Basques

BasqueBasque descentBasque peoplecultureGasconsBasque communityFrench BasqueSpanish Basque(Basque)Bascones
The Basques ( or ; euskaldunak ; vascos ; basques ) are an indigenous ethnic group characterised by the Basque language, a common culture and shared ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians.wikipedia
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Basque Country (greater region)

Basque CountryBasqueBasque region
Basques are indigenous to and primarily inhabit an area traditionally known as the Basque Country (Euskal Herria), a region that is located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and straddles parts of north-central Spain and south-western France.
The Basque Country (Euskal Herria; Pays basque; Vasconia, País Vasco) is the name given to the home of the Basque people.

Vascones

VasconBasqueVasconic
The Basques ( or ; euskaldunak ; vascos ; basques ) are an indigenous ethnic group characterised by the Basque language, a common culture and shared ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians.
The Vascones are often considered ancestors of the present-day Basques to whom they left their name.

Spain

🇪🇸SpanishESP
Basques are indigenous to and primarily inhabit an area traditionally known as the Basque Country (Euskal Herria), a region that is located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and straddles parts of north-central Spain and south-western France.
Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basques and Celts.

Kingdom of Navarre

NavarrePamplonaNavarrese
By the turn of the first millennium, the territory of Vasconia had fragmented into different feudal regions, such as Soule and Labourd, while south of the Pyrenees the Castile, Pamplona and the Pyrenean counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe, Ribagorza (later Kingdom of Aragon), and Pallars emerged as the main regional entities with Basque population in the 9th and 10th centuries.
The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.

Gascony

GasconGasconsGascogne
By the turn of the first millennium, the territory of Vasconia had fragmented into different feudal regions, such as Soule and Labourd, while south of the Pyrenees the Castile, Pamplona and the Pyrenean counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe, Ribagorza (later Kingdom of Aragon), and Pallars emerged as the main regional entities with Basque population in the 9th and 10th centuries. The Latin labial-velar approximant /w/ generally evolved into the bilabials /b/ and /β̞/ in Gascon and Spanish, probably under the influence of Basque and Aquitanian, a language related to old Basque and spoken in Gascony in Antiquity (similarly the Latin /w/ evolved into /v/ in French, Italian and other languages).
Gascony was historically inhabited by Basque-related people who appear to have spoken a language similar to Basque.

Basque nationalism

BasqueBasque nationalistBasque nationalists
Since then, despite the current limited self-governing status of the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre as settled by the Spanish Constitution, many Basques have attempted higher degrees of self-empowerment (see Basque nationalism), sometimes by acts of violence.
Basque nationalism (eusko abertzaletasuna) is a form of nationalism that asserts that Basques, an ethnic group indigenous to the western Pyrenees, are a nation, and promotes the political unity of the Basques.

End of Basque home rule in France

held in Paris (1790) voted against the suppressionhome rule was abruptly suppressedintegrated in the Basses-Pyrénées department
Nevertheless, the Basques enjoyed a great deal of self-government until the French Revolution (1790) and the Carlist Wars (1839, 1876), when the Basques supported heir apparent Carlos V and his descendants.
The final violent dissolution of the semi-autonomous Basque institutional and legal system was coupled with the arrival of French troops to the Basque Country within the War of the Pyrenees and a deliberate terror on the Basque population centred in Labourd.

Soule

SubolaZuberoa
By the turn of the first millennium, the territory of Vasconia had fragmented into different feudal regions, such as Soule and Labourd, while south of the Pyrenees the Castile, Pamplona and the Pyrenean counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe, Ribagorza (later Kingdom of Aragon), and Pallars emerged as the main regional entities with Basque population in the 9th and 10th centuries.
The territory is named Xiberoa in Souletin Basque, Zuberoa in standard Basque, Sola in Gascon and Soule in French; all of them derivate from Subola, previous name of the region attested for the first time in the year 635 in the diaries of a Franco-Burgundian expedition led by Duke Arnebert against the Basques.

