The defense of the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano (by Amos Cassioli, 1860)
Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)
Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes.
Frederick Barbarossa in a miniature of 1188
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Pope Alexander III
Lombard milites depicted on the Porta Romana relief of 1171
The Milanese in the presence of Frederick Barbarossa ask for clemency after the surrender of the city (1162)
A Bronze replica of the Peace of Constance in Konstanz. Illustrating the comunes of the Lombard League in 1183.
Pontida: plaque commemorating the constitutive oath of the Lombard League (1167).
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Cortenuova (1237)
Frederick Barbarossa kneeling before Henry the Lion at Chiavenna
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Parma (1248)
The sepulcher and a copy of the cross by Ariberto d'Intimiano, in Milan Cathedral.
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Fossalta (1249)
The Olona River at the Visconteo castle in Legnano
A video showing the phases of the battle of Legnano, highlighting the troop movements
Cascina Brughetto in Sacconago
The Carroccio during the battle of Legnano in a painting by Amos Cassioli
The ancient medieval church of San Giorgio in a watercolor by Giuseppe Pirovano of 1892
The Carroccio with the cross of Aribert in a miniature of the 11th century
The soldiers of the Lombard League who seek in vain the dead body of Frederick Barbarossa on a 1913 illustration
View of the Parco castello in Legnano. In the background you can see the Legnanese quarter of Costa San Giorgio, while in the foreground you can see part of the escarpment that may have been the scene of the battle of Legnano
The church of San Martino in Legnano, which dominates a slope that slopes down towards the Olona, another possible place where the battle of Legnano may have been fought
Konstanz: commemorative plaque of the peace treaty
Il Monument to the Warrior of Legnano, often mistakenly associated with Alberto da Giussano

The Battle of Legnano was a battle between the imperial army of Frederick Barbarossa and the troops of the Lombard League on May 29, 1176, near the town of Legnano in present-day Lombardy, in Italy.

- Battle of Legnano

At the Battle of Legnano on 29 May 1176, the emperor's army finally was defeated.

- Lombard League

Because of the frictions that arose in the 11th and the 12th centuries, the cities of Northern Italy experienced a rising ferment that led to the birth of a new form of local self-government based on an elective collegial body with administrative, judicial, and security functions, and which in turn designated city consuls: the medieval commune.

- Battle of Legnano

In addition of being a military alliance, the Lombard League was one of the first examples of confederal system in the world of communes.

- Lombard League

Milan led the Lombard cities against the Holy Roman Emperors and defeated them, gaining independence (battles of Legnano, 1176, and Parma, 1248).

- Medieval commune
The defense of the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano (by Amos Cassioli, 1860)

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Northern Italy

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Geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy.

Geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy.

Ancient peoples of Northern Italy, with Celtic peoples shown in blue.
Migration of the Lombards towards Northern Italy
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Northern Italy after the Peace of Lodi
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
Anti-Fascist Partisans in the streets of Bologna after the general insurrection of April 1945
The Alps in Val Maira, Province of Cuneo
Farming landscape in the Po Plain at Sant'Agata Bolognese
Alpine lakes like Lake Garda are characterised by warmer microclimates than the surrounding areas
Fog on the Secchia River near Modena. Fog is a common occurrence in the Po Plain
Languages and regional varieties in Italy

In the 10th century most of Northern Italy was formally under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire but was in fact divided in a multiplicity of small, autonomous city-states, the medieval communes and maritime republic.

This process led to the creation of different Lombard Leagues formed by allied cities of Lombardy that defeated the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick I, at Legnano, and his grandson Frederick II, at Parma, and becoming virtually independent from the German emperors.