Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)
The defense of the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano (by Amos Cassioli, 1860)
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Frederick Barbarossa in a miniature of 1188
Lombard milites depicted on the Porta Romana relief of 1171
Pope Alexander III
Ancient peoples of Northern Italy, with Celtic peoples shown in blue.
A Bronze replica of the Peace of Constance in Konstanz. Illustrating the comunes of the Lombard League in 1183.
The Milanese in the presence of Frederick Barbarossa ask for clemency after the surrender of the city (1162)
Migration of the Lombards towards Northern Italy
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Cortenuova (1237)
Pontida: plaque commemorating the constitutive oath of the Lombard League (1167).
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Parma (1248)
Frederick Barbarossa kneeling before Henry the Lion at Chiavenna
Northern Italy after the Peace of Lodi
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Fossalta (1249)
The sepulcher and a copy of the cross by Ariberto d'Intimiano, in Milan Cathedral.
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
The Olona River at the Visconteo castle in Legnano
Anti-Fascist Partisans in the streets of Bologna after the general insurrection of April 1945
A video showing the phases of the battle of Legnano, highlighting the troop movements
The Alps in Val Maira, Province of Cuneo
Cascina Brughetto in Sacconago
Farming landscape in the Po Plain at Sant'Agata Bolognese
The Carroccio during the battle of Legnano in a painting by Amos Cassioli
Alpine lakes like Lake Garda are characterised by warmer microclimates than the surrounding areas
The ancient medieval church of San Giorgio in a watercolor by Giuseppe Pirovano of 1892
Fog on the Secchia River near Modena. Fog is a common occurrence in the Po Plain
The Carroccio with the cross of Aribert in a miniature of the 11th century
Languages and regional varieties in Italy
The soldiers of the Lombard League who seek in vain the dead body of Frederick Barbarossa on a 1913 illustration
Milan
View of the Parco castello in Legnano. In the background you can see the Legnanese quarter of Costa San Giorgio, while in the foreground you can see part of the escarpment that may have been the scene of the battle of Legnano
Genoa
The church of San Martino in Legnano, which dominates a slope that slopes down towards the Olona, another possible place where the battle of Legnano may have been fought
Turin
Konstanz: commemorative plaque of the peace treaty
Il Monument to the Warrior of Legnano, often mistakenly associated with Alberto da Giussano

The Battle of Legnano was a battle between the imperial army of Frederick Barbarossa and the troops of the Lombard League on May 29, 1176, near the town of Legnano in present-day Lombardy, in Italy.

- Battle of Legnano

At its apex, it included most of the cities of Northern Italy, but its membership changed with time.

- Lombard League

The battle was crucial in the long war waged by the Holy Roman Empire in an attempt to assert its power over the municipalities of Northern Italy, which decided to set aside their mutual rivalries and join in a military alliance symbolically led by Pope Alexander III, the Lombard League.

- Battle of Legnano

At the Battle of Legnano on 29 May 1176, the emperor's army finally was defeated.

- Lombard League

This process led to the creation of different Lombard Leagues formed by allied cities of Lombardy that defeated the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick I, at Legnano, and his grandson Frederick II, at Parma, and becoming virtually independent from the German emperors.

- Northern Italy
Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)

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Bologna

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The iconic Due Torri
Porta Maggiore, one of the twelve medieval city gates of Bologna
Depiction of a 14th-century fight between the Guelf and Ghibelline factions in Bologna, from the Croniche of Giovanni Sercambi of Lucca
Bologna in 1640
Engraving of the city of Bologna from Leandro Alberti's History of Bologna, 1590, showing the two surviving towers and several others
Piazza del Nettuno in 1855, looking towards Piazza Maggiore
Sappers of the 136 Indian Railway Maintenance Company repair some of the extensive damage to the railyards in 1945.
Aftermath of the 1980 terrorist bombing
Aerial photograph of Bologna (from East to West).
Matteo Lepore, mayor of Bologna since 2021
Fiera District, seat of the regional government of Emilia-Romagna
Panoramic view of central Bologna
Piazza Maggiore, with San Petronio Basilica, Palazzo dei Banchi and Palazzo del Podestà
The colourful open-air market of Via Pescherie Vecchie
Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca
The icon of the Madonna di San Luca
View from the top of the Basilica di San Petronio: the dome of Santuario di Santa Maria della Vita dominates the foreground; the Asinelli (higher) and Garisenda towers ("Due Torri") are seen on the right.
Unipol Tower, at 127 m, is the city's tallest building.
A Trolleybus of the urban trolleybus network managed by TPER, photographed in Via Saffi
The University of Bologna is the world's oldest institution of higher learning, founded in AD 1088.
Anatomical theatre of the Archiginnasio, dating from 1637
The International museum and library of music displays ancient musical instruments and unique musical scores from the 16th to the 20th centuries.
Façade of Arena del Sole theatre
Tagliatelle al ragù bolognese, as served in Bologna
The 32,000-capacity Stadio Renato Dall'Ara is the home of Bologna FC 1909.
Pope Benedict XIV, born in Bologna in 1675

Bologna is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy.

However, when Frederick Barbarossa subsequently attempted to strike down the deal, Bologna joined the Lombard League, which then defeated the imperial armies at the Battle of Legnano and established an effective autonomy at the Peace of Constance in 1183.

SOLE
Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes.

Medieval commune

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Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

SOLE
Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes.

In central and northern Italy, and in Provence and Septimania, most of the old Roman cities had survived—even if grass grew in their streets—largely as administrative centers for a diocese or for the local representative of a distant kingly or imperial power.

Milan led the Lombard cities against the Holy Roman Emperors and defeated them, gaining independence (battles of Legnano, 1176, and Parma, 1248).