Basque Country (autonomous community)

Basque CountryBasqueBasques
Since then, despite the current limited self-governing status of the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre as settled by the Spanish Constitution, many Basques have attempted higher degrees of self-empowerment (see Basque nationalism), sometimes by acts of violence. Arana's neologism Euzkadi (in the regularized spelling Euskadi) is still widely used in both Basque and Spanish, since it is now the official name of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. The Basque region is divided into at least three administrative units, namely the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre in Spain, and the arrondissement of Bayonne and the cantons of Mauléon-Licharre and Tardets-Sorholus in the département of Pyrénées Atlantiques, France.
The autonomous community is based on the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, a foundational legal document providing the framework for the development of the Basque people on Spanish soil, although the territory of Navarre was left out and made into a separate autonomous community.

Basque Americans

BasqueBasquesBasque American
Millions of Basque descendants (see Basque American and Basque Canadian) live in North America (the United States; Canada, mainly in the provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec), Latin America (in all 23 countries), South Africa, and Australia.
Basque Americans (euskal estatubatuarrak, vasco estadounidenses, Basco-Américains) are Americans of Basque descent.

Miguel de Unamuno

UnamunoMiguel de '''UnamunoMiguel Unamuno
Miguel de Unamuno said: "There are at least two things that clearly can be attributed to Basques: the Society of Jesus and the Republic of Chile."
Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (29 September 1864 – 31 December 1936) was a Spanish Basque essayist, novelist, poet, playwright, philosopher, professor of Greek and Classics, and later rector at the University of Salamanca.

Society of Jesus

JesuitJesuitsS.J.
Miguel de Unamuno said: "There are at least two things that clearly can be attributed to Basques: the Society of Jesus and the Republic of Chile."
Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona.

County of Pallars

PallarsCount of PallarsCounts of Pallars Sovereign
By the turn of the first millennium, the territory of Vasconia had fragmented into different feudal regions, such as Soule and Labourd, while south of the Pyrenees the Castile, Pamplona and the Pyrenean counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe, Ribagorza (later Kingdom of Aragon), and Pallars emerged as the main regional entities with Basque population in the 9th and 10th centuries.
The early history of Pallars, which was the easternmost extent of Basque settlement, is linked to that of its western neighbour, Ribagorza.

Basque Chileans

BasqueBasque descendantsBasque descent
Estimates range between 2.5 - 5 million Basque descendants live in Chile; the Basque have been a major if not the strongest influence in the country's cultural and economic development.
Many Basques arrived in Chile in the 16th,17th,18th,19th and early 20th century from their homeland in northern Spain (see Basque Provinces) and parts of southwestern France, as conquistadors, soldiers, sailors, merchants, priests and labourers.

Basque Canadians

Basque
Millions of Basque descendants (see Basque American and Basque Canadian) live in North America (the United States; Canada, mainly in the provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec), Latin America (in all 23 countries), South Africa, and Australia.
Basque Canadians are Canadian citizens of Basque descent, or Basque people who were born in the Basque Country and reside in Canada.

New Brunswick

NBProvince of New BrunswickNew Brunswick, Canada
Millions of Basque descendants (see Basque American and Basque Canadian) live in North America (the United States; Canada, mainly in the provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec), Latin America (in all 23 countries), South Africa, and Australia.
New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland, the area explored by Norwegian Vikings, and the Bay of Fundy may have been visited in the early 1500s by Basque, Breton, and Norman fishermen.

University of Nevada, Reno

University of NevadaNevadaNevada-Reno
Reno, Nevada, where the Center for Basque Studies and the Basque Studies Library are located at the University of Nevada, is another significant nucleus of Basque population.
Nevada sponsors a center dedicated to Basque studies (Including Basque language) due to the large Basque population in Northern Nevada.

Antioquia Department

Antioquiadepartment of AntioquiaAntioqueño
In Colombia, Basques settled mainly in Antioquia and the Coffee Axis.
The use of Basque language (Euskera) terminology in the present territory of Colombia goes back to the early exploration in 1499, during the third voyage of Columbus, it is said that from that time the territory experienced a strong presence of Basques including prominent figures such as the pilot and geographer Juan de la Cosa, nicknamed "El Vizcaino" (although some sources claim that he was not a native of the Basque Country, but was born in Santoña, Cantabria).

