A report on Battle of Legnano

The defense of the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano (by Amos Cassioli, 1860)
Frederick Barbarossa in a miniature of 1188
Pope Alexander III
The Milanese in the presence of Frederick Barbarossa ask for clemency after the surrender of the city (1162)
Pontida: plaque commemorating the constitutive oath of the Lombard League (1167).
Frederick Barbarossa kneeling before Henry the Lion at Chiavenna
The sepulcher and a copy of the cross by Ariberto d'Intimiano, in Milan Cathedral.
The Olona River at the Visconteo castle in Legnano
A video showing the phases of the battle of Legnano, highlighting the troop movements
Cascina Brughetto in Sacconago
The Carroccio during the battle of Legnano in a painting by Amos Cassioli
The ancient medieval church of San Giorgio in a watercolor by Giuseppe Pirovano of 1892
The Carroccio with the cross of Aribert in a miniature of the 11th century
The soldiers of the Lombard League who seek in vain the dead body of Frederick Barbarossa on a 1913 illustration
View of the Parco castello in Legnano. In the background you can see the Legnanese quarter of Costa San Giorgio, while in the foreground you can see part of the escarpment that may have been the scene of the battle of Legnano
The church of San Martino in Legnano, which dominates a slope that slopes down towards the Olona, another possible place where the battle of Legnano may have been fought
Konstanz: commemorative plaque of the peace treaty
Il Monument to the Warrior of Legnano, often mistakenly associated with Alberto da Giussano

Battle between the imperial army of Frederick Barbarossa and the troops of the Lombard League on May 29, 1176, near the town of Legnano in present-day Lombardy, in Italy.

- Battle of Legnano
The defense of the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano (by Amos Cassioli, 1860)

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A golden bust of Frederick I, given to his godfather Count Otto of Cappenberg in 1171. It was used as a reliquary in Cappenberg Abbey and is said in the deed of the gift to have been made "in the likeness of the emperor".

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor

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The Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death 35 years later.

The Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death 35 years later.

A golden bust of Frederick I, given to his godfather Count Otto of Cappenberg in 1171. It was used as a reliquary in Cappenberg Abbey and is said in the deed of the gift to have been made "in the likeness of the emperor".
Crusaders besieging Damascus in 1148
13th-century stained glass image of Frederick I, Strasbourg Cathedral
Penny or denier with Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, struck in Nijmegen
Wax seal of Frederick I, used in the imperial residence of Pfalz Wimpfen
Frederick's so-called baptismal cup, silver, partly gilded, Aachen 1160
The Barbarossa Chandelier in Aachen Cathedral was donated by Frederick sometime after 1165 as a tribute to Charlemagne.
Frederick Barbarossa, middle, flanked by two of his children, King Henry VI (left) and Duke Frederick VI (right). From the Historia Welforum
The now secularised St Peter's Church at Petersberg Citadel, Erfurt, where Henry the Lion submitted to Barbarossa in 1181
Path of the Third Crusade, Frederick Barbarossa's path in red
Frederick Barbarossa depicted during the Third Crusade
Barbarossa drowns in the Saleph, from the Gotha Manuscript of the Saxon World Chronicle
A German expedition led by Johann Nepomuk Sepp to excavate the bones from the ruins of the Crusader Cathedral of Tyre, 1879
The Frederick Barbarossa Memorial, near Silifke in Mersin Province, southern Turkey. The text explains in Turkish and German how Frederick drowned nearby.
Frederick Barbarossa as a crusader, miniature from a copy of the Historia Hierosolymitana, 1188
Frederick sends out the boy to see whether the ravens still fly.
Pavia, Basilica of San Michele Maggiore, the five stones above which the throne was placed during coronation of Frederick I.

Frederick suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Legnano near Milan, on 29 May 1176, where he was wounded and for some time was believed to be dead.

Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)

Lombard League

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Medieval alliance formed in 1167, supported by the popes, to counter the attempts by the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman emperors to assert influence over the Kingdom of Italy as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

Medieval alliance formed in 1167, supported by the popes, to counter the attempts by the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman emperors to assert influence over the Kingdom of Italy as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Lombard milites depicted on the Porta Romana relief of 1171
A Bronze replica of the Peace of Constance in Konstanz. Illustrating the comunes of the Lombard League in 1183.
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Cortenuova (1237)
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Parma (1248)
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Fossalta (1249)

At the Battle of Legnano on 29 May 1176, the emperor's army finally was defeated.

