Battle of Cold Harbor by Kurz and Allison, 1888
The "Dictator" siege mortar at Petersburg. In the foreground, the figure on the right is Brig. Gen. Henry J. Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac.
Map of Southeastern Virginia
Fredericksburg, Virginia; May 1863. Soldiers in the trenches. Trench warfare would appear again more infamously in World War I
Early's childhood home in northeastern Franklin County
Union marches and operations in Central Virginia (1864-65)
A portion of the 4th USCT Infantry
Confederate General Jubal A. Early
Movements in the Overland Campaign, May 29, and actions May 30, 1864
Siege of Petersburg, assaults on June 15–18
General Early, disguised as a farmer, while escaping to Mexico, 1865
Opposing commanders: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, USA, at Cold Harbor, photographed by Edgar Guy Fawx in 1864; Gen. Robert E. Lee, CSA, photographed by Mathew Brady in 1865
Siege of Petersburg, movements against the railroads and A.P. Hill's counterattack, June 21–22
Early in his elder years
The Burnett Inn at Old Cold Harbor (by Timothy H. O'Sullivan, June 4, 1864)
Wilson–Kautz Raid, June 22 – July 1
A plaque praising Early in Rocky Mount, Virginia
Positions of the armies on the afternoon of June 1, 1864
"Dictator" siege mortar on the U.S. Military Railroad at Petersburg
Cold Harbor, June 1
First Battle of Deep Bottom, July 27–29
Makeshift Confederate breastworks at the extreme left of their line
Siege of Petersburg, Battle of the Crater, July 30
Earthworks photographed after the battle
Sketch of the explosion seen from the Union line.
7th New York Heavy Artillery (serving as infantry) preparing to leave the trenches and charge the Confederate line, sketched by Alfred Waud
Second Battle of Deep Bottom, August 14–20
"Unburied Dead on Battlefield" by John Reekie; issued as Stero #914 being taken on the 1862 Battlefield of Gaines Mills aka First Cold Harbor April 1865; taken near the Adams Farm where 7th New York artillery was stationed June 1864 see Civil war Talk.
Siege of Petersburg, capture of the Weldon Railroad, August 18–19
Cold Harbor, June 3
Siege of Petersburg, actions on October 27
Union Coehorn mortars in action, drawn by Alfred Waud
Siege of Petersburg, actions preceding Five Forks
Overland Campaign, from the Wilderness to crossing the James River
Confederate
Union
Grant's final assaults and Lee's retreat (start of the Appomattox Campaign)
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Gen.
<center>Gen.
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. August Kautz</center>
Fascine Trench Breastworks, Petersburg, Va. – NARA – 524792. Although identified as Confederate Trenches this is actually Union Fort Sedgwick aka "Fort Hell" which was opposite Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damnation"<ref>Civil War talk Forum</ref>
Union Army 9th Corps attacking Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damanation" sketch by Alfred Ward.
Confederate artilleryman killed during the final Union assault against the trenches at Petersburg. Photo by Thomas C. Roche, April 3, 1865.<ref>Frassanito, p. 360.</ref><ref>See website Petersburg Project on location of Many of the Roche photographs at Petersburg April 1865</ref> Although prints of this picture list it as being taken at Ft Mahone, historians at the "Petersburg Project" believe it was taken at Confederate Battery 25<ref>Dead Artilleryman comments Petersburg Project</ref>
Smoke is still rising from the ruins of Richmond, Virginia after surrendering on April 3, 1865 following the Union victory at the siege of Petersburg. Union cavalry mounts with carbines visible are hitched in the foreground.
Richmond–Petersburg Theater, fall 1864
Confederate
Union

In the final stage, Lee entrenched his army within besieged Petersburg before finally retreating westward across Virginia.

- Battle of Cold Harbor

This theory was tested at the Battle of Cold Harbor (May 31 – June 12) when Grant's army once again came into contact with Lee's near Mechanicsville.

- Siege of Petersburg

Second Corps, under Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early, was detached on June 12 for operations in the Shenandoah Valley and played no direct role in the defense of Petersburg.

