Battle of Cold Harbor by Kurz and Allison, 1888
The "Dictator" siege mortar at Petersburg. In the foreground, the figure on the right is Brig. Gen. Henry J. Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac.
Battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia
Map of Southeastern Virginia
Fredericksburg, Virginia; May 1863. Soldiers in the trenches. Trench warfare would appear again more infamously in World War I
Private Edwin Francis Jemison, whose image became one of the most famous portraits of the young soldiers of the war
Union marches and operations in Central Virginia (1864-65)
A portion of the 4th USCT Infantry
A cartoon from the war, showing the Confederates forcibly drafting a Unionist man into the Confederate army. The Unionist man objects, with the Confederates threatening to lynch him if he does not comply.
Movements in the Overland Campaign, May 29, and actions May 30, 1864
Siege of Petersburg, assaults on June 15–18
An 1861 Confederate recruiting poster from Virginia, urging men to join the Confederate cause and fight off the U.S. Army, which it refers to as a "brutal and desperate foe"
Opposing commanders: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, USA, at Cold Harbor, photographed by Edgar Guy Fawx in 1864; Gen. Robert E. Lee, CSA, photographed by Mathew Brady in 1865
Siege of Petersburg, movements against the railroads and A.P. Hill's counterattack, June 21–22
CSA M1857 Napoleon Artillery Piece
The Burnett Inn at Old Cold Harbor (by Timothy H. O'Sullivan, June 4, 1864)
Wilson–Kautz Raid, June 22 – July 1
General Robert E. Lee, the Confederacy's most famous general
Positions of the armies on the afternoon of June 1, 1864
"Dictator" siege mortar on the U.S. Military Railroad at Petersburg
An 1895 illustration showing the uniforms of the Confederate Army contrasted with those of the U.S. Army
Cold Harbor, June 1
First Battle of Deep Bottom, July 27–29
A painting of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia fighting the U.S. Army at Spotsylvania in 1864
Makeshift Confederate breastworks at the extreme left of their line
Siege of Petersburg, Battle of the Crater, July 30
A group of Confederate soldiers-possibly an artillery unit captured at Island No. 10 and taken at POW Camp Douglas (Chicago); photograph possibly by D. F. Brandon
Earthworks photographed after the battle
Sketch of the explosion seen from the Union line.
Confederate troops marching south on N Market Street, Frederick, Maryland, during the Civil War
7th New York Heavy Artillery (serving as infantry) preparing to leave the trenches and charge the Confederate line, sketched by Alfred Waud
Second Battle of Deep Bottom, August 14–20
A Cherokee Confederates reunion in New Orleans, 1903
"Unburied Dead on Battlefield" by John Reekie; issued as Stero #914 being taken on the 1862 Battlefield of Gaines Mills aka First Cold Harbor April 1865; taken near the Adams Farm where 7th New York artillery was stationed June 1864 see Civil war Talk.
Siege of Petersburg, capture of the Weldon Railroad, August 18–19
Jackson McCurtain, Lieutenant Colonel of the First Choctaw Battalion in Oklahoma, CSA
Cold Harbor, June 3
Siege of Petersburg, actions on October 27
1862 illustration showing Confederates escorting kidnapped African American civilians south into slavery. A similar instance occurred in Pennsylvania when the Army of Northern Virginia invaded it in 1863 to fight the U.S. at Gettysburg.
Union Coehorn mortars in action, drawn by Alfred Waud
Siege of Petersburg, actions preceding Five Forks
An 1862 illustration of a Confederate officer forcing slaves at gunpoint to fire a cannon at U.S. soldiers in battle. A similar instance occurred at the first Battle of Bull Run, where slaves were forced by the Confederates to load and fire a cannon at U.S. forces.
Overland Campaign, from the Wilderness to crossing the James River
Confederate
Union
Grant's final assaults and Lee's retreat (start of the Appomattox Campaign)
An 1864 cartoon lampooning the Confederacy's deliberating on the use of black soldiers, showing them defecting en masse towards U.S. lines if such proposals were adopted.
<center>Lt. Gen.
"Marlboro", an African-American body servant to a white Confederate soldier
<center>Maj. Gen.
Julian Scott's 1873 painting, Surrender of a Confederate Soldier
<center>Maj. Gen.
Corporal of the Artillery division of the Confederate Army
<center>Gen.
Confederate mortar crew at Warrington, Florida in 1861, across from Fort Pickens
<center>Gen.
Confederate artillery at Charleston Harbor, 1863
<center>Lt. Gen.
Lt Col. E. V. Nash, 4th Georgia Infantry Doles-Cook Brigade, who was killed in 1864
<center>Lt. Gen.
<Center>General (CSA)</Center>
<center>Lt. Gen.
<Center>Colonel (Infantry shown)</Center>
<center>Lt. Gen.
<Center>Lieutenant-colonel (Headquarters shown)</Center>
<center>Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson</center>
<Center>Major (Medical Corps shown)</Center>
<center>Brig. Gen. August Kautz</center>
<Center>Captain (Marine Corps shown)</Center>
Fascine Trench Breastworks, Petersburg, Va. – NARA – 524792. Although identified as Confederate Trenches this is actually Union Fort Sedgwick aka "Fort Hell" which was opposite Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damnation"<ref>Civil War talk Forum</ref>
<Center>1st Lieutenant (Artillery shown)</Center>
Union Army 9th Corps attacking Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damanation" sketch by Alfred Ward.
<Center>2nd Lieutenant (Cavalry shown)</Center>
Confederate artilleryman killed during the final Union assault against the trenches at Petersburg. Photo by Thomas C. Roche, April 3, 1865.<ref>Frassanito, p. 360.</ref><ref>See website Petersburg Project on location of Many of the Roche photographs at Petersburg April 1865</ref> Although prints of this picture list it as being taken at Ft Mahone, historians at the "Petersburg Project" believe it was taken at Confederate Battery 25<ref>Dead Artilleryman comments Petersburg Project</ref>
Smoke is still rising from the ruins of Richmond, Virginia after surrendering on April 3, 1865 following the Union victory at the siege of Petersburg. Union cavalry mounts with carbines visible are hitched in the foreground.
Richmond–Petersburg Theater, fall 1864
Confederate
Union

