A report on Batticaloa

Mattakallappu Manmiyam Palm-leaf manuscripts at the Batticaloa Museum.
The growth and impact of the kingdom of Sitawaka, 1521–1594
Vimaladharmasurya I receiving Joris van Spilbergen, 1603
Batticaloa fort, c. 1665
Puliyanthivu in 3D map
Batticaloa Clock Tower
Wesleyan Mission-Chapel and School-Rooms, Battticaloa, Ceylon (1850)
Batticaloa bus stand, night view from north

Major city in the Eastern Province, Sri Lanka, and its former capital.

- Batticaloa

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Trincomalee

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Administrative headquarters of the Trincomalee District and major resort port city of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.

Administrative headquarters of the Trincomalee District and major resort port city of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.

Robert Morden's 1688 map of the island with Trincomalee on the northeast coast.
Uppuveli Beach in Trincomalee city, a coastal resort city, with Konesar Malai in background
Procession of Koneswaram idol pooja in Trincomalee city
Antonio Bocarro's 1635 map of temples of Trincomalee promontory.
Nilaveli Beach just north of the city, near where one of the earliest stone inscriptions mentioning the holy city was discovered
1775 Mannevillette Map of Trincomalee
Koneswaram temple shrine, Trincomalee
Battle of Trincomalee
Prima Flour Factory to the right, Trincomalee city
Trincomalee WWII War Cemetery
Sri Lankan naval ship at Trincomalee
Lover's Leap was suicide spot to failed lovers. They jumped from the edge of Swami Rock into Indian Ocean
Marble beach, Trincomalee

Located on the east coast of the island overlooking the Trincomalee Harbour, 237 km north-east of Colombo, 182 km south-east of Jaffna and 111 km miles north of Batticaloa, Trincomalee has been one of the main centres of Sri Lankan Tamil language speaking culture on the island for over two millennia.

Distribution of Sri Lankan Tamil people in Sri Lanka by DS Division according 2012 census.

Sri Lankan Tamils

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Sri Lankan Tamils ( or ), also known as Ceylon Tamils or Eelam Tamils, are Tamils native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.

Sri Lankan Tamils ( or ), also known as Ceylon Tamils or Eelam Tamils, are Tamils native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.

Distribution of Sri Lankan Tamil people in Sri Lanka by DS Division according 2012 census.
Indian Tamils are classed as a separate ethnic group.
The Koneswaram Hindu Temple in Trincomalee, mentioned in Saiva literature circa 700 CE by Thirugnana Sambanthar
The Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil, one of the main Kovil in Sri Lanka.
A group of American Ceylon Mission missionaries in Jaffna (circa 1890)
A 1910 postcard image of a Sri Lankan Tamil girl
A Hindu gentleman of North Ceylon (1859)
Territorial claims for the state of Tamil Eelam by various Tamil groups
Tamil rebels in a pick-up truck in Killinochchi in 2004
Sri Kamadchi Ampal temple in Hamm, Germany, built primarily by Sri Lankan Tamil expatriates
Sri Lankan-Canadian Tamil children in traditional clothes in Canada

In the 6th century CE, a special coastal route by boat was established from the Jaffna peninsula southwards to Saivite religious centres in Trincomalee (Koneswaram) and further south to Batticaloa (Thirukkovil), passed a few small Tamil trading settlements in Mullaitivu on the north coast.

Team of Vedars preparing for the Sadangu ceremony in Vaharai in 1900s

Coast Veddas

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The Coast Veddas (கரையோர வேடர்கள், වෙරළේ වැද්දන්), by self-designation, form a social group within the minority Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic group of the Eastern province of Sri Lanka.

The Coast Veddas (கரையோர வேடர்கள், වෙරළේ වැද්දන්), by self-designation, form a social group within the minority Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic group of the Eastern province of Sri Lanka.

Team of Vedars preparing for the Sadangu ceremony in Vaharai in 1900s

They are primarily found in small coastal villages from the eastern township of Trincomalee to Batticalao.

