Battle of Arnhem

ArnhemArnhem 1944assault on Arnhemfighting at ArnhemAirborne battleare forced to surrenderArnhem in Hollandat Arnhemattack on Arnhemattempt to take Arnhem
The Battle of Arnhem was a major battle of the Second World War at the vanguard of the Allied Operation Market Garden.wikipedia
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Operation Market Garden

airborne attack on the NetherlandsMarket Gardenairborne invasion of the Netherlands
The Battle of Arnhem was a major battle of the Second World War at the vanguard of the Allied Operation Market Garden.
Airborne and land forces succeeded in the liberation of the Dutch cities of Eindhoven and Nijmegen, but at the Battle of Arnhem were defeated in their attempt to secure the last bridge, over the Rhine.

Bernard Montgomery

MontgomerySir Bernard MontgomeryField Marshal Montgomery
Market Garden was the result of Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery favouring a single thrust north over the branches of the Lower Rhine River, allowing the British Second Army to bypass the Siegfried Line and attack the Ruhr. Although Allied commanders generally favoured a broad front policy to continue the advance into Germany and the Netherlands, Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery proposed a bold plan to head north through the Dutch Gelderland, bypassing the German Siegfried Line defences and opening a route into the German industrial heartland of the Ruhr.
The failed airborne attempt to bridge the Rhine at Arnhem in Holland was with 21st Army Group personnel, however was successful with a subsequent Allied Rhine crossing.

Oosterbeek

Hollandse BarbizonOosterbeek School
It was fought in and around the Dutch towns of Arnhem, Oosterbeek, Wolfheze, Driel, and the surrounding countryside from 17–26 September 1944.
The village is known for its involvement in the September 1944 Battle of Arnhem, during which it was heavily damaged.

1st Airlanding Light Regiment

artillery
The division was made up of three brigades of infantry (two parachute, one glider borne), supporting artillery and anti-tank batteries and substantial Royal Engineer units, as well as supporting elements such as Royal Army Service Corps and Royal Army Medical Corps units.
During the battle of Arnhem that followed the regiment was one of the divisional units that formed a defensive ring around Oosterbeek.

Roy Urquhart

General Roy UrquhartGeneral UrquhartMajor General Urquhart
With the British 6th Airborne Division still refitting after Operation Tonga and the subsequent fighting in Normandy, the task of securing the Rhine bridgehead fell to the 1st Airborne Division under the command of Major-General Roy Urquhart.
He became prominent for his role as General Officer Commanding (GOC) of the 1st Airborne Division which fought with great distinction, although suffering very severe casualties, in the Battle of Arnhem during Operation Market Garden in September 1944.

1st Parachute Brigade (United Kingdom)

1st Parachute BrigadeBritish 1st Parachute Brigade1st Parachute
Most of the division had seen action in North Africa and Sicily, particularly the 1st Parachute Brigade and 1st Airlanding Brigade.
Not required during the Normandy landings, the brigade was next in action at the Battle of Arnhem, part of Operation Market Garden.

1st Airlanding Brigade (United Kingdom)

1st Airlanding Brigade1st Airlanding1st
Most of the division had seen action in North Africa and Sicily, particularly the 1st Parachute Brigade and 1st Airlanding Brigade. Urquhart decided to land Brigadier Gerald Lathbury's 1st Parachute Brigade and Brigadier "Pip" Hicks' 1st Airlanding Brigade on the first day of the operation, along with Divisional HQ, 1st Airlanding Light Regiment, Royal Artillery, and attached Royal Engineer and medical units.
During the second operation, in the fighting around Arnhem, 1st Airlanding Brigade along with the rest of 1st Airborne Division held out against overwhelming German odds, sustaining very heavy losses.

John Frost (British Army officer)

John FrostJohn D. FrostJohn Dutton Frost
The 2nd Battalion — under the command of Lt. Col. John Frost — would follow the riverside roads to the centre of Arnhem (codenamed the Lion route) and secure the main road and railway bridges, as well as a pontoon bridge situated between them.
Major General John Dutton (Johnny) Frost CB, DSO & Bar, MC, DL (31 December 1912 – 21 May 1993) was an airborne officer of the British Army best known for being the leader of the small group of British airborne troops that actually arrived at Arnhem bridge during the Battle of Arnhem in Operation Market Garden, in World War II.