Thousands of Union soldiers were killed or wounded in a hopeless frontal assault against the fortified positions of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's army.

- Battle of Cold Harbor

Petersburg was crucial to the supply of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's army and the Confederate capital of Richmond.

- Siege of Petersburg

In the final stage, Lee entrenched his army within besieged Petersburg before finally retreating westward across Virginia.

- Battle of Cold Harbor

This theory was tested at the Battle of Cold Harbor (May 31 – June 12) when Grant's army once again came into contact with Lee's near Mechanicsville.

- Siege of Petersburg

During the Civil War 28,693 Native Americans served in the U.S. and Confederate armies, participating in battles such as Pea Ridge, Second Manassas, Antietam, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, and in Federal assaults on Petersburg.

- Confederate States Army
Battle of Cold Harbor by Kurz and Allison, 1888

8 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Jubal Early

4 links

Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War.

Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War.

Early's childhood home in northeastern Franklin County
Confederate General Jubal A. Early
General Early, disguised as a farmer, while escaping to Mexico, 1865
Early in his elder years
A plaque praising Early in Rocky Mount, Virginia

On June 19, 1861, Early formally became a colonel in the Confederate army, commanding the 24th Virginia Infantry, including his young cousin (previously expelled from Virginia Military Institute (VMI) for attending a tea party), Jack Hairston.

Thus, Early commanded that corps in the Battle of Cold Harbor.

Thus Early commanded the Confederacy's last invasion of the North, secured much-needed funds and supplies for the Confederacy and drawing off Union troops from the siege of Petersburg.

A. P. Hill

3 links

General A.P. Hill
Appomattox, A. P. Hill's sword
Portrait of Hill by William Ludwell Sheppard, 1898

Ambrose Powell Hill Jr. (November 9, 1825 – April 2, 1865) was a Confederate general who was killed in the American Civil War.

