Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)
The defense of the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano (by Amos Cassioli, 1860)
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Frederick Barbarossa in a miniature of 1188
Lombard milites depicted on the Porta Romana relief of 1171
Pope Alexander III
A Bronze replica of the Peace of Constance in Konstanz. Illustrating the comunes of the Lombard League in 1183.
The Milanese in the presence of Frederick Barbarossa ask for clemency after the surrender of the city (1162)
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Cortenuova (1237)
Pontida: plaque commemorating the constitutive oath of the Lombard League (1167).
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Parma (1248)
Frederick Barbarossa kneeling before Henry the Lion at Chiavenna
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Fossalta (1249)
The sepulcher and a copy of the cross by Ariberto d'Intimiano, in Milan Cathedral.
The Olona River at the Visconteo castle in Legnano
A video showing the phases of the battle of Legnano, highlighting the troop movements
Cascina Brughetto in Sacconago
The Carroccio during the battle of Legnano in a painting by Amos Cassioli
The ancient medieval church of San Giorgio in a watercolor by Giuseppe Pirovano of 1892
The Carroccio with the cross of Aribert in a miniature of the 11th century
The soldiers of the Lombard League who seek in vain the dead body of Frederick Barbarossa on a 1913 illustration
View of the Parco castello in Legnano. In the background you can see the Legnanese quarter of Costa San Giorgio, while in the foreground you can see part of the escarpment that may have been the scene of the battle of Legnano
The church of San Martino in Legnano, which dominates a slope that slopes down towards the Olona, another possible place where the battle of Legnano may have been fought
Konstanz: commemorative plaque of the peace treaty
Il Monument to the Warrior of Legnano, often mistakenly associated with Alberto da Giussano

The Battle of Legnano was a battle between the imperial army of Frederick Barbarossa and the troops of the Lombard League on May 29, 1176, near the town of Legnano in present-day Lombardy, in Italy.

- Battle of Legnano

At the Battle of Legnano on 29 May 1176, the emperor's army finally was defeated.

- Lombard League
Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)

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A golden bust of Frederick I, given to his godfather Count Otto of Cappenberg in 1171. It was used as a reliquary in Cappenberg Abbey and is said in the deed of the gift to have been made "in the likeness of the emperor".

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor

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The Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death 35 years later.

The Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death 35 years later.

A golden bust of Frederick I, given to his godfather Count Otto of Cappenberg in 1171. It was used as a reliquary in Cappenberg Abbey and is said in the deed of the gift to have been made "in the likeness of the emperor".
Crusaders besieging Damascus in 1148
13th-century stained glass image of Frederick I, Strasbourg Cathedral
Penny or denier with Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, struck in Nijmegen
Wax seal of Frederick I, used in the imperial residence of Pfalz Wimpfen
Frederick's so-called baptismal cup, silver, partly gilded, Aachen 1160
The Barbarossa Chandelier in Aachen Cathedral was donated by Frederick sometime after 1165 as a tribute to Charlemagne.
Frederick Barbarossa, middle, flanked by two of his children, King Henry VI (left) and Duke Frederick VI (right). From the Historia Welforum
The now secularised St Peter's Church at Petersberg Citadel, Erfurt, where Henry the Lion submitted to Barbarossa in 1181
Path of the Third Crusade, Frederick Barbarossa's path in red
Frederick Barbarossa depicted during the Third Crusade
Barbarossa drowns in the Saleph, from the Gotha Manuscript of the Saxon World Chronicle
A German expedition led by Johann Nepomuk Sepp to excavate the bones from the ruins of the Crusader Cathedral of Tyre, 1879
The Frederick Barbarossa Memorial, near Silifke in Mersin Province, southern Turkey. The text explains in Turkish and German how Frederick drowned nearby.
Frederick Barbarossa as a crusader, miniature from a copy of the Historia Hierosolymitana, 1188
Frederick sends out the boy to see whether the ravens still fly.
Pavia, Basilica of San Michele Maggiore, the five stones above which the throne was placed during coronation of Frederick I.

) He was opposed by the pro-papal Lombard League (now joined by Venice, Sicily and Constantinople), which had previously formed to stand against him.

Frederick suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Legnano near Milan, on 29 May 1176, where he was wounded and for some time was believed to be dead.

Northern Italy

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Geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy.

Geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy.

Ancient peoples of Northern Italy, with Celtic peoples shown in blue.
Migration of the Lombards towards Northern Italy
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Northern Italy after the Peace of Lodi
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
Anti-Fascist Partisans in the streets of Bologna after the general insurrection of April 1945
The Alps in Val Maira, Province of Cuneo
Farming landscape in the Po Plain at Sant'Agata Bolognese
Alpine lakes like Lake Garda are characterised by warmer microclimates than the surrounding areas
Fog on the Secchia River near Modena. Fog is a common occurrence in the Po Plain
Languages and regional varieties in Italy
Milan
Genoa
Turin

This process led to the creation of different Lombard Leagues formed by allied cities of Lombardy that defeated the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick I, at Legnano, and his grandson Frederick II, at Parma, and becoming virtually independent from the German emperors.

Piacenza

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City and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, the capital of the eponymous province.

City and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, the capital of the eponymous province.