Northern Italy

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Geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy.

Geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy.

Ancient peoples of Northern Italy, with Celtic peoples shown in blue.
Migration of the Lombards towards Northern Italy
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Northern Italy after the Peace of Lodi
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
Anti-Fascist Partisans in the streets of Bologna after the general insurrection of April 1945
The Alps in Val Maira, Province of Cuneo
Farming landscape in the Po Plain at Sant'Agata Bolognese
Alpine lakes like Lake Garda are characterised by warmer microclimates than the surrounding areas
Fog on the Secchia River near Modena. Fog is a common occurrence in the Po Plain
Languages and regional varieties in Italy
Milan
Genoa
Turin

This process led to the creation of different Lombard Leagues formed by allied cities of Lombardy that defeated the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick I, at Legnano, and his grandson Frederick II, at Parma, and becoming virtually independent from the German emperors.

Legnano

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Italian town and comune in the north-westernmost part of the Province of Milan, about 20 km from central Milan.

Italian town and comune in the north-westernmost part of the Province of Milan, about 20 km from central Milan.

Olona river in Legnano.
The mosaic of via dei bambini, located on the area once belonging to the Cantons cotton mill. In the background, the church of San Domenico.
Fog at the Visconti Castle of Legnano.
Roman finds, dating to the 1st century AD, discovered in Legnano in 1925–26. They are preserved at the Museo civico Guido Sutermeister in Legnano.
The coat of arms of Legnano.
Findings linked to the Culture of Golasecca recent (V sec. BC) found in 1937 in Legnano and preserved at the Museo civico Guido Sutermeister.
A map of Legnano from 1850: it can still see the two inhabitants of Legnano (on the left) and Legnanello (on the left) at the time still distinct and divided by the Olona and the Olonella. The two towns then settled into a single urban conglomerate with the construction expansion of the 20th century.
The Battaglia di Legnano (en. Battle of Legnano) by Amos Cassioli (1860), a painting preserved at the Gallery of Modern Art at Palazzo Pitti in Florence.
A video showing the stages of the Battle of Legnano, highlighting the movements of the troops
The fifteenth-century Torre Colombera.
The demolished Mulino Arcivescovile in Legnano in 1849.
Corso Garibaldi to Piazza San Magno in Legnano. On the extreme left, the balcony from which Giuseppe Garibaldi spoke to the legnanesi urging them to erect a monument to remember the Battle of Legnano, which was later built.
Cotonificio Dell'Acqua in Legnano.
The Milan-Gallarate tramway in Legnano
Palazzo Malinverni, Legnano town hall. It was built from 1908 to 1909 in the medieval style.
View of one of the building of the former sanatorio Regina Elena.
Thermal power station Regina Margherita, exposed to the Museo Nazionale Scienza e Tecnologia Leonardo da Vinci in Milan. It was built by Franco Tosi Meccanica in 1895.
The Reggimento "Savoia Cavalleria" as the Company of Death for the Palio di Legnano 1939.
A glimpse of the legnanese plant of the Manifattura di Legnano.
View of Visconti Castle of Legnano.
Basilica di San Magno and Palazzo Malinverni.
Church of Sant'Ambrogio.
Castello Visconteo of Legnano.
Monument to the Warrior of Legnano.
Palazzo Leone da Perego.
Cimitero monumentale di Legnano.
Museo civico Guido Sutermeister.
Ospizio Sant'Erasmo.
Palazzo Italia.
The "Gallerie Cantoni" shopping centre in Legnano, which is partly made from the former factories of the cotton mill of the same name.
In the center of the image, the Teatro città di Legnano.
Parco castello.
Parco Bosco dei Ronchi.
Parco Alto Milanese.
Legnano railway station.
Agricultural area near the legnanese quartier of Mazzafame.
Monumento ai Caduti sul lavoro di Gianluigi Bennati
Villa Jucker, home of the association Famiglia Legnanese.
A 17th-century fresco by Francesco e Giovanni Battista Lampugnani decorated the basilica of San Magno and depicting the Assumption of Mary.
Palio di Legnano 2013.
A.C. Legnano 1956–1957.
Ossobuco with risotto.
The Legnano racing bicycles team of 1963.
Coppa Bernocchi 2014. In the background, the church of Saints Gervasio and Protasio in Parabiago.
The "Little Stelvio", which is located between Castiglione Olona and Morazzone and which is called in this way because there is a difference of about 153 meters: it is one of the fixed passages of the Coppa Bernocchi.

