Battle of Curalaba

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

1598 battle and ambush where Mapuche people led by Pelantaru soundly defeated Spanish conquerors led by Martín García Óñez de Loyola at Curalaba, southern Chile.

- Battle of Curalaba
Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

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Synthesis map of the development of the Inca Empire in Chile in the decades before the Spanish arrival.

Conquest of Chile

Synthesis map of the development of the Inca Empire in Chile in the decades before the Spanish arrival.
Pedro de Valdivia
The Juan Bautista Pastene expedition to southern Chile in 1544.

The Conquest of Chile is a period in Chilean historiography that starts with the arrival of Pedro de Valdivia to Chile in 1541 and ends with the death of Martín García Óñez de Loyola in the Battle of Curalaba in 1598, and the destruction of the Seven Cities in 1598–1604 in the Araucanía region.

Martín García Óñez de Loyola

Alonso de Ovalle's 1646 engraving of Quiñónez, Óñez de Loyola and Viscarra

Don Martín García Óñez de Loyola (1549 in Azpeitia, Gipuzkoa – December 24, 1598 at Curalaba) was a Spanish Basque soldier and Royal Governor of the Captaincy General of Chile.

Settlements of the Conquistadores before the Destruction of the Seven Cities

Destruction of the Seven Cities

Term used in Chilean historiography to refer to the destruction or abandonment of seven major Spanish outposts in southern Chile around 1600 caused by the Mapuche and Huilliche uprising of 1598.

Term used in Chilean historiography to refer to the destruction or abandonment of seven major Spanish outposts in southern Chile around 1600 caused by the Mapuche and Huilliche uprising of 1598.

Settlements of the Conquistadores before the Destruction of the Seven Cities
Anganamón a key Mapuche leader in the Destruction of the Seven Cities. Image from the book Relación del viaje de Fray Diego de Ocaña por el Nuevo Mundo (1599-1605).

The revolt was triggered by the news of the Battle of Curalaba on 23 December 1598, where the vice toqui Pelantaru and his lieutenants, Anganamón and Guaiquimilla, with three hundred men ambushed and killed the Spanish governor Martín García Óñez de Loyola and nearly all his companions.

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

Mapuche

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

In the years following the Battle of Curalaba a general uprising developed among the Mapuches and Huilliches.

Statue of Pelantaro in the Site Museum of the Fort of Purén.

Pelantaro

One of the vice toquis of Paillamachu, the toqui or military leader of the Mapuche people during the Mapuche uprising in 1598.

One of the vice toquis of Paillamachu, the toqui or military leader of the Mapuche people during the Mapuche uprising in 1598.

Statue of Pelantaro in the Site Museum of the Fort of Purén.

Pelantaro and his lieutenants Anganamon and Guaiquimilla were credited with the death of the second Spanish Governor of Chile, Martín García Óñez de Loyola, during the Battle of Curalaba on December 21, 1598.

Purén

City (2002 pop.

City (2002 pop.

Fuerte de la Pacificación
Museo Historico de Purén

Rebuilt by Governor Alonso de Sotomayor in 1589, it received some improvements but it was always harassed by the Mapuche, and was again abandoned and set afire by them in the 1598 Mapuche rising that exploded after the Disaster of Curalaba.

"Baile del Santiago antiguo" by Pedro Subercaseaux. Chile's colonial high society were made up by landowners and government officials.

Colonial Chile

Period from 1600 to 1810, beginning with the Destruction of the Seven Cities and ending with the onset of the Chilean War of Independence.

Period from 1600 to 1810, beginning with the Destruction of the Seven Cities and ending with the onset of the Chilean War of Independence.

"Baile del Santiago antiguo" by Pedro Subercaseaux. Chile's colonial high society were made up by landowners and government officials.
1744 engraving published in Relación histórica del viaje a la América meridional. The image shows cattle in the Chilean countryside including a square for cattle slaughter.

The collapse of the Spanish cities in the south following the battle of Curalaba (1598) meant for the Spaniards the loss of both the main gold districts and the largest indigenous labour sources.

Anganamón (cropped)

Anganamón

Prominent war leader of the Mapuche during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries and a Toqui from .

Prominent war leader of the Mapuche during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries and a Toqui from .

Anganamón (cropped)

Anganamón is said to have participated in the Battle of Curalaba on December 23 of 1598, which killed the Governor of Chile Martín García Oñez de Loyola.

Map showing the "old" and the "new" frontiers of Mapuche Araucanía established by 1870 through the occupation of the Araucanía.

Araucanía (historic region)

The Spanish name given to the region of Chile inhabited by the Mapuche peoples known as the Moluche in the 18th century.

The Spanish name given to the region of Chile inhabited by the Mapuche peoples known as the Moluche in the 18th century.

Map showing the "old" and the "new" frontiers of Mapuche Araucanía established by 1870 through the occupation of the Araucanía.

Following the great rising of the Moluche and Huilliche after the Battle of Curalaba in 1598 during the Arauco War, they expelled the Spanish from south of the Bío-Bío River.

Development of Spanish American Independence

List of conflicts in South America

List of armed conflicts in South America.

List of armed conflicts in South America.

Development of Spanish American Independence
The area of the Chavín culture, as well as areas the Chavín culture influenced.
A map of the extent of the Wari Empire
A map of the extent of the Kingdom of Cuzco in 1438
A map of the extent of the Kingdom of Cuzco in 1463
A map of the extent of the Kingdom of Cuzco in 1493
A map of the Inca Empire at its greatest extent

1598 Disaster of Curalaba