- Siege of Petersburg

After Grant's infantry had crossed to the south bank of the Pamunkey, Lee saw an opportunity on May 30 to attack Warren's advancing V Corps with his Second Corps, now commanded by Lt. Gen. Jubal Early.

- Battle of Cold Harbor

Thus, Early commanded that corps in the Battle of Cold Harbor.

- Jubal Early

Thus Early commanded the Confederacy's last invasion of the North, secured much-needed funds and supplies for the Confederacy and drawing off Union troops from the siege of Petersburg.

- Jubal Early
Battle of Cold Harbor by Kurz and Allison, 1888

11 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, respectively, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign

Overland Campaign

7 links

Series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War.

Series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War.

Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, respectively, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign
Sheridan's Richmond Raid, including the Battles of Yellow Tavern and Meadow Bridge
Union staff meeting at Massaponax Baptist Church on May 21, 1864. Grant has his back to the smaller tree with Charles Anderson Dana to his left, while Meade is seated at the far left.
Movements in the Overland Campaign, May 27–29, 1864, following the Battle of North Anna
Movement to Totopotomoy, May 25–28, 1864, following the Battle of North Anna
Battle of Haw's Shop
Movements in the Overland Campaign, May 29, and actions May 30, 1864
Battle of Totopotomoy Creek, May 30, 1864
Maj. Gen. William F. "Baldy" Smith
Positions of the armies on the afternoon of June 1, 1864
Cold Harbor, June 1
Cold Harbor, June 3
Cold Harbor, Virginia. African Americans collecting bones of soldiers killed in the battle. Photo by John Reekie, April 1865.
Pontoon bridge across the James River
Crossing the James River, 12–16 June 1864.
Routes of Federal and Confederate cavalry to Trevilian Station, June 7–10, 1864
Sheridan's return to the Army of the Potomac from his Trevilian Station raid
Actions in the Wilderness, May 5, 1864.
5 a.m., May 6. Hancock attacks Hill on the Plank Road
6–10 a.m., May 6. Longstreet counterattacks
11 a.m., May 6. Longstreet attacks Hancock's flank from the railroad bed
2 p.m. until dark, May 6.
Movements on May 7, 1864; cavalry actions inset
Positions and movements on the Union flanks, May 9
Grant attacks, May 10
Grant's grand assault, May 12
Reorienting the lines, May 13–16
Movements, May 17, final Union attacks, May 18
Actions on May 23: Hancock attacks "Henagan's Redoubt", A.P. Hill attempts to repulse Warren's beachhead
Actions on May 24: Ledlie attacks Ox Ford, Hancock attempts to advance against the eastern leg of the inverted "V"
Stalemate: Union and Confederate positions May 25–26
Rodes's attack
Ramseur's attack
Actions on June 11
Actions on June 12
Key to operational maps.
Map 1:
Map 2:
Map 3:
Map 4:
Map 5:
Map 6:
Map 7:
Map 8:
Map 9:
Map 10:
Map 11:
Map 12:
Overland Campaign, from the Wilderness to crossing the James River
Confederate
Union
Start of the Overland Campaign, May 4, 1864: Movement into the Wilderness.
Confederate
Union
Attacks on the Laurel Hill line, May 8
Confederate
Union
The Overland Campaign from the Wilderness to the North Anna River, May 5–26, 1864
Confederate
Union

The final major battle of the campaign was waged at Cold Harbor (May 31 – June 12), in which Grant gambled that Lee's army was exhausted and ordered a massive assault against strong defensive positions, resulting in disproportionately heavy Union casualties.

The resulting siege of Petersburg (June 1864 – March 1865) led to the eventual surrender of Lee's army in April 1865 and the effective end of the Civil War.

His condition was serious enough that he was temporarily replaced in command by Maj. Gen. Jubal Early.

