Battery isolator

Direct current (DC) (red line). The vertical axis shows current or voltage and the horizontal 't' axis measures time and shows the zero value.

Electrical device that divides direct current into multiple branches and only allows current in one direction in each branch.

- Battery isolator
Direct current (DC) (red line). The vertical axis shows current or voltage and the horizontal 't' axis measures time and shows the zero value.

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Alternators made in 1909 by Ganz Works in the power generating hall of a Russian hydroelectric station (photograph by Prokudin-Gorsky, 1911).

Alternator

Electrical generator that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current.

Electrical generator that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current.

Alternators made in 1909 by Ganz Works in the power generating hall of a Russian hydroelectric station (photograph by Prokudin-Gorsky, 1911).
In what is considered the first industrial use of alternating current in 1891, workmen pose with a Westinghouse alternator at the Ames Hydroelectric Generating Plant. This machine was used as a generator producing 3,000-volt, 133-hertz, single-phase AC, and an identical machine 3 miles away was used as an AC motor.
Diagram of a simple alternator with a rotating magnetic core (rotor) and stationary wire (stator) also showing the current induced in the stator by the rotating magnetic field of the rotor.
Alternator mounted on an automobile engine with a serpentine belt pulley (belt not present.)

On single alternator circuits, the power may be split between the engine starting battery and the domestic or house battery (or batteries) by use of a split-charge diode (battery isolator) or a voltage-sensitive relay.

Various cells and batteries (top left to bottom right): two AA, one D, one handheld ham radio battery, two 9-volt (PP3), two AAA, one C, one camcorder battery, one cordless phone battery

Electric battery

Source of electric power consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections for powering electrical devices.

Source of electric power consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections for powering electrical devices.

Various cells and batteries (top left to bottom right): two AA, one D, one handheld ham radio battery, two 9-volt (PP3), two AAA, one C, one camcorder battery, one cordless phone battery
A voltaic cell for demonstration purposes. In this example the two half-cells are linked by a salt bridge that permits the transfer of ions.
From top to bottom: a large 4.5-volt 3R12 battery, a D Cell, a C cell, an AA cell, an AAA cell, an AAAA cell, an A23 battery, a 9-volt PP3 battery, and a pair of button cells (CR2032 and LR44)
Line art drawing of a dry cell: 1. brass cap, 2. plastic seal, 3. expansion space, 4. porous cardboard, 5. zinc can, 6. carbon rod, 7. chemical mixture
A device to check battery voltage
An analog camcorder [lithium ion] battery
Battery after explosion
Leak-damaged alkaline battery

When a device does not uses standard-format batteries, they are typically combined into a custom battery pack which holds multiple batteries in addition to features such as a battery management system and battery isolator which ensure that the batteries within are charged and discharged evenly.