Battle of Largs

clashed with the ScotsLargsattacked the confused Norseskirmishes upon the Ayrshire coastskirmishes upon the shoreclashedPencil" Monument
The Battle of Largs (2 October 1263) was an indecisive engagement between the kingdoms of Norway and Scotland, on the Firth of Clyde near Largs, Scotland.wikipedia
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Scottish–Norwegian War

1263 expeditiondispute with the Scottish kingNorwegian expedition against Scotland
The conflict formed part of the Norwegian expedition against Scotland in 1263, in which Haakon Haakonsson, King of Norway attempted to reassert Norwegian sovereignty over the western seaboard of Scotland.
The only major battle was the indecisive Battle of Largs.

Largs

The Battle of Largs (2 October 1263) was an indecisive engagement between the kingdoms of Norway and Scotland, on the Firth of Clyde near Largs, Scotland. On the night of 1 September, during a bout of stormy weather, several Norwegian vessels were driven aground on the Ayrshire coast, near present-day Largs.
In 1263 it was the site of the Battle of Largs between the Norwegian and the Scottish armies.

Kingdom of Scotland

ScotlandScottishScots
The Battle of Largs (2 October 1263) was an indecisive engagement between the kingdoms of Norway and Scotland, on the Firth of Clyde near Largs, Scotland.
By the reign of Alexander III, the Scots had annexed the remainder of the western seaboard after the stalemate of the Battle of Largs and the Treaty of Perth in 1266.

Ayrshire

Ayrcounty of Ayrshire of Ayr
On the night of 1 September, during a bout of stormy weather, several Norwegian vessels were driven aground on the Ayrshire coast, near present-day Largs.
In 1263, the Scots successfully drove off the Norwegian leidang-army in a skirmish known as the Battle of Largs.

Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland

Alexander StewartAlexanderAlexander of Dundonald, Steward of Scotland
Composed of infantry and cavalry, the Scottish force was commanded by Alexander of Dundonald, Steward of Scotland.
He was the principal commander under King Alexander III of Scotland at the Battle of Largs, on 2 October 1263, when the Scots defeated the Norwegians under Haakon IV.

Alexander III of Scotland

Alexander IIIKing Alexander IIIKing Alexander
In the mid-13th century, two Scottish kings, Alexander II and his son Alexander III, attempted to incorporate the region into their own realm.
The Battle of Largs (October 1263) proved indecisive, but even so, Haakon's position was hopeless.

Firth of Clyde

ClydeClyde estuaryClyde coast
The Battle of Largs (2 October 1263) was an indecisive engagement between the kingdoms of Norway and Scotland, on the Firth of Clyde near Largs, Scotland.
The Clyde formed an important sea route from the earliest times, and the Battle of Largs in 1263 marked the turning point for the end of Norse ambitions in Britain.

Jura, Scotland

JuraIsle of Juraisland of Jura
In the first half of the 13th century, the seaboard was controlled by two main power-blocks: one consisting of the Mann, Lewis and Harris, and Skye—controlled by the patrilineal descendants of Godred Crovan (d. 1095); the other consisting of mainland territories in Argyll, and the islands of Islay, Jura, Mull, and possibly Uist—controlled by the descendants of Somerled (d. 1164).
In the mid 13th century, increased tension between Norway and Scotland led to a series of Battles, culminating in the Battle of Largs, shortly after which the Norwegian king died.

Military history of Scotland

proud military past
The battle became associated with Scotland's proud military past and linked to the great mediaeval victories of national heroes such as Wallace and Bruce.
Defeat on land at the Battle of Largs and winter storms forced the Norwegian fleet to return home, leaving the Scottish crown as the major power in the region and leading to the ceding of the Western Isles to Alexander in 1266.

Treaty of Perth

its transfer from Norwaytreaty
With Haakon's death, his successor, Magnus Haakonarson, King of Norway, signed the Treaty of Perth three years after the battle, leasing Scotland's western seaboard to Alexander III in return for a yearly payment.
The Treaty was agreed three years after the Battle of Largs in 1263.

Mull

Isle of Mullisland of MullSound of Mull
In the first half of the 13th century, the seaboard was controlled by two main power-blocks: one consisting of the Mann, Lewis and Harris, and Skye—controlled by the patrilineal descendants of Godred Crovan (d. 1095); the other consisting of mainland territories in Argyll, and the islands of Islay, Jura, Mull, and possibly Uist—controlled by the descendants of Somerled (d. 1164).
The Norwegian king died shortly after the indecisive Battle of Largs.

Islay

Isle of IslayIsland of IslayIsla'''y
In the first half of the 13th century, the seaboard was controlled by two main power-blocks: one consisting of the Mann, Lewis and Harris, and Skye—controlled by the patrilineal descendants of Godred Crovan (d. 1095); the other consisting of mainland territories in Argyll, and the islands of Islay, Jura, Mull, and possibly Uist—controlled by the descendants of Somerled (d. 1164).
Nominal Norwegian authority had been re-established after Somerled's death, but by the mid 13th century, increased tension between Norway and Scotland led to a series of battles, culminating in the Battle of Largs, shortly after which the Norwegian king died.