Lee in March 1864

Robert E. Lee

6 links

Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

Lee in March 1864
Lee at age 31 in 1838, as a Lieutenant of Engineers in the U.S. Army
Robert E. Lee, around age 38, and his son William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, around age 8, c.1845
Robert E. Lee around age 43, when he was a brevet lieutenant-colonel of engineers, c. 1850
Lee in uniform, 1863
Lee mounted on Traveller (September 1866)
Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup
Lee with son Custis (left) and aide Walter H. Taylor (right) by Brady, April 16, 1865
Lee in 1869 (photo by Levin C. Handy)
General Lee and his Confederate officers in their first meeting since Appomattox, August 1869.
Oath of amnesty submitted by Robert E. Lee in 1865
Robert E. Lee, oil on canvas, Edward Calledon Bruce, 1865. Virginia Historical Society
Robert Edward Lee in art at the Battle of Chancellorsville in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Facade view of Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial — at Arlington National Cemetery, in Virginia, pictured in 2006
Unveiling of the Equestrian Statue of Robert E. Lee, May 29, 1890, Richmond, Virginia
The removal of Lee's statue from a monument in New Orleans
Stained glass of Lee's life in the National Cathedral
Robert E. Lee, National Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C. Edward Virginius Valentine, sculptor, 1909
Robert E Lee, Virginia Monument, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Frederick William Sievers, sculptor, 1917
Robert E. Lee Monument by Mercié, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia, 1890
Statue of Lee at the Confederate War Memorial, Dallas, 1896
Statue of Lee in Murray, Kentucky
University Chapel on the campus of Washington and Lee University

Grant engaged Lee's army in bloody but inconclusive battles at the Wilderness and Spotsylvania before the lengthy Siege of Petersburg, which was followed in April 1865 by the capture of Richmond and the destruction of most of Lee's army, which he finally surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House.

These battles in the Overland Campaign included the Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House and Cold Harbor.

Lee attempted to break the stalemate by sending Jubal A. Early on a raid through the Shenandoah Valley to Washington, D.C., but Early was defeated early on by the superior forces of Philip Sheridan.

Sheridan in uniform, 1888

Philip Sheridan

5 links

Career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War.

Career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War.

Sheridan in uniform, 1888
Sheridan during the 1860s
Brevet Second Lieutenant Philip Sheridan, engraving by H. B. Hall
Rienzi, stuffed and on display at the National Museum of American History
Union Cavalry General Philip Sheridan
Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan and his generals in front of Sheridan's tent, 1864. Left to right: Henry E. Davies, David McM. Gregg, Sheridan, Wesley Merritt, Alfred Torbert, and James H. Wilson.
Union Cavalry General Philip Sheridan
Sheridan's Ride, chromolithograph by Thure de Thulstrup
Lee's retreat in the Appomattox Campaign, April 3–9, 1865
Sheridan portrait by Mathew Brady or Levin C. Handy
General Sheridan stands by his dispatches by Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly, v. 19, no. 944 (January 30, 1875), p. 89.
Union General Philip H. Sheridan
A cartoon from Harper's Weekly of December 21, 1878, features Philip Sheridan and Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz
Sheridan's headstone at Arlington National Cemetery. The inscription faces Washington, D.C.
Sheridan memorialized on the 1890 $10 Treasury note, and one of 53 people depicted on United States banknotes
Generals Sherman, Grant and Sheridan, Issue of 1937
Equestrian statue of Philip Sheridan in the center of Sheridan Circle in Washington, D.C.
Sheridan's Richmond Raid, including the Battles of Yellow Tavern and Meadow Bridge
Routes of Federal and Confederate cavalry to Trevilian Station, June 7–10, 1864
Sheridan's return to the Army of the Potomac from his Trevilian Station raid, including the Battle of Saint Mary's Church

In 1864, he defeated Confederate forces under General Jubal Early in the Shenandoah Valley and his destruction of the economic infrastructure of the Valley, called "The Burning" by residents, was one of the first uses of scorched-earth tactics in the war.

They seized the critical crossroads that triggered the Battle of Cold Harbor (June 1 to June 12) and withstood a number of assaults until reinforced.

A contrary view has been published by historian Eric J. Wittenberg, who notes that of four major strategic raids (Richmond, Trevilian, Wilson-Kautz, and First Deep Bottom) and thirteen major cavalry engagements of the Overland and Richmond–Petersburg campaigns, only Yellow Tavern can be considered a Union victory, with Haw's Shop, Trevilian Station, Meadow Bridge, Samaria Church, and Wilson-Kautz defeats in which some of Sheridan's forces barely avoided destruction.