Gelderland

GeldriaProvince of GelderlandGE
Although Allied commanders generally favoured a broad front policy to continue the advance into Germany and the Netherlands, Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery proposed a bold plan to head north through the Dutch Gelderland, bypassing the German Siegfried Line defences and opening a route into the German industrial heartland of the Ruhr.
During the Second World War, it saw heavy fighting between Allied Paratroopers, British XXX Corps and the German II SS Panzer Corps, at the Battle of Arnhem.

4th Parachute Brigade (United Kingdom)

4th Parachute Brigade4th4th Para Brigade
On the second day, Brigadier "Shan" Hackett's 4th Parachute Brigade would arrive at DZ 'Y', accompanied by extra artillery units and remaining elements of the Airlanding Brigade on LZ 'X'. Hackett's three battalions would then reinforce the positions north and north west of Arnhem.
In September 1944, the brigade formed part of the second day's parachute landings at the Battle of Arnhem, part of Operation Market Garden.

82nd Airborne Division

82d Airborne Division82nd Airborne82nd
Montgomery's plan involved dropping the US 101st Airborne Division to capture key bridges around Eindhoven, the US 82nd Airborne Division to secure key crossings around Nijmegen, and the British 1st Airborne Division, with the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade attached, to capture three bridges across the Nederrijn at Arnhem.
So the costly successes of the 82nd's Nijmegen bridge seizure was followed by the failure to take the main prize; the British 1st Airborne Division was lost at the Battle of Arnhem.

Philip Hugh Whitby Hicks

Philip HicksPip HicksPhilip "Pip" Hicks
Urquhart decided to land Brigadier Gerald Lathbury's 1st Parachute Brigade and Brigadier "Pip" Hicks' 1st Airlanding Brigade on the first day of the operation, along with Divisional HQ, 1st Airlanding Light Regiment, Royal Artillery, and attached Royal Engineer and medical units.
He commanded the brigade in the Mediterranean theatre during Operation Ladbroke, part of the Allied invasion of Sicily, in July 1943, as well as during the Battle of Arnhem, part of Operation Market Garden, in September 1944.

2nd Battalion, Parachute Regiment

2nd Parachute Battalion2nd Battalion2nd Battalion, The Parachute Regiment
The 2nd Battalion — under the command of Lt. Col. John Frost — would follow the riverside roads to the centre of Arnhem (codenamed the Lion route) and secure the main road and railway bridges, as well as a pontoon bridge situated between them.
The battalion was part of the 1st Parachute Brigade, 1st Airborne Division, and fought in the British airborne operations in North Africa, Operation Fustian in Sicily, Operation Slapstick on the Italian mainland and, most famously, the Battle of Arnhem in September 1944.

Deelen Air Base

Deelen airfieldDeelen
A limited number of areas suitable for glider landings and a reluctance from troop command to fly too near to Arnhem, exposing them to flak from Deelen airfield after the drop, meant that Urquhart was forced to pick drop zones (DZ) and landing zones (LZ) up to 8 mi from Arnhem itself, on the north side of the river.
In 1944 in preparation for the Battle of Arnhem the airfield got bombed extensively by allied forces and flying activity from the base was suspended by the Germans.

Second Army (United Kingdom)

Second ArmyBritish Second Army2nd Army
The British Second Army, led by XXX Corps would advance up the "Airborne corridor", securing the airborne division's positions and crossing the Rhine within two days.
However, the single road XXX Corps had to traverse caused enormous logistical difficulties and, combined with German counterattacks, the operation failed resulting in the loss of much of the 1st Airborne Division during the Battle of Arnhem.

10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg

10th SS Panzer Division10th SS Panzer Division ''Frundsberg10th SS Panzer divisions
Additionally, Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Bittrich's II SS Panzer Corps — comprising the remains of Walter Harzer's 9th SS and Heinz Harmel's 10th SS Panzer Divisions — had moved into the area north of Arnhem to refit and reorganise.
Afterwards, the unit was then transferred to the west, where it fought the Allies in France and at Arnhem.

