglia (including nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum), nucleus basalis, diagonal band of Broca, substantia innominata, and the medial septal nucleus.

Medial septal nucleus

medialMedial septal nuclei
They include the ventral basal ganglia (including nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum), nucleus basalis, diagonal band of Broca, substantia innominata, and the medial septal nucleus.

Central nervous system

CNScentralcentral nervous system (CNS)
The basal forebrain is considered to be the major cholinergic output of the central nervous system (CNS) centred on the output of the nucleus basalis.

Rapid eye movement sleep

REM sleepREMrapid eye movement
Stimulating the basal forebrain gives rise to acetylcholine release, which induces wakefulness and REM sleep, whereas inhibition of acetylcholine release in the basal forebrain by adenosine causes slow wave sleep.

Slow-wave sleep

slow wave sleepdeep sleepslow-wave
Stimulating the basal forebrain gives rise to acetylcholine release, which induces wakefulness and REM sleep, whereas inhibition of acetylcholine release in the basal forebrain by adenosine causes slow wave sleep.

Arousal

physiological arousalarousedactivation
The nucleus basalis is an essential part of the neuromodulatory system that controls behaviour by regulating arousal and attention.

Attention

concentrationfocusinattention
The nucleus basalis is an essential part of the neuromodulatory system that controls behaviour by regulating arousal and attention.

Hyperpolarization (biology)

hyperpolarizationhyperpolarizinghyperpolarize
This results in hyperpolarization of cholinergic neurons, which inhibits the release of acetylcholine.

Nitric oxide

NOnitrogen monoxidenitric oxide (NO)
Nitric oxide production in the basal forebrain is both necessary and sufficient to produce sleep.

Sleep

sleepingsleep architectureasleep
Nitric oxide production in the basal forebrain is both necessary and sufficient to produce sleep.

Neuroplasticity

plasticityneural plasticitybrain plasticity
Acetylcholine affects the ability of brain cells to transmit information to one another, and also encourages neuronal plasticity, or learning.

Amnesia

memory lossamnesiacamnesic
This may be one reason why basal forebrain damage can result in memory impairments such as amnesia and confabulation.

Confabulation

confabulatedconfabulateconfabulations
This may be one reason why basal forebrain damage can result in memory impairments such as amnesia and confabulation.