Battle of Arnhemwikipedia
The Battle of Arnhem was a major battle of the Second World War at the vanguard of the Allied Operation Market Garden.
Arnhembattle of ArnhemArnhem 1944assault on Arnhemfighting at Arnhemheld the Arnhem bridge for four dayswas practically destroyedBattle of Arnhem, 1944surrounded at Arnhemsubsequent fighting in Arnhem

Operation Market Garden

airborne attack on the NetherlandsMarket GardenOperation ''Market Garden
The Battle of Arnhem was a major battle of the Second World War at the vanguard of the Allied Operation Market Garden.
Airborne and land forces succeeded in the liberation of the Dutch cities of Eindhoven and Nijmegen, but at the Battle of Arnhem were defeated in their attempt to secure the last bridge, over the Rhine.

Bernard Montgomery

Bernard MontgomeryMontgomerySir Bernard Montgomery
Market Garden was the result of Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery favouring a single thrust north over the branches of the Lower Rhine River, allowing the British Second Army to bypass the Siegfried Line and attack the Ruhr. Although Allied commanders generally favoured a broad front policy to continue the advance into Germany and the Netherlands, Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery proposed a bold plan to head north through the Dutch Gelderland, bypassing the German Siegfried Line defences and opening a route into the German industrial heartland of the Ruhr.
As such he was the principal field commander for the failed airborne attempt to bridge the Rhine at Arnhem, and the Allied Rhine crossing.

1st Airlanding Light Regiment

1st Airlanding Light Regimentartillery
The division was made up of three brigades of infantry (two parachute, one glider borne), supporting artillery and anti-tank batteries and substantial Royal Engineer units, as well as supporting elements such as Royal Army Service Corps and Royal Army Medical Corps units.
During the battle of Arnhem that followed the regiment was one of the divisional units that formed a defensive ring around Oosterbeek.

Roy Urquhart

Roy UrquhartRobert E. "Roy" UrquhartRobert Urquhart
With the British 6th Airborne Division still refitting after Operation Tonga, and the subsequent fighting in Normandy, the task of securing the Rhine Bridgehead fell to the 1st Airborne Division under the command of Major-General Roy Urquhart.
He became prominent for his role as General Officer Commanding (GOC) of the 1st Airborne Division which fought with great distinction, although suffering very severe casualties, in the Battle of Arnhem during Operation Market Garden in September 1944.

1st Parachute Brigade (United Kingdom)

1st Parachute BrigadeBritish 1st Parachute Brigade1st Parachute Brigade (United Kingdom)
Most of the division had seen action in North Africa and Sicily, particularly the 1st Parachute Brigade and 1st Airlanding Brigade.
Not required during the Normandy landings, the brigade was next in action at the Battle of Arnhem, part of Operation Market Garden.

John Frost (British Army officer)

John FrostJohn D. FrostJohn Dutton Frost
The 2nd Battalion—under the command of Lt. Col. John Frost—would follow the riverside roads to the centre of Arnhem (codenamed the Lion route) and secure the main road and railway bridges, as well as a pontoon bridge between the two.
Major General John Dutton (Johnny) Frost CB, DSO & Bar, MC, DL (31 December 1912 – 21 May 1993) was an airborne officer of the British Army best known for being the leader of the small group of British airborne troops that actually arrived at Arnhem bridge during the Battle of Arnhem in Operation Market Garden, in World War II.

Oosterbeek

Hollandse BarbizonOosterbeek School
It was fought in and around the Dutch towns of Arnhem, Oosterbeek, Wolfheze, Driel, and the surrounding countryside from 17–26 September 1944.
The village is known for its involvement in the September 1944 Battle of Arnhem, during which it was heavily damaged.