John Hackett (British Army officer)

John HackettSir John HackettGeneral Sir John Hackett
On the second day, Brigadier "Shan" Hackett's 4th Parachute Brigade would arrive at DZ 'Y', accompanied by extra artillery units and remaining elements of the Airlanding Brigade on LZ 'X'. Hackett's three battalions would then reinforce the positions north and north west of Arnhem.
In 1944, Hackett raised and commanded the 4th Parachute Brigade for the Allied assault on Arnhem, in Operation Market Garden.

Arnhem

Arnhem, NetherlandsSchaarsbergenArnheim
It was fought in and around the Dutch towns of Arnhem, Oosterbeek, Wolfheze, Driel, and the surrounding countryside from 17–26 September 1944.
Theirs is the Glory (a.k.a. Men of Arnhem), is a 1946 British war film about the British 1st Airborne Division's involvement in the Battle of Arnhem (17 September to 25 September 1944) during Operation Market Garden in the Second World War. A Bridge Too Far tells the story of the failure of Operation Market Garden in Arnhem.

Paratrooper

paratroopersparatroopparatroops
The division was made up of three brigades of infantry (two parachute, one glider borne), supporting artillery and anti-tank batteries and substantial Royal Engineer units, as well as supporting elements such as Royal Army Service Corps and Royal Army Medical Corps units.
Operation Market Garden eventually saw the unit sent into action in support of the British 1st Airborne Division at the Battle of Arnhem in 1944.

1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment

1st Parachute Battalion1st Battalion, The Parachute Regiment1st Battalion
Lt. Col. Dobie's 1st Battalion would follow Leopard route north of the railway line to occupy high ground north and north west of Arnhem.
Finally, in September 1944, the battalion dropped into Arnhem the Netherlands with the rest of the 1st Airborne Division, as part of Operation Market Garden, where they suffered extremely heavy casualties and never saw combat again for the rest of the war.

Frederick Gough

The whole advance would be led by a troop of jeeps from the 1st Airborne Reconnaissance Squadron, under Major Frederick Gough on Leopard route, who would attempt a coup de main on the road bridge.
In September 1944 he fought at the Battle of Arnhem, briefly commanding the forces at Arnhem Bridge after Lieutenant Colonel John Frost was injured.

Gerald Lathbury

Sir Gerald LathburyGerald W. LathburyG.W. Lathbury
Urquhart decided to land Brigadier Gerald Lathbury's 1st Parachute Brigade and Brigadier "Pip" Hicks' 1st Airlanding Brigade on the first day of the operation, along with Divisional HQ, 1st Airlanding Light Regiment, Royal Artillery, and attached Royal Engineer and medical units.
Lathbury was still in command of the 1st Parachute Brigade during the Battle of Arnhem, part of Operation Market Garden in the Netherlands.

XXX Corps (United Kingdom)

XXX CorpsBritish XXX CorpsBritish 30th Corps
The British Second Army, led by XXX Corps would advance up the "Airborne corridor", securing the airborne division's positions and crossing the Rhine within two days. British XXX Corps were expected to reach the British airborne forces in two to three days.
This caused the British 1st Airborne Division, which was surrounded at Arnhem and suffered very heavy losses, to retreat from the Arnhem bridge after the delay enabled the Germans to reinforce with armoured divisions.

Hans von Tettau

Korpsgruppe Tettau
To the west of Arnhem was Kampfgruppe Von Tettau, a force equivalent to seven battalions made up of all manner of German units (including Das Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, rear echelon and Waffen-SS troops) under the command of General Hans von Tettau at Grebbeberg.
Some German historians argue that he had little real military experience up to his countermeasures at the Battle of Arnhem in 1944, the Allied Operation Market Garden.

John Grayburn

Jack GrayburnJohn Grayburn VCJohn Hollington Grayburn
Lieutenant Jack Grayburn led an attempt to secure the southern end of the bridge but was unsuccessful, and a later attempt using a flame thrower only succeeded in setting the freshly painted girders of the bridge alight.
At the age of 26 he went into action in the Battle of Arnhem where he was part of the small force that was able to reach Arnhem road bridge.