Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany

Basic LawGerman constitutionGrundgesetzGerman Basic LawconstitutionConstitution of GermanyBasic Law of GermanyGermanyBasic Law of the Federal Republic of GermanyGermany's constitution
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.wikipedia
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Bonn

Bonn, GermanyBonn, West GermanyBonn-Beuel
The Basic Law was approved on 8 May 1949 in Bonn, and, with the signature of the occupying western Allies of World War II on 12 May, came into effect on 23 May.
From 1949 to 1990, Bonn was the capital of West Germany, and Germany's present constitution, the Basic Law, was declared in the city in 1949.

West Berlin

West-BerlinWestBerlin
Its original field of application (Geltungsbereich) — that is, the states that were initially included in the Federal Republic of Germany — consisted of the three Western Allies' zones of occupation, but at the insistence of the Western Allies, formally excluded West Berlin.
Under Article 127 of the Basic Law (or constitution) of the Federal Republic, provision was made for federal laws to be extended to Greater Berlin (as West Berlin was officially known) as well as Baden, Rhineland-Palatinate and Württemberg-Hohenzollern within one year of its promulgation.

Weimar Constitution

constitutionGerman constitutiona new constitution
Although some of the Basic Law is based on the Weimar Republic's constitution, the authors also elevated human rights and human dignity to core values protected by the Basic Law.
The German state's official name was Deutsches Reich until the adoption of the 1949 Basic Law.

Former eastern territories of Germany

eastern Germanyformer eastern territorieseastern territories
But the Court then explicitly acknowledged that this limited de jure recognition of the GDR also implied acceptance of the constitutional power of the GDR in the interim to enter into international treaties on its own account, naming in particular the treaty with Poland which confirmed the transfer of the "Eastern Territories" to Polish sovereignty.
Germany's recognition of the Oder–Neisse line as the border was formalised by the re-united Germany in the German–Polish Border Treaty on November 14, 1990; and by the repeal of Article 23 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany under which German states outside the Federal Republic could formerly apply for admission.

Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany

Two Plus Four AgreementTwo Plus Four TreatyTwo Plus Four
In 1990, the Two Plus Four Agreement between the two parts of Germany and all four Allied Powers stipulated the implementation of a number of amendments.
In the 18 March 1990 national election in the GDR an electoral alliance of parties that favored German reunification via article 23 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany won a plurality.

Germany

GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitution known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law).

Verfassungsbeschwerde

constitutional complaint
In case of a violation of the fundamental rights and the legal protection to be granted by the courts fails, the Basic Law provides with the constitutional complaint an extraordinary appeal to the Federal Constitutional Court (Article 93 paragraphs 1 No.
4a of the Basic Law.

Parlamentarischer Rat

Parliamentary CouncilParlamentarische RatParliamentary Council of 1948
So the constitutional assembly was to be called Parlamentarischer Rat (lit.
The Parlamentarischer Rat (German for "Parliamentary Council") was the West German constituent assembly in Bonn that drafted and adopted the constitution of West Germany, the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, promulgated on 23 May 1949.

German reunification

reunification of Germanyreunificationreunified
The term Verfassung (constitution) was deliberately avoided as the drafters regarded the Grundgesetz as an interim arrangement for a provisional West German state, expecting that an eventual reunified Germany would adopt a proper constitution, enacted under the provisions of Article 146 of the Basic Law, which stipulates that such a constitution must be "freely adopted by the German people".
The process chosen was one of two options implemented in the West German constitution (Basic Law) of 1949 to facilitate eventual reunification.

Frankfurt Documents

As an immediate consequence of the London 6-Power Conference, the representatives of the three western occupation powers on 1 July 1948, convoked the Ministerpräsidenten (ministers-president) of the West German Länder in Frankfurt-am-Main and committed to them the so-called Frankfurt Documents (Frankfurter Dokumente).
The Frankfurt documents formed a working basis for the work on the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany.

Herrenchiemsee convention

Frankfurt Documents
The draft was prepared at the preliminary Herrenchiemsee convention (10 – 23 August 1948) on the Herreninsel in the Chiemsee, a lake in southeastern Bavaria.
It was part of the process of drafting and adopting the current German constitution, the Basic Law (Grundgesetz).

States of Germany

stateGerman statefederal state
As an immediate consequence of the London 6-Power Conference, the representatives of the three western occupation powers on 1 July 1948, convoked the Ministerpräsidenten (ministers-president) of the West German Länder in Frankfurt-am-Main and committed to them the so-called Frankfurt Documents (Frankfurter Dokumente).
According to the German constitution (Basic Law, or Grundgesetz), some topics, such as foreign affairs and defence, are the exclusive responsibility of the federation (i.e., the federal level), while others fall under the shared authority of the states and the federation; the states retain residual legislative authority for all other areas, including "culture", which in Germany includes not only topics such as financial promotion of arts and sciences, but also most forms of education and job training.

President of Germany

PresidentGerman PresidentFederal President of West Germany
The constitutional position of the federal government was strengthened, as the Bundespräsident has only a small fraction of the former power of the Reichspräsident; and in particular, is no longer in Supreme Command of the armed forces. The executive branch consists of the largely ceremonial Federal President as head of state and the Federal Chancellor, the head of government, normally (but not necessarily) the leader of the largest grouping in the Bundestag.
He can give direction to general political and societal debates and has some important "reserve powers" in case of political instability (such as those provided for by Article 81 of the Basic Law).