1st Airlanding Brigade (United Kingdom)

1st Airlanding Brigade1st AirlandingBritish 1st Airlanding Brigade
Most of the division had seen action in North Africa and Sicily, particularly the 1st Parachute Brigade and 1st Airlanding Brigade. Urquhart decided to land Brigadier Gerald Lathbury's 1st Parachute Brigade and Brigadier "Pip" Hicks' 1st Airlanding Brigade on the first day of the operation.
During the second operation, in the fighting around Arnhem, 1st Airlanding Brigade along with the rest of 1st Airborne Division held out against overwhelming German odds, sustaining very heavy losses.

John Frost Bridge

Arnhem road bridgerenamed John Frostbrugbridge at Arnhem
Only a small force was able to reach the Arnhem road bridge while the main body of the division was halted on the outskirts of the city.
The bridge is named after Major-General John Dutton Frost (1912–1993), who commanded the British forces that reached and defended the bridge during the Battle of Arnhem in September 1944.

4th Parachute Brigade (United Kingdom)

4th Parachute Brigade4th4th Parachute Brigade (United Kingdom)
On the second day, Brigadier "Shan" Hackett's 4th Parachute Brigade would arrive at DZ 'Y', accompanied by extra artillery units and remaining elements of the Airlanding Brigade on LZ 'X'.
In September 1944, the brigade formed part of the second day's parachute landings at the Battle of Arnhem, part of Operation Market Garden.

10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg

10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg10th SS Panzer Division10th SS Panzer Division ''Frundsberg
Additionally, Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Bittrich's II SS Panzer Corps—comprising the remains of Walter Harzer's 9th SS and Heinz Harmel's 10th SS Panzer Divisions—had moved into the area north of Arnhem to refit and reorganise.
Afterwards, the unit was then transferred to the west, where it fought the Allies in France and at Arnhem.

1st Independent Parachute Brigade (Poland)

1st Polish Parachute Brigade1st Independent Parachute BrigadePolish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade
Urquhart also had the 1st Independent Polish Parachute Brigade under his command, who would also be joining the British in the operation to seize the bridges.
Operation Market Garden eventually saw the unit sent into action in support of the British 1st Airborne Division at the Battle of Arnhem in September 1944.

Gelderland

Province of GelderlandGEMidden
Although Allied commanders generally favoured a broad front policy to continue the advance into Germany and the Netherlands, Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery proposed a bold plan to head north through the Dutch Gelderland, bypassing the German Siegfried Line defences and opening a route into the German industrial heartland of the Ruhr.
During the Second World War, it saw heavy fighting between Allied Paratroopers, British XXX Corps and the German II SS Panzer Corps, at the Battle of Arnhem.

Philip Hugh Whitby Hicks

Philip HicksPip HicksPip" Hicks
Urquhart decided to land Brigadier Gerald Lathbury's 1st Parachute Brigade and Brigadier "Pip" Hicks' 1st Airlanding Brigade on the first day of the operation.
He commanded the brigade in the Mediterranean theatre during Operation Ladbroke, part of the Allied invasion of Sicily, in July 1943, as well as during the Battle of Arnhem, part of Operation Market Garden, in September 1944.

Stanisław Sosabowski

Stanisław SosabowskiSosabowskiStanisław Franciszek Sosabowski
Delayed by weather, the parachute infantry battalions of Stanisław Sosabowski's 1st (Polish) Parachute Brigade were finally able to take off in England.
He fought in the Battle of Arnhem (Netherlands) in 1944 as commander of the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade.

Deelen Air Base

Deelen airfieldDeelen
A limited number of areas suitable for glider landings and a reluctance from troop command to fly too near to Arnhem, exposing them to flak from Deelen airfield after the drop, meant that Urquhart was forced to pick drop zones (DZ) and landing zones (LZ) up to 8 mi from Arnhem itself, on the north side of the river.
In 1944 in preparation for the Battle of Arnhem the airfield got bombed extensively by allied forces and flying activity from the base was suspended by the Germans.