Because of the historic victory of the Lombard League over Frederick Barbarossa at Legnano, it is the only town other than Rome named in the Italian national anthem ("[...] Dall'Alpi a Sicilia dovunque è Legnano [...]", en.

The Carroccio of Milan on an ancient miniature

Carroccio

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Large four-wheeled wagon bearing the city signs around which the militia of the medieval communes gathered and fought.

Large four-wheeled wagon bearing the city signs around which the militia of the medieval communes gathered and fought.

The Carroccio of Milan on an ancient miniature
The Carroccio of Legnano, a history painting by Amos Cassioli (1832–1891).
The battle of Legnano in a painting by Massimo d'Azeglio. In the background, the cross and the city signs are positioned on the Carroccio
Plaque commemorates the departure of the Carroccio in San Simpliciano church towards Legnano just before the homonymous battle
Reproduction of the Carroccio during the historical parade of the Palio di Legnano 2015
On the right, the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano on a painting by Amos Cassioli
Reproduction of the Carroccio during the historical parade of the Palio di Legnano 2015
Reproduction of the Carroccio of Siena during the Palio 2006

The Carroccio was the protagonist in the battle of Legnano on 29 May 1176, during which it was defended, according to legend, by the Company of Death led by Alberto da Giussano, a fictional character who actually appeared only in literary works of the following century.

Cremona

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City and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po river in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po Valley).

City and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po river in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po Valley).

City coat of arms of Cremona on the town hall
Cremona in the 17th century
Po river in Cremona in the 18th century
The Cathedral and the Baptistery of Cremona
Statue of Stradivari in Stradivari Square
Lady Blunt Stradivarius
City hall (Palazzo del Comune)
The Loggia dei Militi
Violin shop
Astronomical clock on the Torrazzo belltower

Its troops were part of the army that, on 29 May 1176, defeated Barbarossa in the Battle of Legnano.

Brescia

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City and comune in the region of Lombardy, Northern Italy.

City and comune in the region of Lombardy, Northern Italy.

The Capitolium in the Roman forum
Winged Victory of Brescia (1st century).
The Capitolium in the Roman forum
The castle of Brescia.
The Pallata Tower.
Map of Brescia in the early 18th century.
The dome of the New Cathedral.
Piazza della Vittoria, example of Italian rationalism, built between 1927 and 1932 by the architect Marcello Piacentini.
Palazzo della Loggia, Brescia City Hall.
Palazzo Broletto, seat of the Province and of the Prefecture of Brescia.
The interior of the church of Santa Maria in Solario with the Cross of Desiderius.
Domus dell'Ortaglia, remains of a group of ancient Roman domus.
The two cathedrals of Brescia: the Old (at right) and the New (at left).
The church of San Faustino and Giovita.
The Monumental Cemetery and the Lighthouse of Brescia.
Teatro Grande.
Piazza Arnaldo
Pinacoteca Tosio Martinengo: Angel by Raphael.
University of Brescia, Economics faculty.
Classic lyceum "Arnaldo", established in 1797, is one of the oldest and most prominent high schools in Brescia.
Vineyards in the middle of the city with an extension of 4 ha
The business district of Brescia.
A street in the old town.
A station of Brescia Metro.
Brescia's former tram network (1882–1949)
The train station of Brescia.
Mille Miglia Museum.
The monument representing a lion, the sign on the coat of arms of the city. The monument is also commonly considered a dedication to the "Lioness of Italy", nickname given to the city after the resistance the people of Brescia put in place during the Ten Days of Brescia in 1849 against the Austrians.
Monument to La Bella Italia, realized in 1864 in the memory of the Ten Days of Brescia.
Monument to Arnaldo in the homonymous square, realized in 1882.
Monument to Giuseppe Garibaldi, realized in 1889.
Interior view of the Santa Maria delle Grazie church
Internal view of the Santuario di Santa Maria delle Grazie church
Internal view of the Santissimo Corpo di Cristo church
Former San Barnaba church
San Faustino in Riposo church
San Marco Evangelista church
Bonomini Tomb also known as the Dog's Tomb
Maggi-Gambara Palace
Bertolotti Palace
Beretta Palace
Martinengo Palace
Piazza Duomo by night
The Castle's main entrance
Street in the old city center
Roman ruins
Roman Theatre section
Corso Zanardelli and Teatro Grande main entrance
Bruni Conter Palace and Niccolò Tartaglia statue
Torre d'Ercole
Steps in the old town
Arcades
Medieval fountain
Tagliaferri fountain
Neptune fountain
Minerva fountain
Pallata fountain
Armed Brescia fountain
Private fountain
Private fountain
Vescovado fountain