Hill held the Confederate left flank at Cold Harbor, but two divisions of his corps were used to defend against the main Union attack on the right flank on June 3; when part of the troops to his right gave way, Hill used one brigade to launch a successful counterattack.

During the Siege of Petersburg of 1864–65, Hill and his men participated in several battles during the various Union offensives, particularly Jerusalem Plank Road, the Crater, Globe Tavern, Second Reams Station, and Peebles Farm.

Lee in March 1864

Robert E. Lee

2 links

Lee in March 1864
Lee at age 31 in 1838, as a Lieutenant of Engineers in the U.S. Army
Robert E. Lee, around age 38, and his son William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, around age 8, c.1845
Robert E. Lee around age 43, when he was a brevet lieutenant-colonel of engineers, c. 1850
Lee in uniform, 1863
Lee mounted on Traveller (September 1866)
Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup
Lee with son Custis (left) and aide Walter H. Taylor (right) by Brady, April 16, 1865
Lee in 1869 (photo by Levin C. Handy)
General Lee and his Confederate officers in their first meeting since Appomattox, August 1869.
Oath of amnesty submitted by Robert E. Lee in 1865
Robert E. Lee, oil on canvas, Edward Calledon Bruce, 1865. Virginia Historical Society
Robert Edward Lee in art at the Battle of Chancellorsville in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Facade view of Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial — at Arlington National Cemetery, in Virginia, pictured in 2006
Unveiling of the Equestrian Statue of Robert E. Lee, May 29, 1890, Richmond, Virginia
The removal of Lee's statue from a monument in New Orleans
Stained glass of Lee's life in the National Cathedral
Robert E. Lee, National Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C. Edward Virginius Valentine, sculptor, 1909
Robert E Lee, Virginia Monument, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Frederick William Sievers, sculptor, 1917
Robert E. Lee Monument by Mercié, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia, 1890
Statue of Lee at the Confederate War Memorial, Dallas, 1896
Statue of Lee in Murray, Kentucky
University Chapel on the campus of Washington and Lee University

Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

Grant engaged Lee's army in bloody but inconclusive battles at the Wilderness and Spotsylvania before the lengthy Siege of Petersburg, which was followed in April 1865 by the capture of Richmond and the destruction of most of Lee's army, which he finally surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House.

These battles in the Overland Campaign included the Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House and Cold Harbor.

General Heth

Henry Heth

2 links

General Heth
Heth as a member of the Confederate Army
An illustration of Confederate troops at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863
Heth in 1895

Henry Heth ( not ) (December 16, 1825 – September 27, 1899) was a career United States Army officer who became a Confederate general in the American Civil War.

In the subsequent Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, his division was held primarily in the rear, and was positioned on the Confederate left flank at the Battles of North Anna and Cold Harbor.

Heth also participated in the Siege of Petersburg, playing direct roles in the battles of Globe Tavern; Second Ream's Station; Peeble's Farm; Boydton Plank Road; and Hatcher's Run.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. 1860-1865

P. G. T. Beauregard

1 links

Confederate general officer of Louisiana Creole descent who started the American Civil War by leading the attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861.

Confederate general officer of Louisiana Creole descent who started the American Civil War by leading the attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. 1860-1865
A one-story Creole plantation home
Pierre G. T. Beauregard as a young man, painting by Richard Clague
U.S. Army Major P.G.T. Beauregard
The Battle of Churubusco, August 20, 1847
The Battle of Chapultepec, 13 September, 1847
The 1861 George Peter Alexander Healy portrait of Beauregard in the National Portrait Gallery, Washington
Confederate General P. Gustave Toutant Beauregard
The Battle of Fort Sumter, April 12–13, 1861
The Battle of First Manassas, July 21, 1861
Start of the First Battle of Bull Run
The Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7, 1862
Map of the Battle of Shiloh, afternoon of April 6, 1862, after Beauregard took command
A Confederate ironclad
A Confederate submarine, Dec. 6, 1863
The Battle of Cold Harbor, May 31 – June 12, 1864
Beauregard's defense of Petersburg, Federal assaults of June 15–18
The Battle of Nashville, December 15–16, 1864
Beauregard, later in life
Beauregard revolutionized New Orleans with his cable cars
Beauregard, civil rights advocate
The White League, a Democratic white supremacist paramilitary terrorist organization
The White League barricading a New Orleans road
The first African-American and Republican governor of Louisiana, Pinckney Pinchback of Georgia
The Battle of Liberty Place, September 14, 1874
Caesar Antoine, a Louisiana Creole and Republican lieutenant governor of Louisiana
New Orleans in the 1870's
General P.G.T. Beauregard Equestrian Statue in New Orleans (2008) by sculptor Alexander Doyle
The Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7, 1862
A Creole home in New Orleans, 1870

Following a brief appointment as superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy in 1861, and after Louisiana seceded, he resigned from the United States Army and became the first brigadier general in the Confederate States Army.

Gen. Robert Hoke's) to Lee for the Battle of Cold Harbor, but Lee urgently wanted more and took the step of offering Beauregard command of the right wing of the Army of Northern Virginia for his cooperation.

Beauregard continued commanding the defenses of Petersburg in the early days of the siege, but with the loss of the Weldon Railroad in the Battle of Globe Tavern (August 18–21), he was criticized for not attacking more forcefully and he became dissatisfied with the command arrangements under Lee.

Gordon in uniform, c. 1862

John B. Gordon

1 links

Gordon in uniform, c. 1862
Gordon portrait by Mathew Brady
John Brown Gordon statue by sculptor Solon Borglum, located on the northeastern part of the grounds of the Georgia State Capitol
Gordon's grave, Oakland Cemetery, Atlanta, Georgia

John Brown Gordon (February 6, 1832 – January 9, 1904) was an attorney, a slaveholding plantation owner, general in the Confederate States Army, and politician in the postwar years.

His division was held in reserve at the Battle of North Anna and was positioned in the Magnolia Swamp, north of where the major fighting occurred at the Battle of Cold Harbor.

In this role, he defended the line in the Siege of Petersburg and commanded the attack on Fort Stedman on March 25, 1865 (where he was wounded again, in the leg).

Battle flag of the Confederate States Army

Third Corps, Army of Northern Virginia

1 links

Battle flag of the Confederate States Army
Wartime photo of III Corps divisional commander William Mahone
Wartime photo of III Corps divisional commander and temporary corps commander Henry Heth

The Third Corps, Army of Northern Virginia was a unit of the Provisional Army of the Confederate States.

At Cold Harbor, Hill was stationed on the Confederate left flank but on June 2 Mahone's and Wilcox's divisions were moved to the Confederate right in response to the movements of the Union II Corps; Heth's division remained on the left.

Following Cold Harbor, the corps was rushed to the Richmond-Petersburg area where it was engaged in the three-day Battle of Petersburg.

Scene of the explosion July 30th 1864
Alfred R. Waud, artist

Battle of the Crater

0 links

Scene of the explosion July 30th 1864
Alfred R. Waud, artist
Contemporary sketch of Col. Pleasants supervising the placement of powder in the mine
National Park Service marker depicting details of the mine
Sketch of the explosion, as seen from the Union line
Battle of the Crater art from the Virginia Tech Bugle 1899 yearbook
Result of the 8,000 lb of powder explosion under the Salient, 1865
The Crater in 2004
Mine entrance in 2006
Interior of Mine entrance in 2015

The Battle of the Crater was a battle of the American Civil War, part of the siege of Petersburg.

It took place on Saturday, July 30, 1864, between the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, commanded by General Robert E. Lee, and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General George G. Meade (under the direct supervision of the general-in-chief, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant).

It was actually trench warfare, rather than a true siege, as the armies were aligned along a series of fortified positions and trenches more than 20 mi long, extending from the old Cold Harbor battlefield near Richmond to areas south of Petersburg.