John Grayburn

Jack GrayburnJohn Hollington GrayburnJohn Grayburn VC
Lieutenant Jack Grayburn led an attempt to secure the southern end of the bridge but was unsuccessful, and a later attempt using a flame thrower only succeeded in setting the freshly painted girders of the bridge alight.
At the age of 26 he went into action in the Battle of Arnhem where he was part of the small force that was able to reach Arnhem road bridge.

2nd Battalion, Parachute Regiment

2nd Battalion, Parachute Regiment2nd Parachute Battalion2nd Battalion
The 2nd Battalion—under the command of Lt. Col. John Frost—would follow the riverside roads to the centre of Arnhem (codenamed the Lion route) and secure the main road and railway bridges, as well as a pontoon bridge between the two.
The battalion was part of the 1st Parachute Brigade, 1st Airborne Division, and fought in the British airborne operations in North Africa, Operation Fustian in Sicily, Operation Slapstick on the Italian mainland and, most famously, the Battle of Arnhem in September 1944.

Robert Henry Cain

Robert Cain
As they approached Oosterbeek they were met by Lieutenant Colonel Sheriff Thompson, of the 1st Airlanding Light Artillery Regiment, who formed most of the men into a defensive screen under Major Robert Cain .5 mi forward of his artillery positions.
He saw action during the Invasion of Sicily in 1943 and again during the Battle of Arnhem the following year.

82nd Airborne Division

82nd Airborne Division82d Airborne Division82nd Airborne
Montgomery's plan involved dropping the US 101st Airborne Division to capture key bridges around Eindhoven, the US 82nd Airborne Division to secure key crossings around Nijmegen, and the British 1st Airborne Division, with the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade attached, to capture three bridges across the Rhine at Arnhem.
So the costly successes of the 82nd's Nijmegen bridge seizure was followed by the failure to take the main prize; the British 1st Airborne Division was lost at the Battle of Arnhem.

10th Parachute Battalion (United Kingdom)

10th Parachute Battalion10th10 Para
The 10th and 156th Parachute Battalions moved north of the railway line to take up their planned defensive positions north west of Arnhem but the leading elements of 156th Parachute Battalion made contact with the main 9th SS blocking line after dark and withdrew for the night.
The battalion landed on the second day of the Battle of Arnhem and unable to reach their assigned objective, it was gradually destroyed over two days of fighting.

11th Parachute Battalion (United Kingdom)

11th Parachute Battalion11th11th Battalion, Parachute Regiment
The 11th Parachute Battalion and the rest of the South Staffords were immediately despatched to Arnhem to assist in the attempt to break through to the bridge, where they linked up with the 1st and 3rd Parachute Battalions after dark.
The only battle in which the battalion participated was the Battle of Arnhem in September 1944.

Airborne Museum 'Hartenstein'

Airborne MuseumAirborne Museum HartensteinHartenstein Hotel
The battle gave Urquhart the opportunity to escape his position and he was able to return to Division HQ at the Hotel Hartenstein in Oosterbeek, where for the first time he was able to learn the extent of the German forces facing them.
The Airborne Museum ‘Hartenstein’ in Oosterbeek, The Netherlands is dedicated to the Battle of Arnhem in which the Allied Forces attempted to form a bridgehead on the northern banks of the Rhine river in September 1944.

John Hackett (British Army officer)

John HackettSir John HackettGeneral Sir John Hackett
On the second day, Brigadier "Shan" Hackett's 4th Parachute Brigade would arrive at DZ 'Y', accompanied by extra artillery units and remaining elements of the Airlanding Brigade on LZ 'X'.
In 1944, Hackett raised and commanded the 4th Parachute Brigade for the Allied assault on Arnhem, in Operation Market Garden.

John Waddy (British Army officer)

John Waddy
John Waddy is of the belief that the strategic and tactical debate of Market Garden will never be resolved.
After returning to the United Kingdom with the 4th Parachute Brigade, part of the 1st Airborne Division, he took part in the Battle of Arnhem, where he was wounded and taken prisoner by German troops.