In the Battle of Legnano the contingent from Brescia was second in size to that of Milan.

Lombardy

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One of the twenty administrative regions of Italy.

One of the twenty administrative regions of Italy.

Pizzo Coca is the highest peak in the Bergamasque Alps (3,050 m)
The Adda, the longest river within the region and tributary of the Po
The Alpine ibex (Capra ibex)
Moraine of Lake Garda
The Rock Drawings in Valcamonica are among the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world.
For centuries, the Iron Crown of Lombardy was used in the Coronation of the King of Italy.
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League
Mantua as it appeared in 1575.
The Consulta of the République cisalpine receives the First Consul on 26 January 1802
The Five Days of Milan, 1848.
A view over the business district of Milan: with a metropolitan area of 7.4m people, it is Italy's most important industrial, commercial and financial center.
Palazzo Lombardia, the main seat of the government of Lombardy.
The provinces/metropolitan cities of Lombardy
The Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
The Last Supper, Convent of Sta. Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy (1499), by Leonardo da Vinci
The Fortified City of Bergamo
Remains of Roman forum in Brescia
Lake Garda
Lake Como
The Floating Piers by Christo and Jeanne-Claude on Lake Iseo (2016)
Grana Padano DPO
Gorgonzola cheese takes its name from the homonymous city near Milan
Risotto alla milanese with ossobuco
Tortelli di zucca with butter and sage
The auditorium of the Teatro alla Scala in Milan.
Dolce & Gabbana is headquartered in Milan.
Grana Padano (granular cheese)
Mascarpone (cream cheese)
Gorgonzola (blue-veined cheese)
Bitto (hard cheese)
Provolone Valpadana (pasta filata cheese)
Bottle of Franciacorta
Franciacorta Ferghettina
AgustaWestland AW109
Aermacchi M-345
Beretta 92
Beretta ARX160
Beretta PMX
Tanfoglio Combat
OTO Melara RSS Valour 76mm
Iveco Daily VII.Generation
Iveco EuroCargo IV.Generation
Same Iron 210
Lamborghini R6.150
BCS Valiant
BCS Vivid
Moto Guzzi V85 TT (Piaggio)
Moto Guzzi V7 Classic (Piaggio)
MV Agusta Turismo Veloce 800

This process reached its apex in the 12th and 13th centuries, when different Lombard Leagues formed by allied cities of Lombardy, usually led by Milan, managed to defeat the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick I, at Legnano, but not his grandson Frederick II, at Battle of Cortenuova.

