Bashar al-Assad

Bashar AssadAssadBashar Al AssadPresident AssadBasharal-AssadAssad regimeBashar al-AsadPresident Bashar al-AssadBasher al-Assad
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation: ; ; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the President of Syria since 17 July 2000.wikipedia
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Syrian Civil War

civil warSyriaSyrian uprising
The election was held only in areas controlled by the Syrian government during the country's ongoing civil war and was criticized by the UN, the Syrian opposition and its Western countries, while Syria's allies stated that the election was "free and fair".
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah) is an ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria fought between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, along with domestic and foreign allies, and various domestic and foreign forces opposing both the Syrian government and each other in varying combinations.

Syria

Syrian Arab RepublicSyrianEtymology of Syria
In addition, he is commander-in-chief of the Syrian Armed Forces and Regional Secretary of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's branch in Syria.
Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1971 to 2000.

2007 Syrian presidential election

20072007 election2007 elections in Syria
In the 2000 and subsequent 2007 election, he received 99.7% and 97.6% support, respectively, in non-competitive, non-democratic elections.
A referendum to confirm the presidential candidate Bashar al-Assad was held in Syria on 27 May 2007, after the People's Council of Syria unanimously voted to propose the incumbent for a second term on 10 May 2007.

Hafez al-Assad

Hafez AssadHafez al AssadHafiz al-Assad
His father, Hafez al-Assad, was also President of Syria from 1971 to 2000. Bashar Hafez al-Assad was born in Damascus on 11 September 1965, the second oldest son of Anisa Makhlouf and Hafez al-Assad.
However Bassel died in a car accident in 1994, and Hafez turned to his third choice—his younger son Bashar, who at that time had no political experience.

Bassel al-Assad

Basil al-AssadBasselBasil Assad
In 1994, after his elder brother Bassel died in a car crash, Bashar was recalled to Syria to take over Bassel's role as heir apparent. Unlike his brothers Bassel and Maher, and second sister, also named Bushra, Bashar was quiet, reserved and lacked interest in politics or the military.
Bassel al-Assad (باسل الأسد Bāssel al Assad; 23 March 1962 – 21 January 1994) was a Syrian engineer, colonel, and politician who was the eldest son of President of Syria Hafez al-Assad and the older brother of (later) President Bashar al-Assad.

American-led intervention in the Syrian Civil War

American-led intervention in SyriaSyriaAmerican-led intervention
Assad has rejected allegations of war crimes and criticised the American-led intervention in Syria for attempting regime change.
In mid-January 2018, the Trump administration indicated its intention to maintain an open-ended military presence in Syria to counter Iran's influence and oust Syrian president Bashar al-Assad.

Syrian opposition

oppositionSyrian rebelsSyrian rebel
The election was held only in areas controlled by the Syrian government during the country's ongoing civil war and was criticized by the UN, the Syrian opposition and its Western countries, while Syria's allies stated that the election was "free and fair".
Syria was under emergency law from the time of the 1963 Syrian coup d'état until 21 April 2011, when it was rescinded by Bashar al-Assad, Hafez's eldest surviving son and the current President of Syria.

Maher al-Assad

MaherBashar al-Assad's brother MaherMaher Assad
Unlike his brothers Bassel and Maher, and second sister, also named Bushra, Bashar was quiet, reserved and lacked interest in politics or the military.
He is thought by some to be the second most powerful man in Syria after his brother Bashar, the current President.

Abdul Halim Khaddam

Abdul-Halim KhaddamAbd al-Halim KhaddamAbdel Halim Khaddam
In 1998, Bashar took charge of Syria's Lebanon file, which had since the 1970s been handled by Vice President Abdul Halim Khaddam, who had until then been a potential contender for president.
He was long known as a loyalist of Hafez Assad, and held the strongest Sunni position within the Syrian government until he resigned his positions and left the country in 2005 in protest against certain policies of Hafez's son and successor, Bashar Assad.

Alawites

AlawiteAlawiAlawis
The Assad government describes itself as secular, while some political scientists have claimed that the government exploits sectarian tensions in the country and relies upon the Alawite minority to remain in power. Assad's father, Hafez, was born to an impoverished rural family of Alawite background and rose through the Ba'ath Party ranks to take control of the Syrian branch of the Party in the 1970 Corrective Revolution, culminating in his rise to the Syrian presidency.
The term is frequently employed as hate speech by Sunni fundamentalists fighting against Bashar al-Assad's government in the Syrian civil war, who use its emphasis on Ibn Nusayr in order to insinuate that Alawi beliefs are "man-made" and not divinely inspired.

Corrective Movement (Syria)

Corrective MovementCorrective Revolution1970 Syrian Corrective Revolution
Assad's father, Hafez, was born to an impoverished rural family of Alawite background and rose through the Ba'ath Party ranks to take control of the Syrian branch of the Party in the 1970 Corrective Revolution, culminating in his rise to the Syrian presidency.
Al-Assad would rule Syria until his death in 2000, after which he was succeeded by his son Bashar al-Assad.

Civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War

2011 Syrian uprisingSyrian uprisingprotests
Mass protests in Syria began on 26 January 2011.
The uprising was marked by massive anti-government opposition demonstrations against the Ba'athist government led by Bashar al-Assad, meeting with police and military violence, massive arrests and brutal crackdown, resulting in hundreds of casualties and thousands of wounded.

Anisa Makhlouf

Bashar Hafez al-Assad was born in Damascus on 11 September 1965, the second oldest son of Anisa Makhlouf and Hafez al-Assad.
Her five children include Bashar al-Assad, the President of Syria since 2000.

Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region

Syrian Regional BranchBa'ath PartyArab Socialist Ba'ath Party
In addition, he is commander-in-chief of the Syrian Armed Forces and Regional Secretary of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's branch in Syria. Assad's father, Hafez, was born to an impoverished rural family of Alawite background and rose through the Ba'ath Party ranks to take control of the Syrian branch of the Party in the 1970 Corrective Revolution, culminating in his rise to the Syrian presidency.
Hafez's son, Bashar al-Assad succeeded him in office as President of Syria and Regional Secretary of the Syrian Regional Branch on 17 June and 24 June respectively.

Bushra al-Assad

Bushra
Unlike his brothers Bassel and Maher, and second sister, also named Bushra, Bashar was quiet, reserved and lacked interest in politics or the military.
She is the sister of current Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.

Ali Mamlouk

Ali Mamluk
Intelligence chief Ali Mamlouk was placed under house arrest sometime in April and stood accused of plotting with Assad's exiled uncle Rifaat al-Assad to replace Bashar as president.
Ali Mamlouk (born 19 February 1946) is a special security adviser to Syrian president Bashar al-Assad and is one of his trusted men.

Damascus Spring

Immediately after he took office, a reform movement made cautious advances during the Damascus Spring, which led to the shut down of Mezzeh prison and the declaration of a wide-ranging amnesty releasing hundreds of Muslim Brotherhood affiliated political prisoners.
Following the death of Hafez al-Assad in June 2000 his son, Bashar, was installed as president of Syria.

Rifaat al-Assad

RifaatRifaat AssadRifat Assad
Intelligence chief Ali Mamlouk was placed under house arrest sometime in April and stood accused of plotting with Assad's exiled uncle Rifaat al-Assad to replace Bashar as president.
Rifaat Ali al-Assad (رفعت علي الأسد; born 22 August 1937) is the younger brother of the former President of Syria, Hafez Assad and Jamil Assad, and the uncle of the incumbent President Bashar al-Assad.

Damascus University

University of DamascusSyrian UniversityDamascus
Born and raised in Damascus, Assad graduated from the medical school of Damascus University in 1988 and began to work as a doctor in the Syrian Army.
On 13 November 2012, the President Bashar al-Assad issued a decree on establishing a branch for Damascus University in Quneitra, a city in the Syrian Heights.

2014 Syrian presidential election

20142014 presidential electionpresidential election
On 16 July 2014, Assad was sworn in for another seven-year term after winning another non-competitive, non-democratic election.
Those foreign governments' decisions were welcomed by the Syrian National Council, a Syrian opposition organization and an opponent of Bashar al-Assad.

Hafez Makhlouf

Col. Hafez Makhlouf
This was shortly followed by Alawite protests in Homs demanding the resignation of the governor, and the dismissal of Assad's cousin Hafez Makhlouf from his security position leading to his subsequent exile to Belarus.
He was a member of Syrian president Bashar al-Assad's "inner circle" of close supporters.

Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War

Russian military intervention in SyriaRussian airstrikesRussian intervention in Syria
Shortly after the start of direct military intervention by Russia on 30 September 2015 at the formal request of the Syrian government, Putin stated the military operation had been thoroughly prepared in advance and defined Russia's goal in Syria as "stabilising the legitimate power in Syria and creating the conditions for political compromise".
According to Russian and Syrian officials, in July 2015, the Syrian President Bashar al-Assad made a formal request to Russia for air strikes combating international terrorism, while laying out Syria's military problems.

Rustum Ghazaleh

Rustum GhazaliRustom Ghazaleh
To further weaken the old Syrian order in Lebanon, Bashar replaced the long serving de facto Syrian High Commissioner of Lebanon, Ghazi Kanaan, with Rustum Ghazaleh.
He was appointed by Syrian President Bashar al-Assad in December 2002 to succeed the late Ghazi Kanaan as head of Syrian military intelligence in Lebanon.

2017 Shayrat missile strike

Shayrat missile strike59 Tomahawk cruise missileslaunched
Following the missile strikes on a Syrian airbase on the orders of President Trump, Assad's spokesperson described the United States' behaviour as "unjust and arrogant aggression" and stated that the missile strikes "do not change the deep policies" of the Syrian government.
It was the first time that the United States had acknowledged intentionally carrying out military action against the forces of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.

Assassination of Rafic Hariri

assassinationthe assassinationassassinated
In 2005 Rafic Hariri, the former prime minister of Lebanon, was assassinated.
Lebanese Druze leader Walid Jumblatt, a newer recruit of the anti-Syrian opposition, said after the assassination that in August 2004 Syrian President Bashar al-Assad threatened Hariri personally in a meeting, saying "Lahoud represents me...If you and Chirac want me out of Lebanon, I will destroy Lebanon."