Isle of Arran

Arranisland of Arran
With the Norwegian fleet anchored off Arran, the Norwegians and Scottish embassies fiercely debated the sovereignty of the Islands of the Clyde.
After the indecisive Battle of Largs between the kingdoms of Norway and Scotland in 1263, Haakon Haakonsson, King of Norway reclaimed Norwegian lordship over the "provinces" of the west.

Islands of the Clyde

islands of the Firth of ClydeFirth of ClydeIslands
With the Norwegian fleet anchored off Arran, the Norwegians and Scottish embassies fiercely debated the sovereignty of the Islands of the Clyde.
In 1263 Norwegian troops commanded by Haakon Haakonarson repeated the feat but the ensuing Battle of Largs between Scots and Norwegian forces, which took place on the shores of the Firth of Clyde, was inconclusive as a military contest.

History of Scotland

Scottish historyScotlandhistory
Although the battle's upsurge in popularity at this time may be due to the tapping of Largs' tourism potential, it was also influenced by the general heightening of interest in Scotland's history and culture.
By the reign of Alexander III, the Scots were in a position to annex the remainder of the western seaboard, which they did following Haakon Haakonarson's ill-fated invasion and the stalemate of the Battle of Largs with the Treaty of Perth in 1266.

Walter Bailloch

Walter StewartWalter Bailloch StewartWalter Stewart, Earl of Menteith
For example, Walter Stewart, Earl of Menteith had to maintain 120 sergeants—which could include knights, mounted men-at-arms, archers, or other footsoldiers—at Ayr Castle for three weeks.
He and his brother Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland were joint commanders of the Scots in the Battle of Largs.

Bishop's Palace, Kirkwall

Bishop's PalaceKirkwall PalaceBishop
In mid December, the Norwegian king fell ill and died at the Bishop's Palace, and was temporarily buried in nearby St Magnus Cathedral.
King Haakon IV of Norway, overwintering after the Battle of Largs, died here in 1263, marking the end of Norse rule over the Outer Hebrides.

Haakon IV of Norway

Haakon IVHaakon IV HaakonssonHåkon Håkonsson
The conflict formed part of the Norwegian expedition against Scotland in 1263, in which Haakon Haakonsson, King of Norway attempted to reassert Norwegian sovereignty over the western seaboard of Scotland.
Having waited until September/October for weather that caused trouble for Haakon's fleet, a clash occurred between a smaller Norwegian force and a Scottish division at the Battle of Largs.

Shetland

Shetland IslandsZetlandShetland Isles
The treaty also entailed Scottish acceptance of Norwegian rule over Orkney and Shetland.
After the stalemate of the Battle of Largs, Haakon retreated to Orkney, where he died in December 1263, entertained on his deathbed by recitations of the sagas.

Kingdom of the Isles

IslesKing of the IslesMann and the Isles
Direct Norwegian control ended with Magnus' death, after which the Hebrides and Mann, known to the Norwegians as the "Southern Isles", were controlled by local dynasties for over a century and a half.
After the stalemate of the Battle of Largs, Haakon retreated to Orkney, where he died in December 1263, entertained on his death bed by recitations of the sagas.

Scandinavian Scotland

NorseViking ScotlandScandinavian settlement
Viking depredations have been recorded in the British Isles since the late 8th century, and Scandinavian settlement on Scotland's western-seaboard may have begun before the turn of the 9th century.
Following Haakon Haakonarson's ill-fated invasion and the stalemate of the Battle of Largs the Hebrides and Mann and all rights that the Norwegian crown "had of old therein" were yielded to the Kingdom of Scotland as a result of the 1266 Treaty of Perth.

Warfare in Medieval Scotland

common armyScottish forcescommon army of the King of Scotland
If this description refers to the men of the surrounding countryside, the Scottish infantry would have been made up of men from the 'common army', drawn only from Strathgryffe, Cunninghame and Kyle.
Defeat on land at the Battle of Largs and winter storms forced the Norwegian fleet to return home, leaving the Scottish crown as the major power in the region and leading to the ceding of the Western Isles to Alexander in 1266.

Ogmund Crouchdance

The smaller force, numbered at 200 men, was stationed on a mound, somewhat inland from the beach, under the command of Norwegian nobleman Ogmund Crouchdance.
Ogmund took part in King Håkon's expedition and led a contingent of the Norwegian forces at the Battle of Largs on the Firth of Clyde in Scotland.

St Magnus Cathedral

St. Magnus CathedralSt Magnus's CathedralSt Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall
In mid December, the Norwegian king fell ill and died at the Bishop's Palace, and was temporarily buried in nearby St Magnus Cathedral.
King Haakon IV of Norway, overwintering after his defeat at the Battle of Largs, died here in December 1263, marking the end of Norse rule over the Outer Hebrides.

Inventory of Historic Battlefields in Scotland

inventoriedInventory of Scottish BattlefieldsInventory of Historic Battlefields
In recent years the battle site has been one of fifty battlefields researched by the Centre for Battlefield Archaeology and Historic Scotland for inclusion in the Inventory of Scottish Battlefields.