Bass clarinet

bassClarinet (Bass)B bass clarinetB-flat bass clarinetbass clarinet in B-Flatbass clarinettistbass clarinistbass/contrabass clarinetbb bass clarinetB♭ Bass Clarinets
The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family.wikipedia
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Clarinet

clarinetsB-flat clarinetB clarinets
The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family.
Since the middle of the 19th century the bass clarinet (nowadays invariably in B but with extra keys to extend the register down a few notes) has become an essential addition to the orchestra.

Clarinet choir

Kalmen Opperman Clarinet ChoirBrussels Clarinet choirClarinet quartet
It is also used in clarinet choirs, marching bands, and in film scoring, and has played a minor, but persistent, role in jazz.
Typically it will include E, B, alto, bass, and contra-alto or contrabass clarinets, although some pieces are scored for a smaller set of instruments.

Adolphe Sax

SaxAdolph SaxAntoine-Joseph Sax
While Adolphe Sax imitated its upturned metal bell in his design of the larger saxophones, the two instruments are fundamentally different.
Adolphe's first important invention was an improvement of the bass clarinet design, which he patented at the age of 24. Sax relocated permanently to Paris in 1842 and began working on a new set of instruments.

Concert band

wind ensemblewind bandband
Bass clarinets regularly perform in orchestras, wind ensembles/concert bands, occasionally in marching bands, and play an occasional solo role in contemporary music and jazz in particular.
Bass clarinets 1 (, 2)

Te Deum (Berlioz)

Te DeumBerliozBerlioz’ ''Te Deum
French composer Hector Berlioz was one of the first of the Romantics to use the bass clarinet in his large-scale works such as the Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale, Op. 15 (1840), the Te Deum, Op. 22 (1849), and the opera Les Troyens, Op. 29 (1863).
4 clarinets (one doubling on bass clarinet)

Marching band

bandmarchingmarching bands
It is also used in clarinet choirs, marching bands, and in film scoring, and has played a minor, but persistent, role in jazz.
E♭ clarinets, alto clarinets, bass clarinets, and baritone saxophones are less common, but can be found in some bands.

Symphony No. 6 (Mahler)

Symphony No. 6Sixth SymphonySixth
All of Gustav Mahler's symphonies include the instrument prominently, and often contain lengthy solos for the instrument, especially in his Symphony No. 6 in A minor.
bass clarinet

Orchestra

symphony orchestraorchestralchamber orchestra
Bass clarinets regularly perform in orchestras, wind ensembles/concert bands, occasionally in marching bands, and play an occasional solo role in contemporary music and jazz in particular.
1 bass clarinet

Symphony No. 4 (Shostakovich)

Symphony No. 4Fourth SymphonyFourth
4, 7, 8, and 11, and Leoš Janáček's Sinfonietta.
1 Bass clarinet

The Nutcracker

NutcrackerNutcracker SuiteThe Nutcracker Suite
The Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky wrote some prominent solos for the instrument in his last ballet, The Nutcracker.
1 bass clarinet in B

Dante Symphony

DanteSymphony to Dante's Divina CommediaDante Symphonies
Also around this time, Hungarian pianist and composer Franz Liszt wrote important parts for the instrument in his symphonic poems Ce qu'on entend sur la montagne (What One Hears on the Mountain), Tasso, and his Dante Symphony.
The symphony is scored for one piccolo (doubling as 3rd flute in the second movement), two flutes, two oboes, one English horn, two clarinets in B and A, one bass clarinet in B and A, two bassoons, four horns in F, two trumpets in B and D, two tenor trombones, one bass trombone, one tuba, two sets of timpani (requiring two players), cymbals, bass drum, tamtam, two harps (the second harp only in the second movement), strings, harmonium (second movement only), and a women's choir comprising soprano and alto singers (second movement only), one of the sopranos being required to sing a solo.

Les Troyens

The TrojansLes Troyens à CarthageCassandra
French composer Hector Berlioz was one of the first of the Romantics to use the bass clarinet in his large-scale works such as the Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale, Op. 15 (1840), the Te Deum, Op. 22 (1849), and the opera Les Troyens, Op. 29 (1863).
Woodwinds: piccolo, 2 flutes (2nd doubling piccolo), 2 oboes (2nd doubling English horn), 2 clarinets (2nd doubling bass clarinet), 4 bassoons

Daphnis et Chloé

Daphnis and ChloeDaphnis and ChloëDaphnis and Chloé
Later French composers to use the instrument included Maurice Ravel, who wrote virtuosic parts for the bass clarinet in his ballet Daphnis et Chloé (1912), La valse (1920), and his orchestration of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition (1924).
1 bass clarinet

Don Quixote (Strauss)

Don QuixoteDon QuichotteDon Quixote'', Op. 35 (Strauss)
Richard Strauss wrote for the instrument in all of his symphonic poems except for Don Juan, and the instrument shared the spotlight with the tenor tuba in his 1898 tone poem, Don Quixote, Op. 35.
The work is scored for a large orchestra consisting of the following forces: piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets in B (2nd doubling E-flat clarinet), bass clarinet, 3 bassoons, contrabassoon, 6 horns in F, 3 trumpets in D and F, 3 trombones, tenor tuba in B (often performed on euphonium), tuba, timpani, bass drum, snare drum, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, wind machine, and strings: harp, violins i, ii, violas (including an extensive solo viola part), violoncellos (including an extensive solo violoncello part), double basses.

Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale

Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale, Op. 15Symphonie funèbre et triomphale
French composer Hector Berlioz was one of the first of the Romantics to use the bass clarinet in his large-scale works such as the Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale, Op. 15 (1840), the Te Deum, Op. 22 (1849), and the opera Les Troyens, Op. 29 (1863).
piccolos (4 players), flutes (5 players), oboes (5 players), E-flat clarinets (5 players), 2 B-flat clarinets (26 players total), bass clarinets (2 players), bassoons (8 players), contrabassoon (ad lib)

Symphony No. 2 (Rachmaninoff)

Symphony No. 2Second SymphonySymphony No. 2 in E minor
2 and 3 and in his symphonic poem, Isle of The Dead.
The symphony is scored for full orchestra with 3 flutes (the 3rd doubling on piccolo), 3 oboes (the 3rd doubling on cor anglais), 2 clarinets in A and B, bass clarinet in A and B, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, glockenspiel, and strings.

Symphony No. 7 (Shostakovich)

Symphony No. 7Leningrad SymphonySeventh Symphony
4, 7, 8, and 11, and Leoš Janáček's Sinfonietta.
Bass clarinet

Soprano clarinet

BclarinetB clarinet
Like the more common soprano B clarinet, it is usually pitched in B (meaning it is a transposing instrument on which a written C sounds as B), but it plays notes an octave below the soprano B clarinet.
B soprano clarinet is also one of the most common instruments played in beginner and high school band, alongside the bass clarinet.

Der Ring des Nibelungen

Ring CycleRingThe Ring Cycle
The instrument plays an extensive role in Tristan und Isolde (1859), the operas of Der Ring des Nibelungen (1876), and Parsifal (1882).
The core ensemble of instruments are one piccolo, three flutes (third doubling second piccolo), three oboes, cor anglais (doubling fourth oboe), three soprano clarinets, one bass clarinet, three bassoons; eight horns (fifth through eight doubling Wagner tubas), three trumpets, one bass trumpet, three tenor trombones, one contrabass trombone (doubling bass trombone), one contrabass tuba; a percussion section with 4 timpani (requiring two players), triangle, cymbals, glockenspiel; six harps and a string section consisting of 16 first and second violins, 12 violas, 12 violoncellos, and 8 double basses.

Arnold Schoenberg

SchoenbergArnold SchönbergSchönberg
Composers of the Second Viennese School, Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern and Alban Berg, often favored the instrument over the bassoon, the instrument's closest relative in terms of range.
The ensemble, which is now commonly referred to as the Pierrot ensemble, consists of flute (doubling on piccolo), clarinet (doubling on bass clarinet), violin (doubling on viola), violoncello, speaker, and piano.

Tristan und Isolde

TristanIsoldeTristan and Isolde
The instrument plays an extensive role in Tristan und Isolde (1859), the operas of Der Ring des Nibelungen (1876), and Parsifal (1882).
3 flutes (one doubles piccolo), 2 oboes, cor anglais, 2 clarinets, bass clarinet, 3 bassoons

Giacomo Meyerbeer

MeyerbeerMeyerbeer, GiacomoG. Meyerbeer
(Mercadante actually specified a glicibarifono for this part.) Two years later, Giacomo Meyerbeer wrote an important solo for bass clarinet in Act 4 of his opera Les Huguenots.
Similar adventurousness is shown in Les Huguenots where the composer uses a solo bass clarinet and solo viola d'amore to accompany arias.

Sinfonietta (Janáček)

Sinfonietta
4, 7, 8, and 11, and Leoš Janáček's Sinfonietta.
Bass Clarinet

Contrabass clarinet

contra-alto clarinetcontrabassContra-alto
Donald Martino: Triple Concerto for clarinet, bass clarinet, and contrabass clarinet.
Modern contrabass clarinets are pitched in BB, sounding two octaves lower than the common B soprano clarinet and one octave lower than the B bass clarinet.

La forza del destino

AlvaroPadre GuardianoThe Force of Destiny
Giuseppe Verdi followed suit, using it in Aida (1870), La forza del destino, Don Carlo and Falstaff.
2 flutes (2nd doubling piccolo), 2 oboes, 2 clarinets (2nd doubling bass clarinet), 2 bassoons; 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, cimbasso; timpani, percussion (side drum, bass drum); 2 harps; strings.