Mosaic of the old city Coat of Arms
Two gold Doppie (1626) depicting Odoardo Farnese (obv) and Placentia floret ("Piacenza flourishes")(rev).
The French Pass the River Po at Piacenza, by Giuseppe Pietro Bagetti, 1803.
Piacenza railway bridge over Po river in a 19th-century image.
Piazza Cavalli and the façade of Palazzo Comunale il Gotico''.
Façade of the Cathedral.
Ranuccio I Farnese monument in Piacenza
Via XX Settembre shopping street.
Basilica of Sant'Antonino, Piacenza, patron of Piacenza.
The Renaissance church of San Sisto.
Teatro Municipale (Piacenza)

From 1126, Piacenza was a free commune and an important member of the Lombard League.

In this role, it took part in the war against Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, and in the subsequent battle of Legnano (1176).

Bologna

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Capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy.

Capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy.

The iconic Due Torri
Porta Maggiore, one of the twelve medieval city gates of Bologna
Depiction of a 14th-century fight between the Guelf and Ghibelline factions in Bologna, from the Croniche of Giovanni Sercambi of Lucca
Bologna in 1640
Engraving of the city of Bologna from Leandro Alberti's History of Bologna, 1590, showing the two surviving towers and several others
Piazza del Nettuno in 1855, looking towards Piazza Maggiore
Sappers of the 136 Indian Railway Maintenance Company repair some of the extensive damage to the railyards in 1945.
Aftermath of the 1980 terrorist bombing
Aerial photograph of Bologna (from East to West).
Matteo Lepore, mayor of Bologna since 2021
Fiera District, seat of the regional government of Emilia-Romagna
Panoramic view of central Bologna
Piazza Maggiore, with San Petronio Basilica, Palazzo dei Banchi and Palazzo del Podestà
The colourful open-air market of Via Pescherie Vecchie
Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca
The icon of the Madonna di San Luca
View from the top of the Basilica di San Petronio: the dome of Santuario di Santa Maria della Vita dominates the foreground; the Asinelli (higher) and Garisenda towers ("Due Torri") are seen on the right.
Unipol Tower, at 127 m, is the city's tallest building.
A Trolleybus of the urban trolleybus network managed by TPER, photographed in Via Saffi
The University of Bologna is the world's oldest institution of higher learning, founded in AD 1088.
Anatomical theatre of the Archiginnasio, dating from 1637
The International museum and library of music displays ancient musical instruments and unique musical scores from the 16th to the 20th centuries.
Façade of Arena del Sole theatre
Tagliatelle al ragù bolognese, as served in Bologna
The 32,000-capacity Stadio Renato Dall'Ara is the home of Bologna FC 1909.
Pope Benedict XIV, born in Bologna in 1675

However, when Frederick Barbarossa subsequently attempted to strike down the deal, Bologna joined the Lombard League, which then defeated the imperial armies at the Battle of Legnano and established an effective autonomy at the Peace of Constance in 1183.

Cremona

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City and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po river in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po Valley).

City and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po river in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po Valley).

City coat of arms of Cremona on the town hall
Cremona in the 17th century
Po river in Cremona in the 18th century
The Cathedral and the Baptistery of Cremona
Statue of Stradivari in Stradivari Square
Lady Blunt Stradivarius
City hall (Palazzo del Comune)
The Loggia dei Militi
Violin shop
Astronomical clock on the Torrazzo belltower

However, in 1167 the city changed sides and joined the Lombard League.

Its troops were part of the army that, on 29 May 1176, defeated Barbarossa in the Battle of Legnano.

Fresco in Palazzo Pubblico, Siena depicting the submission of the emperor to the Pope

Treaty of Venice

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Fresco in Palazzo Pubblico, Siena depicting the submission of the emperor to the Pope

The Treaty or Peace of Venice, 1177, was a peace treaty between the papacy and its allies, the north Italian city-states of the Lombard League, and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor.

The treaty followed on the heels of the Battle of Legnano of 29 May 1176, a defeat for Frederick Barbarossa.

Diet of Roncaglia

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Imperial Diet, a general assembly of the nobles and ecclesiasts of the Holy Roman Empire and representatives of Northern Italian cities held in 1154 and in 1158 by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa to deliberate on the matter of sovereignty of his subjects, which was being challenged by the economical and political flourishing of the northern Italian cities and free comunes, including the cities of Chieri, Asti, Tortona, but most importantly Milan.

Imperial Diet, a general assembly of the nobles and ecclesiasts of the Holy Roman Empire and representatives of Northern Italian cities held in 1154 and in 1158 by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa to deliberate on the matter of sovereignty of his subjects, which was being challenged by the economical and political flourishing of the northern Italian cities and free comunes, including the cities of Chieri, Asti, Tortona, but most importantly Milan.

The decisive battle in the continuing struggle was the Battle of Legnano in 1176, where Frederick was defeated by the Lombard League, and later forced to renege his rights of sovereignty south of the Alps, in the Kingdom of Italy.

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Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes.

Medieval commune

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Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

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Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes.

Milan led the Lombard cities against the Holy Roman Emperors and defeated them, gaining independence (battles of Legnano, 1176, and Parma, 1248).

March of Verona

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Vast march of the Holy Roman Empire in northeastern Italy during the Middle Ages, centered on the cities of Verona and Aquileia.

Vast march of the Holy Roman Empire in northeastern Italy during the Middle Ages, centered on the cities of Verona and Aquileia.

Italy about 1050, with the Veronese march in the northeast
Carinthian panther of the dukes of Carinthia

The margravial regime ended with the advent of the Lombard League in 1167.

In 1167, the Veronese cities joined the Lombard League; this constituted the de facto end of the march, confirmed by the Lombard victory at the 1176 Battle of Legnano.