Palio di Legnano

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Basilica of San Simpliciano, Milan
Festivity in San Magno Square in Legnano in 1876, seven centuries after the battle (29 May 1876)
Legnano at the beginning of the 20th century
The Dell'Acqua plant in Legnano
The regency of the Contrada San Domenico in the 1970s. The first on the left is Vittorio Ciapparelli, first winner of the Palio di Legnano (1935).
The Carroccio in the medieval pageant for the Palio di Legnano 1939
Chatelaines and dames posing in front of the monument to the Warrior of Legnano (1939)
The Savoia Cavalleria regiment in the role of the Company of Death for the Palio di Legnano 1939
Medieval pageant for the Palio di Legnano 1955. In the fifties the medieval pageant started from the church of reference of the contrada that won the palio of the previous year. In this case the parade started from the church of the Santissimo Redentore, which can be seen in the background, of the Contrada Legnarello
Religious investiture of the captains of the contrada in San Magno Square for the Palio di Legnano 1956
Medieval pageant for a 1960s edition of the Palio di Legnano
The horses stopped at the canapo (the front rope) before the mossa, or the start, at the Palio di Legnano 2013
A moment of the medieval pageant of the Palio di Legnano 2013. In the background, the Basilica of San Magno
Horse race of the Palio di Legnano 2013
Medieval pageant for the Palio di Legnano 2013
The horse race of Palio di Legnano 2013
Arrival at the stadio Giovanni Mari of the historic parade of Palio di Legnano 2014
Flag-wavers of the Palio di Legnano during the exhibition held for the 2016 edition
Medieval pageant of the Palio di Legnano 2015
Medieval pageant of the Palio di Legnano 2015
The horse race of the Palio di Legnano 2014
Medieval pageant of the Palio di Legnano 2015
Visconteo Castle of Legnano, headquarters of Collegio dei Capitani e delle Contrade
Propitiatory dinner in the Contrada San Magno for the Palio di Legnano 2015. In the background, Palazzo Leone da Perego
Maniero of Contrada San Martino
Palazzo Malinverni, seat of the municipality of Legnano
Villa Jucker, home of the Famiglia Legnanese
Square and basilica of San Magno in Legnano
Registration of the contrade at the Palio di Legnano 2016
Holy Mass on the Carroccio for the Palio di Legnano 2015
Map of the route of the historic parade of Palio di Legnano
Il Carroccio during the medieval pageant of the Palio di Legnano 2015. In the background, Palazzo Malinverni
The medieval pageant of the Palio di Legnano 2015
The medieval pageant of the Palio di Legnano 2015
The medieval pageant of the Palio di Legnano 2013
The medieval pageant of the Palio di Legnano 2013
The medieval pageant of the Palio di Legnano 2015
Gonfaloni at the stadio Giovanni Mari before the horse race of Palio di Legnano 2014
The Company of Death that is preparing to carry out the charge, at the Palio di Legnano 2014
Draw for the horse race of Palio di Legnano 2016 carried out by the mayor of Legnano, here in the role of supreme magistrate of the palio
The start of the horse race, which is decreed by the lowering canapo (the front rope), of the Palio di Legnano 2013
Horse race of the Palio di Legnano 2016. On the left you see a horse without a jockey, who can still compete for the victory of the race
The reproduction of Aribert's Cross, coveted palio of the horse race, carried in triumph by the Contrada members of San Domenico immediately after the victory in the Palio di Legnano 2013
Interior of the manor of the Contrada San Bernardino. Around the effigy of Saint Bernardino, the victory bands are placed

The Palio di Legnano (known locally simply as Il Palio) is a folk event generally held on the last Sunday of May in the City Of Legnano, Italy, to recall the Battle of Legnano held on 29 May 1176 by the Lombard League and the Holy Roman Empire of Frederick Barbarossa.

Italy

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Country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.

Country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.