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin

American Civil War

5 links

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Robert E. Lee
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
George B. McClellan
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Pickett's Charge
Ulysses S. Grant
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
New Orleans captured
William Tecumseh Sherman
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Philip Sheridan
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.
Slave states that seceded before April 15, 1861 Slave states that seceded after April 15, 1861 Union states that permitted slavery (border states) Union states that banned slavery
Territories
US Secession map. The Union vs. the Confederacy.
Union states
Union territories not permitting slavery
Border Union states, permitting slavery (One of these states, West Virginia was created in 1863)
Confederate states
Union territories that permitted slavery (claimed by Confederacy) at the start of the war, but where slavery was outlawed by the U.S. in 1862
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Abolition of slavery in the various states of the United States over time:Abolition of slavery during or shortly after the American Revolution
The Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Gradual emancipation in New York (starting 1799, completed 1827) and New Jersey (starting 1804, completed by Thirteenth Amendment, 1865)
The Missouri Compromise, 1821
Effective abolition of slavery by Mexican or joint US/British authority
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1861
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1862
Emancipation Proclamation as originally issued, January 1, 1863
Subsequent operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
Abolition of slavery by state action during the Civil War
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the US constitution, December 18, 1865
Territory incorporated into the US after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment
Oath to defend the Constitution of the United States and, among other promises, to "abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the . . . rebellion having reference to slaves . . . ," signed by former Confederate officer Samuel M. Kennard on June 27, 1865

The last significant battles raged around the ten-month Siege of Petersburg, gateway to the Confederate capital of Richmond.

The Union army first attempted to maneuver past Lee and fought several battles, notably at the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor.

After redoubling his efforts, Sheridan defeated Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early in a series of battles, including a final decisive defeat at the Battle of Cedar Creek.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880

Ulysses S. Grant

5 links

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880
Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio
Grant c. undefined 1845–1847
Battle of Monterrey Published 1847
Chinook Indian Plank House Published 1845
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were a peaceful people and not a threat to settlers.
"Hardscrabble" Published 1891
The farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family. His wife Julia called the home an "unattractive cabin".
Brigadier General Grant photographed at Cairo, Illinois, September 1861 (Published 1911)
21st Illinois regiment monument in the Viniard Field, Chickamauga
Grant's successful gamble: Porter's gunboats night ran the Confederate gauntlet at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River.
Published 1863
The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign.
Published 1863
Union troops swarm Missionary Ridge and defeat Bragg's army. Published 1886
Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 1864
Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right) – The Peacemakers by Healy, 1868
Defeated by Grant, Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House
Ulysses S. Grant by Balling (1865)
Grant–Colfax Republican Ticket
Published 1868
220px
Inauguration of President U.S. Grant, Capitol building steps.
March 4, 1869
Anthony Comstock Grant's vigorous prosecutor of abortionists and pornographers.
Amos T. Akerman, appointed Attorney General by Grant, who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan
Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874.
Published October 1874
Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell aided Grant to defeat the Gold Ring.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and Grant successfully settled the Alabama Claims by treaty and arbitration.
Wharf of Santo Domingo City
Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
American Captain Frye and his crew were executed by Spanish authority.
King Kalākaua of Hawaii meets President Grant at the White House on his state visit, 1874.
Published January 2, 1875
Ely Samuel Parker
Grant appointed Parker the first Native American (Seneca) Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Great Sioux War
Published 1889
Cartoon by Thomas Nast on Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign
Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874.
Cartoonist Thomas Nast praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules.
Harper's Weekly
cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation
Grant and Bismarck in 1878
Cartoonist Joseph Keppler lampooned Grant and his associates. Grant's prosecutions of the Whiskey Ring and the Klan were ignored.
Puck, 1880
Official White House portrait of President Grant by Henry Ulke, 1875
Commanding General Grant
Constant Mayer's portrait of 1866
Grant National Memorial, known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum in North America

For thirteen months, Grant fought Robert E. Lee during the high-casualty Overland Campaign and at Petersburg.

