Basal ganglia

basal nucleibasalbasal ganglia (BG)basal nucleusaccumbensbasal ganglia motor loopbasal ganglia systembasal ganglionreptilian complex
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates, including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain and top of the midbrain.wikipedia
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Primate basal ganglia

Primate basal ganglia systembasal ganglia of primatesbasal ganglia system
There are some differences in the basal ganglia of primates.
The basal ganglia form a major brain system in all species of vertebrates, but in primates (including humans) there are special features that justify a separate consideration.

Caudate nucleus

caudatecaudate nucleibilateral caudate nucleus
The main components of the basal ganglia – as defined functionally – are the striatum; both dorsal striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle), globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus.
The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the corpus striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia.

Putamen

bilateral putamencaudate putamenputaminal
The main components of the basal ganglia – as defined functionally – are the striatum; both dorsal striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle), globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus.
It is also one of the structures that comprise the basal nuclei.

Substantia nigra

substantia nigra pars reticulatanigralsubstantia nigra pars compacta
The main components of the basal ganglia – as defined functionally – are the striatum; both dorsal striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle), globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus.
The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.

Nucleus accumbens

nucleus accumbens shellnucleus accumbens coreaccumbal
The main components of the basal ganglia – as defined functionally – are the striatum; both dorsal striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle), globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus.
The ventral striatum and dorsal striatum collectively form the striatum, which is the main component of the basal ganglia.

Ventral pallidum

pallidumposterior ventral palladum
The main components of the basal ganglia – as defined functionally – are the striatum; both dorsal striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle), globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus.
The ventral pallidum (VP) is a structure within the basal ganglia of the brain.

Procedural memory

proceduralprocedural memoriesprocedural learning
The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions, including control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, habit learning, eye movements, cognition, and emotion.
The cerebellum, hippocampus, neostriatum, and basal ganglia were identified as being involved in memory acquisition tasks.

Subthalamic nucleus

Luys' bodynucleus of Luyssub-thalamic nucleus
The main components of the basal ganglia – as defined functionally – are the striatum; both dorsal striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle), globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus.
The subthalamic nucleus is a small lens-shaped nucleus in the brain where it is, from a functional point of view, part of the basal ganglia system.

Cerebral cortex

cortexcorticalsubcortical
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates, including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain and top of the midbrain. Basal ganglia are strongly interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, as well as several other brain areas.
Axons from these leave the cortex and connect with subcortical structures including the basal ganglia.

Brain

brain functionmammalian braincerebral
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates, including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain and top of the midbrain.

Hemiballismus

ballismballismus
Movement disorders include, most notably Parkinson's disease, which involves degeneration of the dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra, Huntington's disease, which primarily involves damage to the striatum, dystonia, and more rarely hemiballismus.
It is a type of chorea caused in most cases by a decrease in activity of the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia, resulting in the appearance of flailing, ballistic, undesired movements of the limbs.

Mesolimbic pathway

mesolimbicreward pathwaymesolimbic reward pathway
There is considerable evidence that this limbic part plays a central role in reward learning as well as cognition and frontal lobe functioning, via the mesolimbic pathway from the VTA to the nucleus accumbens that uses the neurotransmitter dopamine, and the mesocortical pathway.
The pathway connects the ventral tegmental area in the midbrain, to the ventral striatum of the basal ganglia in the forebrain.

Amphetamine

Benzedrinespeedamphetamines
A number of highly addictive drugs, including cocaine, amphetamine, specific medications that are prescribed by a doctor, and nicotine, are thought to work by increasing the efficacy of this dopamine signal.
Reviews of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that long-term treatment with amphetamine decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function found in subjects with ADHD, and improves function in several parts of the brain, such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia.

Tourette syndrome

Tourette's syndromeTouretteTourettes
Those of behaviour include Tourette syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and addiction.
Tics are believed to result from dysfunction in cortical and subcortical regions, the thalamus, basal ganglia and frontal cortex.

Cerebrum

cerebraltelencephalontelencephalic
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates, including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain and top of the midbrain.
The cerebrum or telencephalon is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.

Dopamine

dopaminergic systemDAdopaminergic
The substantia nigra is the source of the striatal input of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which plays an important role in basal ganglia function.
The substantia nigra is a small midbrain area that forms a component of the basal ganglia.

Striatum

ventral striatumdorsal striatumcorpus striatum
The main components of the basal ganglia – as defined functionally – are the striatum; both dorsal striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle), globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.

Thalamus

thalamicMetathalamusthalami
Basal ganglia are strongly interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, as well as several other brain areas.
The role of the thalamus in the more anterior pallidal and nigral territories in the basal ganglia system disturbances is recognized but still poorly understood.

Nucleus (neuroanatomy)

nucleinucleusbrain nuclei
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates, including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain and top of the midbrain.

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson’s diseaseParkinson disease
Movement disorders include, most notably Parkinson's disease, which involves degeneration of the dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra, Huntington's disease, which primarily involves damage to the striatum, dystonia, and more rarely hemiballismus.
The main pathological characteristics of PD are cell death in the brain's basal ganglia (affecting up to 70% of the dopamine secreting neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta by the end of life) and the presence of Lewy bodies (accumulations of the protein alpha-synuclein) in many of the remaining neurons.

Huntington's disease

HuntingtonHuntington diseaseHuntington’s disease
Movement disorders include, most notably Parkinson's disease, which involves degeneration of the dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra, Huntington's disease, which primarily involves damage to the striatum, dystonia, and more rarely hemiballismus.
The most prominent early effects are in a part of the basal ganglia called the neostriatum, which is composed of the caudate nucleus and putamen.

Medium spiny neuron

medium spiny neuronsMedium spiny cellsneurons
The striatum is composed mostly of medium spiny neurons.
Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), also known as spiny projection neurons, are a special type of GABAergic inhibitory cell representing 95% of neurons within the human striatum, a basal ganglia structure.

Ganglionic eminence

lateral ganglionic eminencemedial ganglionic eminenceCaudal Ganglionic Eminence
During development, the cells that migrate tangentially to form the basal ganglia are directed by the lateral and medial ganglionic eminences.
Another structure that the GEs contribute to is the basal ganglia.

Neurological disorder

neurological disordersneurological diseaseneurological
Their dysfunction results in a wide range of neurological conditions including disorders of behaviour control and movement.

Prefrontal cortex

medial prefrontal cortexprefrontalAttention versus memory in prefrontal cortex
The "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions.
As of recent, researchers have used neuroimaging techniques to find that along with the basal ganglia, the prefrontal cortex is involved with learning exemplars, which is part of the exemplar theory, one of the three main ways our mind categorizes things.