Pasikudah

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Pasikudah beach
Sunset at Pasikudah beach
Maalu Maalu Beach Resort, Pasikuda, Sri Lanka
alt=Uga Bay is a Pasikuda Hotel situated in Kalkudah Bay. Image portrays the entrance to hotel at night with clear skies, where star can be seen within the enclave.|Uga Bay Hotel Kalkudah, Pasikuda

Pasikudah or Pasikuda (பாசிக்குடா; පාසිකුඩා; (Pronounced Paasikkudah - historic Tamil translation "Green-Algae-Bay") is a coastal resort town located 35 kilometers northwest of Batticaloa, Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka.

Kingdom of Kandy

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Monarchy on the island of Sri Lanka, located in the central and eastern portion of the island.

Monarchy on the island of Sri Lanka, located in the central and eastern portion of the island.

The Kingdom of Kandy (1689–1796) Dutch control areas
The Ella Gap – typical of the mountainous and densely forested terrain of the Kingdom of Kandy
Portuguese governor Pedro Lopes de Sousa welcomes Kusumasana Devi a.k.a Dona Catharina during the campaign of Danture, 1594
The Kingdom of Kandy at its greatest territorial extent, 1520s
The growth and impact of the kingdom of Sitawaka, 1521–1594
King Vimaladharmasurya I receiving Joris van Spilbergen, 1603
Dutch Colombo, based on an engraving of circa 1690
Frederick North, first British Governor of Ceylon
Kandyan chiefs Ehelepola, Molligoda and Kapuvatta with the British agent John D'Oyly.
The Kandyan Convention document.
King Rajasinha II of Kandy, with an Adigar at his feet.
The Royal Palace of Kandy
Queen's Bathing Pavilion
17th-18th Century flintlock Sinhalese Long Gun also known as a "Bondikula". The lock is situated to the left side and the bifurcated butt is a characteristic unique to Sinhalese guns. The gun has been extensively ornamented with silver and ivory panels carved with floral patterns.
Temple of the Tooth is the focal point of Buddhism in Sri Lanka.
Interior of the Temple of the Tooth, Kandy. Successive kings expanded and improved the temple throughout the Kandyan kingdom's existence.

Though the kingdom had intermittent access to the port of Batticaloa it had no naval forces and could not prevent the Portuguese and Dutch from maintaining a strong presence in lowland areas.

Colombo

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Executive and judicial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka by population.

Executive and judicial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka by population.

Coat of arms of Colombo from the Dutch Ceylon era, depicting a mango tree
Dutch engraving of Colombo in about 1680
Map of Colombo, c. 1914
The formal ceremony marking the start of self-rule at Independence Square.
The Beira Lake at night
The Seema Malakaya of the Gangarama Temple in the Beira Lake in the Slave Island area, is one of many religious structures in Colombo
Colombo Municipal Council
Bambalapitiya area
Map of Colombo showing its administrative districts.
Colombo City is the hub of Sri Lanka's economic activity
Arcade Independence Square shopping mall
Galle Face Green, where many major events take place, is a favourite location for many. It is in close proximity to many of the major hotels. Formerly, it was the site of the city's racecourse, golf course and the cricket field
The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka is located in Colombo
Colombo's streets at night
Container handling at Colombo Port.
Commuter rail within the city
Ratmalana Airport
Colombo Skyline – 2017
Royal College Colombo, the oldest public school in the city.
The Murugan Hindu temple in the Slave Island area
The VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie) logo of Dutch East India Company on the gates of Wolvendaal Church
Vesak Thorana in Colombo
Christmas Celebrations in Colombo
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Colombo Racecourse ground
The historical Cargills & Millers building continues as the headquarters of Cargills
The Old Parliament Building near the Galle Face Green, now the Presidential Secretariat
The Neoclassical style Colombo National Museum
Colombo's colonial heritage is visible throughout the city, as in the historical Wolvendaal Church, established by the Dutch in 1749
The Nelum Pokuna Theatre at night
British era Legislative Council Building, Colombo fort. Today it houses the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Town Hall of Colombo at night, it is the headquarters of the Colombo Municipal Council and the office of the Mayor of Colombo
The Edwardian style old General Post Office
A Test match between Sri Lanka and England at the SSC Cricket Ground, Colombo, March 2001
St. Lucia's Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Colombo
Beira Lake and southern side of the Gangaramaya Temple
The Jami Ul-Alfar Mosque is one of the oldest Mosques in Colombo
Cathedral of Christ the Living Saviour is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Colombo
The statue of Sir Charles Henry de Soysa at De Soysa-Liptons Circus, is the first of a native, in Colombo.<ref>Ceylon, the Land of Eternal Charm, Ali Foad Toulba (Asian Educational Services) p.237 {{ISBN|9788120614949}}</ref>
The Viharamahadevi Park, (formerly Victoria Park) is the oldest and largest park in Colombo
Built in 1857, the Old Colombo Lighthouse also known as the Colombo Fort Clock Tower is the oldest clock-tower
The BMICH Conference Hall
A clear view of the ocean off Colombo over a green field of grass