Expansion of the territory called "Italy" from ancient Greece until Diocletian
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
Marco Polo, explorer of the 13th century, recorded his 24 years-long travels in the Book of the Marvels of the World, introducing Europeans to Central Asia and China.
The Italian states before the beginning of the Italian Wars in 1494
Leonardo da Vinci, the quintessential Renaissance man, in a self-portrait (ca. 1512, Royal Library, Turin)
Christopher Columbus leads an expedition to the New World, 1492. His voyages are celebrated as the discovery of the Americas from a European perspective, and they opened a new era in the history of humankind and sustained contact between the two worlds.
Flag of the Cispadane Republic, which was the first Italian tricolour adopted by a sovereign Italian state (1797)
Holographic copy of 1847 of Il Canto degli Italiani, the Italian national anthem since 1946
Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument in Rome, a national symbol of Italy celebrating the first king of the unified country, and resting place of the Italian Unknown Soldier since the end of World War I. It was inaugurated in 1911, on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy.
The fascist dictator Benito Mussolini titled himself Duce and ruled the country from 1922 to 1943.
Areas controlled by the Italian Empire at its peak
Italian partisans in Milan during the Italian Civil War, April 1945
Alcide De Gasperi, first republican Prime Minister of Italy and one of the Founding Fathers of the European Union
The signing ceremony of the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957, creating the European Economic Community, forerunner of the present-day European Union
Funerals of the victims of the Bologna bombing of 2 August 1980, the deadliest attack ever perpetrated in Italy during the Years of Lead
Italian government task force to face the COVID-19 emergency
Topographic map of Italy
Dolphins in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Aeolian Islands
National and regional parks in Italy
Gran Paradiso, established in 1922, is the oldest Italian national park.
The Italian wolf, the national animal of Italy
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map of Italy
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of Italy.
The Supreme Court of Cassation, Rome
An Alfa Romeo 159 vehicle of the Carabinieri corps
Group photo of the G7 leaders at the 43rd G7 summit in Taormina
Heraldic coat of arms of the Italian Armed Forces
A proportional representation of Italy exports, 2019
Milan is the economic capital of Italy, and is a global financial centre and a fashion capital of the world.
A Carrara marble quarry
The Autostrada dei Laghi ("Lakes Motorway"), the first motorway built in the world
FS' Frecciarossa 1000 high speed train, with a maximum speed of 400 km/h
Trieste, the main port of the northern Adriatic and starting point of the Transalpine Pipeline
ENI is considered one of the world's oil and gas "Supermajors".
Solar panels in Piombino. Italy is one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy.
Galileo Galilei, the father of modern science, physics and astronomy
Enrico Fermi, creator of the world's first first nuclear reactor
The Amalfi Coast is one of Italy's major tourist destinations.
Map of Italy's population density at the 2011 census
Italy is home to a large population of migrants from Eastern Europe and North Africa.
Linguistic map showing the languages spoken in Italy
Vatican City, the Holy See's sovereign territory
Bologna University, established in AD 1088, is the world's oldest academic institution.
Olive oil and vegetables are central to the Mediterranean diet.
Carnival of Venice
The Last Supper (1494–1499), Leonardo da Vinci, Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Michelangelo's David (1501–1504), Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence
The Birth of Venus (1484–1486), Sandro Botticelli, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the mount of Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino's fresco, 1465
Niccolò Machiavelli, founder of modern political science and ethics
Pinocchio is one of the world's most translated books and a canonical piece of children's literature.
Clockwise from top left: Thomas Aquinas, proponent of natural theology and the Father of Thomism; Giordano Bruno, one of the major scientific figures of the Western world; Cesare Beccaria, considered the Father of criminal justice and modern criminal law; and Maria Montessori, credited with the creation of the Montessori education
La Scala opera house
Statues of Pantalone and Harlequin, two stock characters from the Commedia dell'arte, in the Museo Teatrale alla Scala
Dario Fo, one of the most widely performed playwrights in modern theatre, received international acclaim for his highly improvisational style.
Giacomo Puccini, Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly and Turandot, are among the most frequently worldwide performed in the standard repertoire
Luciano Pavarotti, considered one of the finest tenors of the 20th century and the "King of the High Cs"
Giorgio Moroder, pioneer of Italo disco and electronic dance music, is known as the "Father of disco".
Entrance to Cinecittà in Rome
The Azzurri in 2012. Football is the most popular sport in Italy.
Starting in 1909, the Giro d'Italia is the Grands Tours' second oldest.
A Ferrari SF21 by Scuderia Ferrari, the most successful Formula One team
Prada shop at Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan
The traditional recipe for spaghetti with tomato and basil sauce
Italian wine and salumi
The Frecce Tricolori, with the smoke trails representing the national colours of Italy, during the celebrations of the Festa della Repubblica
The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world.

In 1176 a league of city-states, the Lombard League, defeated the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnano, thus ensuring effective independence for most of northern and central Italian cities.