Bashi-bazouk

bashi-bazouksbashi-bozoukbashi-bozukbashibazoukBashibozukbaşıbozukbashibazouksbashibozoukbasci bazuksBasci Buzuk
A bashi-bazouk ( başıbozuk, "one whose head is turned, damaged head, crazy-head", roughly "leaderless" or "disorderly") was an irregular soldier of the Ottoman army, raised in times of war.wikipedia
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Irregular military

irregularirregularsirregular forces
A bashi-bazouk ( başıbozuk, "one whose head is turned, damaged head, crazy-head", roughly "leaderless" or "disorderly") was an irregular soldier of the Ottoman army, raised in times of war.
Notable examples of regulars relying on irregulars include Bashi-bazouk units in the Ottoman Empire, auxiliary cohorts of Germanic peoples in the Roman Empire, Cossacks in the Russian Empire, and Native American forces in the American frontier of the Confederate States of America.

Muhammad Ali's seizure of power

Citadel MassacreMassacre of the Citadelseized control
An attempt by Husrev Pasha to disband his Albanian bashi-bazouks in favor of his regular forces began the rioting which led to the establishment of Muhammad Ali's Khedivate of Egypt.
About six weeks later, the Ottoman governor of Egypt Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha, finding himself in a financial bind and unable to pay all the troops under his command, attempted to disband his Albanian bashi-bazouks (or Arnauts) without pay in order to be able to pay his regular, Turkish, soldiers.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
The army chiefly recruited Albanians, Kurds and Circassians as bashi-bazouks, but recruits came from all ethnic groups of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman bashi-bazouks brutally suppressed the Bulgarian uprising of 1876, massacring up to 100,000 people in the process.

Khedivate of Egypt

EgyptEgyptianKhedivate
An attempt by Husrev Pasha to disband his Albanian bashi-bazouks in favor of his regular forces began the rioting which led to the establishment of Muhammad Ali's Khedivate of Egypt.
Amid these disturbances, Husrev Pasha attempted to disband his Albanian bashi-bazouks (soldiers) without pay.

Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha

Husrev PashaHüsrev PashaMehmed Hüsrev Pasha
An attempt by Husrev Pasha to disband his Albanian bashi-bazouks in favor of his regular forces began the rioting which led to the establishment of Muhammad Ali's Khedivate of Egypt.
Amid these disturbances, Husrev Pasha attempted to disband his Albanian bashi-bazouks without pay.

Military of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman ArmyOttoman militaryOttoman
A bashi-bazouk ( başıbozuk, "one whose head is turned, damaged head, crazy-head", roughly "leaderless" or "disorderly") was an irregular soldier of the Ottoman army, raised in times of war.
A branch of the Azabs were the bashi-bazouk (başıbozuk).

The Adventures of Tintin

TintinAdventures of TintinLes Aventures de Tintin
A notable example of this use is in the comic series The Adventures of Tintin, where the word is often used as an expletive by Captain Haddock.
The hot-tempered Haddock uses a range of colourful insults and curses to express his feelings, such as "billions of billious blue blistering barnacles" ( In original version: Mille milliards de mille sabords de tonnerre de Brest ) or "ten thousand thundering typhoons", "bashi-bazouk", "visigoths", "kleptomaniac", or "sea gherkin", but nothing actually considered a swear word.

April Uprising of 1876

April UprisingBulgarian atrocitiesBulgaria
(1877) by Konstantin Makovsky is a painting depicting the rape of two Bulgarian women in a church by one African-looking and two Turkish-looking bashi-bazouks, during the April Uprising.
The regular Ottoman Army and irregular bashi-bazouk units brutally suppressed the rebels, resulting in a public outcry in Europe, with many famous intellectuals condemning the Ottoman atrocities and supporting the oppressed Bulgarian population.

Batak massacre

Bulgarian Atrocitiesatrocities in Bulgariafive thousand people were killed
The Batak massacre (1876) was carried out by thousands of bashi-bazouks sent to quell a local rebellion.
They succeeded to eliminate part of the Ottoman leaders, but were reported to the authorities and 5,000 Bashi-bazouk were sent, mainly Pomaks (Slavic Muslims), led by Ahmet Aga from Barutin which surrounded the town.

Akinji

Akıncıakinciakinjis
Though the majority of troops fought on foot, some troops (called akinci) rode on horseback.
Still, last remnants of akinji system existed till late 19th century in the Balkan provinces as the bashi-bozouk (irregular) warriors.

Captain Haddock

Captain Archibald HaddockArchibald Haddock
A notable example of this use is in the comic series The Adventures of Tintin, where the word is often used as an expletive by Captain Haddock.
As a result, Captain Haddock's colourful insults began to include "bashi-bazouk", "visigoths", "kleptomaniac", "sea gherkin", "anacoluthon", "pockmark", "nincompoop", "abominable snowman", "nitwits", "scoundrels", "steam rollers", "parasites", "vegetarians", "floundering oath", "carpet seller", "blundering Bazookas", "Popinjay", "bragger", "pinheads", "miserable slugs", "ectomorph", "maniacs", "pickled herring"; "freshwater swabs", "miserable molecule of mildew","Logarithm", "bandits", "orang-outangs", "cercopithecuses", "Polynesians", "iconoclasts", "ruffians", "fancy-dress freebooter", "ignoramus", "sycophant", "dizzard", "black-beetle", "pyrographer", "slave-trader" and "Fuzzy Wuzzy", but again, nothing actually considered a swear word.

Massacre of Phocaea

massacreddestroyed the citymassacre
Likewise, the bashi-bazouks perpetrated the massacre of Phocaea in 1914.
In the Aidin Vilayet, on the Aegean coast of Anatolia, a total of 8,000-10,000 armed irregulars (bashi-bazouks) were operating as part of this campaign.

Albanians

AlbanianAlbanian peopleethnic Albanian
The army chiefly recruited Albanians, Kurds and Circassians as bashi-bazouks, but recruits came from all ethnic groups of the Ottoman Empire.

Kurds

KurdishKurdKurdish people
The army chiefly recruited Albanians, Kurds and Circassians as bashi-bazouks, but recruits came from all ethnic groups of the Ottoman Empire.

Circassians

CircassianCircassian peopleAdyghe
The army chiefly recruited Albanians, Kurds and Circassians as bashi-bazouks, but recruits came from all ethnic groups of the Ottoman Empire.

Feudalism

feudalfeudal systemfeudal lord
Although the Ottoman armies always contained adventurers as well as regular soldiers, the strain on the Ottoman feudal system caused mainly by the Empire's wide expanse required heavier reliance on irregular soldiers.

Looting

plunderlootedpillage
They were motivated to fight mostly by expectations of plunder.

Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Muhammad AliMuhammad Ali PashaMohammed Ali
An attempt by Husrev Pasha to disband his Albanian bashi-bazouks in favor of his regular forces began the rioting which led to the establishment of Muhammad Ali's Khedivate of Egypt.

Gendarmerie

gendarmegendarmesgendarmery
The term "bashibozouk" has also been used for a mounted force, existing in peacetime in various provinces of the Ottoman Empire, which performed the duties of gendarmerie.

Crimea

Crimean PeninsulaCrimeanAutonomous Republic of Crimea

Konstantin Makovsky

KonstantinK.MakovskiKonstantin Yegorovich Makovsky
(1877) by Konstantin Makovsky is a painting depicting the rape of two Bulgarian women in a church by one African-looking and two Turkish-looking bashi-bazouks, during the April Uprising.