1955 Saar Statute referendum

referendumSaar Statute referendum1955
Whereas the West German state had gained restricted sovereignty in May 1955, the Sarrois rejected in a referendum (1955) the transformation of their protectorate into an independent state within the emerging European Economic Community.
On 27 October 1956, France and West Germany concluded the Saar Treaty establishing that Saarland should be allowed to join West Germany as provided by article 23 of its constitution (Grundgesetz), so Saarland became a state of Germany with effect from 1 January 1957.

Liberal democratic basic order

free democratic basic orderfundamental liberal democratic order
Hence they built into the Basic Law a strong instrument for guardianship of the "free democratic basic order" of the Federal Republic, in the form of the Federal Constitutional Court, representing a 'staggering conferral of judicial authority'.
As such, it is the core substance of the German constitution.

Bavaria

BayernFree State of BavariaBavarian
The draft was prepared at the preliminary Herrenchiemsee convention (10 – 23 August 1948) on the Herreninsel in the Chiemsee, a lake in southeastern Bavaria.
The Bavarian Parliament did not sign the Basic Law of Germany, mainly because it was seen as not granting sufficient powers to the individual Länder, but at the same time decided that it would still come into force in Bavaria if two-thirds of the other Länder ratified it.

Constructive vote of no confidence

constructiveshould have to include a proposed replacement PMvote of no confidence
To remove the chancellor, the parliament has to engage in a Constructive vote of no confidence (Konstruktives Misstrauensvotum), i.e. the election of a new chancellor.
To overcome this problem, two provisions were included in the 1949 German constitution, the Basic Law (Grundgesetz). They stipulate that the Chancellor, or Bundeskanzler (Federal Chancellor) as he is now called, may be removed from office by majority vote of the Bundestag ("Federal Diet", the lower chamber/house of the German Federal Parliament) only if a prospective successor also has the support of a majority.

Federal Constitutional Court

Federal Constitutional Court of GermanyBundesverfassungsgerichtGerman Constitutional Court
In case of a violation of the fundamental rights and the legal protection to be granted by the courts fails, the Basic Law provides with the constitutional complaint an extraordinary appeal to the Federal Constitutional Court (Article 93 paragraphs 1 No.
The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law (Grundgesetz) of Germany.

Chancellor of Germany (1949–present)

ChancellorChancellor of GermanyGerman Chancellor
The executive branch consists of the largely ceremonial Federal President as head of state and the Federal Chancellor, the head of government, normally (but not necessarily) the leader of the largest grouping in the Bundestag.
The Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (in German called Bundeskanzler(in), meaning 'Federal Chancellor', or Kanzler(in) for short) is, under the German 1949 Constitution, the head of government of Germany.

Bundestag

German BundestagGerman Parliamentparliament
Rather than adopting a new constitution under Article 146 of the Basic Law, the Bundestag (Parliament of Germany) amended Article 146 and the Preamble of the Basic Law to state that German unification had now been fully achieved; while also adding a further clause 143(3) to entrench in the Basic Law the irreversibility of acts of expropriation undertaken by the Soviet occupying powers between 1945 and 1949.
According to the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany however (Grundgesetz), these two chambers form constitutional bodies principally separate from each other, so to say not forming the German parliament, but they work closely together in most aspects of lawmaking on the federal level.

Constitution

constitutionalconstitutionsconstitutional government
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
An example of absolute unmodifiability is found in the German constitution.

Bundeswehr

German Armed ForcesGermanGerman military
An example is the Luftsicherheitsgesetz, which would have allowed the Bundeswehr to shoot down civilian aircraft in case of a terrorist attack.
The States of Germany are not allowed to maintain armed forces of their own, since the German Constitution states that matters of defense fall into the sole responsibility of the federal government.

Elisabeth Selbert

In the event particular interests pushed for additional consideration; the Catholic Church (through CDU/CSU representatives) succeeded in inserting protection both for 'Marriage and the Family" and for parental responsibility for children's education; SPD representatives then amended this to protect additionally the rights of children born outside marriage; and Elisabeth Selbert (one of only four women on the 70-strong panel) was eventually successful in a largely lone campaign to gain constitutional protection for sex equality. Notwithstanding this, there was a striking disjunction between the social context of two-parent, family households assumed in the Basic Law, and the everyday reality of German society in 1949; where over half of adult women were unmarried, separated or widowed; where the effective working population was overwhelmingly female; and where millions of expellees, refugees and displaced families were still without permanent accommodation.
She was one of the four Mütter des Grundgesetzes (Mothers of the Basic Law) — the inclusion of equality as a fundamental right in the German Constitution was largely her doing.

Cabinet of Germany

German Federal GovernmentFederal GovernmentFederal Government of Germany
The Chancellor is the head of government and the most influential figure in German day-to-day politics, as well as the head of the Federal Cabinet, consisting of ministers appointed by the Federal President on the Chancellor's suggestion.
The fundamentals of the cabinet's organisation as well as the method of its election and appointment as well as the procedure for its dismissal are set down in articles 62 through 69 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz).

Federal Court of Justice

Federal Court of Justice of GermanyBundesgerichtshofFederal Court
Article 95 establishes the Federal Court of Justice, the Federal Administrative Court, the Federal Finance Court, the Federal Labour Court and the Federal Social Court as supreme courts in their respective areas of jurisdiction.
A decision handed down by the BGH can be reversed only by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany in the rare cases that the Constitutional Court rules on constitutionality (compatibility with the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany).