Basque Country (greater region)

Basque CountryBasqueBasque regionEuskal Herriagreater Basque CountryBasque provincesThe Basque CountryBasquesBasque countriesBasque origin
The Basque Country (Euskal Herria; Pays Basque; País Vasco) is the name given to the home of the Basque people.wikipedia
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Bayonne

Bayonne, FranceBaionaLapurdum
As emphasized by Jean Goyhenetche, it would be more accurate to depict it as the reunion of five entities: Labourd, Lower Navarre, Soule but also Bayonne and Gramont.
It is located at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers in the northern part of the cultural region of the Basque Country, as well as the southern part of Gascony where the Aquitaine basin joins the beginning of the Pre-Pyrenees.

Pamplona

Pamplona, SpainPampelunaIruña
It includes two main regions: the Basque Autonomous Community (Vitoria-Gasteiz as capital) and the Chartered Community of Navarre (capital city Pamplona).
Pamplona is also the second-largest city in the greater Basque cultural region, composed of two Spanish autonomous communities, Navarre and Basque Country, and the French Basque Country.

Bilbao

Bilbao, SpainBilbo, Bilbao, Spain
Bilbao (, also, ; Bilbo ) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole.

Labourd

LapurdiLaburdiprovince of Labourd
By the turn of the millennium, a receding Carolingian royal authority and establishing feudalism left Vasconia (to become Gascony) fragmented into myriad of counties and viscounties, e.g. Fezensac, Bigorre, Astarac, Béarn, Tartas, Marsan, Soule, Labourd, etc., out of former tribal systems and minor realms (County of Vasconia), while south of the Pyrenees, besides the above Kingdom of Pamplona, Gipuzkoa, Álava and Biscay arose in the current lands of the Southern Basque Country from the 9th century onward.
It is one of the traditional Basque provinces, and identified as one of the territorial component parts of the Basque Country by many, especially by the Basque nationalists.

Soule

ZuberoaSubola
By the turn of the millennium, a receding Carolingian royal authority and establishing feudalism left Vasconia (to become Gascony) fragmented into myriad of counties and viscounties, e.g. Fezensac, Bigorre, Astarac, Béarn, Tartas, Marsan, Soule, Labourd, etc., out of former tribal systems and minor realms (County of Vasconia), while south of the Pyrenees, besides the above Kingdom of Pamplona, Gipuzkoa, Álava and Biscay arose in the current lands of the Southern Basque Country from the 9th century onward. A third of the population is concentrated in the Greater Bilbao metropolitan area, while most of the interior of the French Basque Country and some areas of Navarre remain sparsely populated: density culminates at about 500/km² for Biscay but falls to 20/km² in the northern inner provinces of Lower Navarre and Soule.
Historically, Soule is the smallest province of the Basque Country (785 km 2 .).

Biscay

VizcayaBizkaiaprovince of Biscay
A third of the population is concentrated in the Greater Bilbao metropolitan area, while most of the interior of the French Basque Country and some areas of Navarre remain sparsely populated: density culminates at about 500/km² for Biscay but falls to 20/km² in the northern inner provinces of Lower Navarre and Soule.
Biscarrosse in Aquitaine), with both place-name variants well attested in the whole Basque Country and out meaning 'low ridge' or 'prominence' (Iheldo bizchaya attested in 1141 for the Monte Igueldo in San Sebastián).

Zazpiak Bat

The Seven are One
Some Basques refer to the seven traditional districts collectively as Zazpiak Bat, meaning "The Seven [are] One", a motto coined in the late 19th century.
Zazpiak Bat is a motto attributed to Basque explorer Antoine-Thomson d'Abbadie in the late nineteenth century, from the Basque words zazpiak meaning 'the seven' and bat meaning 'one', translates as "the seven [are] one" and refers to the seven Basque Country traditional provinces.

Aquitanian language

AquitanianAquitanianslanguage
1st century, see Aquitanian language), etc.
The Aquitanian language was spoken on both sides of the western Pyrenees in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne, in the region later known as Gascony) and in the areas south of the Pyrenees in the valleys of the Basque Country before the Roman conquest.

Gipuzkoa

GuipúzcoaGuipuzcoaGuipuscoa
Gipuzkoa is the province of the Basque Country where the Basque language is most extensively used: 49.1% of the population spoke Basque in 2006.

Pyrenees

PyrénéesPyreneanPyrenees Mountains
The Basque country is located in the western Pyrenees, straddling the border between France and Spain on the coast of the Bay of Biscay.
The Pyrenean region possesses a varied ethnology, folklore and history: see Andorra; Aragon; Ariège; Basque Country; Béarn; Catalonia; Navarre; Roussillon.

Navarre

NavarraNavarreseForal Community of Navarre
It includes two main regions: the Basque Autonomous Community (Vitoria-Gasteiz as capital) and the Chartered Community of Navarre (capital city Pamplona). A third of the population is concentrated in the Greater Bilbao metropolitan area, while most of the interior of the French Basque Country and some areas of Navarre remain sparsely populated: density culminates at about 500/km² for Biscay but falls to 20/km² in the northern inner provinces of Lower Navarre and Soule. It comprises the Autonomous Communities of the Basque Country and Navarre in Spain and the Northern Basque Country in France.
By 1778, 121,000 inhabitants out of 227.000 were Basque speakers, 53% of its population, still the largest amount of Basque speakers across all Basque territories.

Autonomous communities of Spain

Autonomous communityCommunityautonomous communities
It includes two main regions: the Basque Autonomous Community (Vitoria-Gasteiz as capital) and the Chartered Community of Navarre (capital city Pamplona). It comprises the Autonomous Communities of the Basque Country and Navarre in Spain and the Northern Basque Country in France.
These were the Basque Country and Catalonia.

ETA (separatist group)

ETAEuskadi Ta AskatasunaETA(m)
However, a significant part of Basque society is still attempting higher degrees of self-empowerment (see Basque nationalism), sometimes by acts of violence (ETA's permanent ceasefire in 2010).
ETA, an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna ("Basque Homeland and Liberty" or "Basque Country and Freedom" ) was an armed leftist Basque nationalist and separatist organization in the Basque Country (in northern Spain and southwestern France).

End of Basque home rule in France

home rule was abruptly suppressedintegrated in the Basses-Pyrénées departmentself-government was suppressed in 1790
In the French Basque Country, its provinces underwent an ever-shrinking self-government status until the French Revolution, when the traditional provinces were reshaped to form the current Basses-Pyrénées department along with Béarn.
The final violent dissolution of the semi-autonomous Basque institutional and legal system was coupled with the arrival of French troops to the Basque Country within the War of the Pyrenees and a deliberate terror on the Basque population centred in Labourd.

War of the Bands

Basque Clan WarsBasque Party Warsstruggling with the rival clans
In the Late Middle Ages, important families dotting the whole Basque territory came to prominence, often quarreling with each other for power and unleashing the bloody War of the Bands, only stopped by royal intervention and the gradual shift of power from the countryside to the towns by the 16th century.
The War of the Bands (Bando gerrak, Guerra de los Bandos) was a civil war, really an extended series of blood feuds, in the western Basque Country, Gascony, and Navarre in the Late Middle Ages.

Franco-Cantabrian region

Cantabrian regionFranco-CantabriaFranco-Cantabrian province
According to some theories, Basques may be the least assimilated remnant of the Paleolithic inhabitants of Western Europe (specifically those of the Franco-Cantabrian region known as Azilian) to the Indo-European migrations.
Vasco-Cantabria is part of the region, on the northern coast of Spain, covering similar areas to the adjacent modern regions of the Basque country and Cantabria.

Basque Country (autonomous community)

Basque CountryBasqueBasque Autonomous Community
It includes two main regions: the Basque Autonomous Community (Vitoria-Gasteiz as capital) and the Chartered Community of Navarre (capital city Pamplona). It comprises the Autonomous Communities of the Basque Country and Navarre in Spain and the Northern Basque Country in France.
The term Basque Country may also refer to the larger cultural region (Basque: Euskal Herria), the home of the Basque people, which includes the autonomous community.

Fuero

fuerosforalfuerista
In the Southern Basque Country, the regional Charters were upheld until the Carlist Wars, when the Basques supported heir-apparent Carlos and his descendants to the cry of "God, Fatherland, King" (The Charters were finally abolished in 1876).
The various Basque provinces also generally regarded their fueros also known as jauntxos as tantamount to a municipal constitution.

Basque nationalism

Basque nationalistBasqueBasque independence
However, a significant part of Basque society is still attempting higher degrees of self-empowerment (see Basque nationalism), sometimes by acts of violence (ETA's permanent ceasefire in 2010). The ensuing centralized status quo bred dissent and frustration in the region, giving rise to Basque nationalism by the end of the 19th century, influenced by European Romantic nationalism.
Basque nationalism, spanning three different regions in two states (the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre in Spain, and the French Basque Country in France) is "irredentist in nature" as it favors political unification of all the Basque-speaking provinces.

Erromintxela language

ErromintxelaBasque Romanidescription of Erromintxela
Erromintxela is the distinctive language of a group of Romani living in the Basque Country, who also go by the name Erromintxela.

Basque language

BasqueEuskaraEuskera
The name in Basque is Euskal Herria.
Basque (euskara ) is a language spoken in the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France.

Cagot

Agotes(C)agotsAgote
The Cagots were a persecuted minority found in the west of France and northern Spain: the Navarrese Pyrenees, Basque provinces, Béarn, Aragón, Gascony and Brittany.

San Sebastián

San SebastianDonostiaDonostia-San Sebastián
Due to this migration, Gascon was spoken in the centre of Donostia-San Sebastián, until the beginning of the 20th century.
The city is located in the north of the Basque Autonomous Community, on the southern coast of the Bay of Biscay.

Esquiule

It stands out as an outpost of the Basque area of Soule, the village being historically Basque speaking.

Standard Basque

BatuaBasqueEuskara Batua
In this regard, the current Standard form of Basque was only introduced in the late 1960s, which helped Basque move away from being perceived – even by its own speakers – as a language unfit for educational purposes.
Standard Basque (euskara batua or simply batua) is a standardised version of the Basque language, developed by the Basque Language Academy in the late 1960s, which nowadays is the most widely and commonly spoken Basque-language version throughout the Basque Country.