Grant believed breaking through Lee's lines at its weakest point, Cold Harbor, a vital road hub that linked to Richmond, would mean the destruction of Lee's army, the capture of Richmond, and a quick end to the rebellion.

Grant had to commit badly needed troops to check Confederate General Jubal Early's raids in the Shenandoah Valley and who was getting dangerously close to the Potomac River, and Washington.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. 1860-1865

P. G. T. Beauregard

4 links

Confederate general officer of Louisiana Creole descent who started the American Civil War by leading the attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861.

Confederate general officer of Louisiana Creole descent who started the American Civil War by leading the attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. 1860-1865
A one-story Creole plantation home
Pierre G. T. Beauregard as a young man, painting by Richard Clague
U.S. Army Major P.G.T. Beauregard
The Battle of Churubusco, August 20, 1847
The Battle of Chapultepec, 13 September, 1847
The 1861 George Peter Alexander Healy portrait of Beauregard in the National Portrait Gallery, Washington
Confederate General P. Gustave Toutant Beauregard
The Battle of Fort Sumter, April 12–13, 1861
The Battle of First Manassas, July 21, 1861
Start of the First Battle of Bull Run
The Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7, 1862
Map of the Battle of Shiloh, afternoon of April 6, 1862, after Beauregard took command
A Confederate ironclad
A Confederate submarine, Dec. 6, 1863
The Battle of Cold Harbor, May 31 – June 12, 1864
Beauregard's defense of Petersburg, Federal assaults of June 15–18
The Battle of Nashville, December 15–16, 1864
Beauregard, later in life
Beauregard revolutionized New Orleans with his cable cars
Beauregard, civil rights advocate
The White League, a Democratic white supremacist paramilitary terrorist organization
The White League barricading a New Orleans road
The first African-American and Republican governor of Louisiana, Pinckney Pinchback of Georgia
The Battle of Liberty Place, September 14, 1874
Caesar Antoine, a Louisiana Creole and Republican lieutenant governor of Louisiana
New Orleans in the 1870's
General P.G.T. Beauregard Equestrian Statue in New Orleans (2008) by sculptor Alexander Doyle
The Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7, 1862
A Creole home in New Orleans, 1870

Gen. Robert Hoke's) to Lee for the Battle of Cold Harbor, but Lee urgently wanted more and took the step of offering Beauregard command of the right wing of the Army of Northern Virginia for his cooperation.

Beauregard continued commanding the defenses of Petersburg in the early days of the siege, but with the loss of the Weldon Railroad in the Battle of Globe Tavern (August 18–21), he was criticized for not attacking more forcefully and he became dissatisfied with the command arrangements under Lee.

He hoped for an independent command, but his desires were thwarted in two instances: Lee chose Lt. Gen. Jubal Early to lead an expedition north through the Shenandoah Valley and threaten Washington, and Davis chose Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood to replace the faltering Joseph E. Johnston in the Atlanta Campaign.

Battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia

Confederate States Army

4 links

The military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces in order to uphold the institution of slavery in the Southern states.

The military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces in order to uphold the institution of slavery in the Southern states.

Battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia
Private Edwin Francis Jemison, whose image became one of the most famous portraits of the young soldiers of the war
A cartoon from the war, showing the Confederates forcibly drafting a Unionist man into the Confederate army. The Unionist man objects, with the Confederates threatening to lynch him if he does not comply.
An 1861 Confederate recruiting poster from Virginia, urging men to join the Confederate cause and fight off the U.S. Army, which it refers to as a "brutal and desperate foe"
CSA M1857 Napoleon Artillery Piece
General Robert E. Lee, the Confederacy's most famous general
An 1895 illustration showing the uniforms of the Confederate Army contrasted with those of the U.S. Army
A painting of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia fighting the U.S. Army at Spotsylvania in 1864
A group of Confederate soldiers-possibly an artillery unit captured at Island No. 10 and taken at POW Camp Douglas (Chicago); photograph possibly by D. F. Brandon
Confederate troops marching south on N Market Street, Frederick, Maryland, during the Civil War
A Cherokee Confederates reunion in New Orleans, 1903
Jackson McCurtain, Lieutenant Colonel of the First Choctaw Battalion in Oklahoma, CSA
1862 illustration showing Confederates escorting kidnapped African American civilians south into slavery. A similar instance occurred in Pennsylvania when the Army of Northern Virginia invaded it in 1863 to fight the U.S. at Gettysburg.
An 1862 illustration of a Confederate officer forcing slaves at gunpoint to fire a cannon at U.S. soldiers in battle. A similar instance occurred at the first Battle of Bull Run, where slaves were forced by the Confederates to load and fire a cannon at U.S. forces.
An 1864 cartoon lampooning the Confederacy's deliberating on the use of black soldiers, showing them defecting en masse towards U.S. lines if such proposals were adopted.
"Marlboro", an African-American body servant to a white Confederate soldier
Julian Scott's 1873 painting, Surrender of a Confederate Soldier
Corporal of the Artillery division of the Confederate Army
Confederate mortar crew at Warrington, Florida in 1861, across from Fort Pickens
Confederate artillery at Charleston Harbor, 1863
Lt Col. E. V. Nash, 4th Georgia Infantry Doles-Cook Brigade, who was killed in 1864
<Center>General (CSA)</Center>
<Center>Colonel (Infantry shown)</Center>
<Center>Lieutenant-colonel (Headquarters shown)</Center>
<Center>Major (Medical Corps shown)</Center>
<Center>Captain (Marine Corps shown)</Center>
<Center>1st Lieutenant (Artillery shown)</Center>
<Center>2nd Lieutenant (Cavalry shown)</Center>

Army of the Valley (also known as Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia) – Jubal Early

During the Civil War 28,693 Native Americans served in the U.S. and Confederate armies, participating in battles such as Pea Ridge, Second Manassas, Antietam, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, and in Federal assaults on Petersburg.

Gordon in uniform, c. 1862

John B. Gordon

3 links

Attorney, a slaveholding plantation owner, general in the Confederate States Army, and politician in the postwar years.

Attorney, a slaveholding plantation owner, general in the Confederate States Army, and politician in the postwar years.

Gordon in uniform, c. 1862
Gordon portrait by Mathew Brady
John Brown Gordon statue by sculptor Solon Borglum, located on the northeastern part of the grounds of the Georgia State Capitol
Gordon's grave, Oakland Cemetery, Atlanta, Georgia

After months of recuperation, Gordon returned to service, receiving the command of a brigade of Georgians in Jubal A. Early's division.

His division was held in reserve at the Battle of North Anna and was positioned in the Magnolia Swamp, north of where the major fighting occurred at the Battle of Cold Harbor.

In this role, he defended the line in the Siege of Petersburg and commanded the attack on Fort Stedman on March 25, 1865 (where he was wounded again, in the leg).

Francis C. Barlow

Francis C. Barlow

2 links

Lawyer, politician, and Union General during the American Civil War.

Lawyer, politician, and Union General during the American Civil War.

Francis C. Barlow
Francis C. Barlow
Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock and generals during the Overland Campaign. Standing, from left to right, are Barlow (wearing his familiar checked shirt), David B. Birney, and John Gibbon.

The Confederates took advantage of his error: Maj. Gen. Jubal Early's division overwhelmed Barlow's division and forced the retreat of the entire XI Corps with great loss.

He fought at the Battle of Cold Harbor and the Siege of Petersburg in the same command.

A. P. Hill

2 links

Confederate general who was killed in the American Civil War.

Confederate general who was killed in the American Civil War.

General A.P. Hill
Appomattox, A. P. Hill's sword
Portrait of Hill by William Ludwell Sheppard, 1898

Hill required the assistance from Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early's division to repulse the Union attack.

Hill held the Confederate left flank at Cold Harbor, but two divisions of his corps were used to defend against the main Union attack on the right flank on June 3; when part of the troops to his right gave way, Hill used one brigade to launch a successful counterattack.

During the Siege of Petersburg of 1864–65, Hill and his men participated in several battles during the various Union offensives, particularly Jerusalem Plank Road, the Crater, Globe Tavern, Second Reams Station, and Peebles Farm.