Paisa Region

PaisaPaisasAntioquian terms
In 1955, Joaquín Ospina said: "Is there something more similar to the Basque people than the "antioqueños". Also, writer Arturo Escobar Uribe said in his book "Mitos de Antioquia" (Myths of Antioquia) (1950): "Antioquia, which in its clean ascendance predominates the peninsular farmer of the Basque provinces, inherited the virtues of its ancestors... Despite the predominance of the white race, its extension in the mountains... has projected over Colombia's map the prototype of its race; in Medellín with the industrial paisa, entrepreneur, strong and steady... in its towns, the adventurer, arrogant, world-explorer... Its myths, which are an evidence of their deep credulity and an indubitable proof of their Iberian ancestor, are the sequel of the conqueror's blood which runs through their veins...". Bambuco, a Colombian folk music, has Basque roots.
During the seventeenth and eighteenth century Basque families from Northern Spain settled in the Aburrá Valley where Medellín and Envigado are located, as well as small towns in eastern Antioquia, such as Marinilla, El Retiro and El Santuario.

Lope de Aguirre

a dramatic El Dorado expeditionLope de '''Aguirre
Harsh by modern standards, this custom resulted in a great many enterprising figures of Basque origin who went into the world to earn their way, from Spanish conquistadors such as Lope de Aguirre and Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, to explorers, missionaries and saints of the Catholic Church, such as Francis Xavier.
Lope de Aguirre (8 November 1510 – 27 October 1561) was a Basque Spanish conquistador who was active in South America.

Indigenous peoples

indigenousindigenous peopleaboriginal
The Basques ( or ; euskaldunak ; vascos ; basques ) are an indigenous ethnic group characterised by the Basque language, a common culture and shared ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians.
Notable minority indigenous populations in Europe include Irish people of Ireland, the Basque people of northern Spain and southern France, the Sami people of northern Scandinavia, the Nenets, Samoyedic and Komi peoples of northern Russia, and the Circassians of southern Russia and the North Caucasus.

Pyrénées-Atlantiques

Basses-Pyrénéesdépartement'' of Pyrénées-AtlantiquesLower Pyrenees
The Basque region is divided into at least three administrative units, namely the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre in Spain, and the arrondissement of Bayonne and the cantons of Mauléon-Licharre and Tardets-Sorholus in the département of Pyrénées Atlantiques, France.
These parts of the department that were part of Guyenne and Gascony, and Béarn have a culture heavily influenced by the Basques, but clearly different identities.

Franco-Cantabrian region

Cantabrian regionFranco-CantabriaFranco-Cantabrian
It is thought that Basques are a remnant of the early inhabitants of Western Europe, specifically those of the Franco-Cantabrian region.
Arguably, Basques and Gascons are the direct descendants of the peoples of the Atlantic area, who remained more closed (relatively) to the new tendencies from the Mediterranean and Central Europe.

ETA (separatist group)

ETAEuskadi Ta AskatasunaBasque Country And Freedom
At the end of the 20th century, despite ETA violence (ended in 2010) and the crisis of heavy industries, the Basque economic condition recovered remarkably.
The group was founded in 1959 and later evolved from a group promoting traditional Basque culture to a paramilitary group engaged in a violent campaign of bombing, assassinations and kidnappings in the Southern Basque Country and throughout Spanish territory.

Fermín Lasuén

Fermín Francisco de LasuénFather Fermín Francisco de LasuénFermín de Francisco Lasuén
California Franciscan Fermín Lasuén was born in Vitoria.
Fermín de Francisco Lasuén de Arasqueta (Vitoria (Spain), June 7, 1736 – Mission de San Carlos (California), June 26, 1803) was a Basque Franciscan missionary to Alta California president of the Franciscan missions there, and founder of nine of the twenty-one Spanish missions in California.