A4 highway connects Colombo with Ratnapura and Batticaloa

Palameenmadu, Batticaloa lagoon

Batticaloa Lagoon

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Very large estuarine lagoon in Batticaloa District, eastern Sri Lanka.

Very large estuarine lagoon in Batticaloa District, eastern Sri Lanka.

Palameenmadu, Batticaloa lagoon
Batticaloa Lagoon opening at Palameenmadu.
Kallady Bridge, over Batticaloa lagoon
Batticaloa Portuguese and Dutch Fort, near Batticaloa lagoon
Batticaloa bus stand reflects on Batticaloa lagoon
Resting fishing boats on Batticaloa lagoon
Sunset view in Poompuhar over Batticaloa lagoon
Batticaloa lighthouse in Palameenmadu

The city of Batticaloa is located on land between the lagoon and the Indian Ocean.Batticaloa district is flourished with three lagoons, such Batticaloa lagoon, Valaichchenai Lagoon and Vakari Lagoon.

Faculty of Healthcare Sciences, EUSL

Eastern University, Sri Lanka

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Public university in Vantharumoolai, Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.

Public university in Vantharumoolai, Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.

Faculty of Healthcare Sciences, EUSL

After the establishment of the faculty at Batticaloa in the silver jubilee year (2006) of the university, the first batch of students for Medicine were enrolled.

Mattakallappu Manmiyam cover page

Mattakallappu Manmiyam

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Mattakallappu Manmiyam cover page
Palm-leaf manuscript of Mattakkalappu Maanmiyam at Batticaloa Museum

Mattakkalappu Maanmiyam (மட்டக்களப்பு மான்மியம்; The Glory of Batticaloa) is a Tamil language historical book concerning the history of Batticaloa.

Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

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Tamil militant organization that was based in northeastern Sri Lanka.

Tamil militant organization that was based in northeastern Sri Lanka.

TL: Ground Troops, TR:Air Force, BL: Black Tigers (Suicide Bombers) and BR: Naval Forces
LTTE leaders at Sirumalai camp, Tamil Nadu, India in 1984 while they are being trained by RAW (from L to R, weapon carrying is included within brackets) – Lingam; Prabhakaran's bodyguard (Hungarian AK), Batticaloa commander Aruna (Beretta Model 38 SMG), LTTE founder-leader Prabhakaran (pistol), Trincomalee commander Pulendran (AK-47), Mannar commander Victor (M203) and Chief of Intelligence Pottu Amman (M 16).
An LTTE bicycle infantry platoon north of Kilinochchi in 2004
A mother of a dead LTTE cadre raises the Tamil Eelam flag on Maaveerar Naal 2002 in Germany
LTTE women's wing marching in a parade.
Kilinochchi District court ín LTTE-administered Tamil Eelam
A LTTE Sea Tiger fast attack fiberglass boat passing a Sri Lankan freighter sunk by the Sea Tigers just north of the village of Mullaitivu, North-eastern Sri Lanka
Kopay memorial for fallen Tamil combatants

Systematically, Sampoor, Vakarai, Kanjikudichchi Aru and Batticaloa also came under military control.