Battle of Leipzig

LeipzigBattle of the NationsBattle of NationsBattle of the Nations at Leipzig1813Battle of Leipzig (1813)victory at LeipzigVölkerschlachtWachau1813 War of Liberation
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (Битва народов, Bitva narodov; Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig ; Bataille des Nations, Slaget vid Leipzig) was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony.wikipedia
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Leipzig

Leipzig, GermanyLeipsicLipsia
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (Битва народов, Bitva narodov; Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig ; Bataille des Nations, Slaget vid Leipzig) was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony.
The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and an allied coalition of Prussia, Russia, Austria and Sweden.

Sweden

SwedishSWEKingdom of Sweden
The coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden, led by Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, decisively defeated the French army of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French.
Sweden's role in the Battle of Leipzig gave it the authority to force Denmark–Norway, an ally of France, to cede Norway to the King of Sweden on 14 January 1814 in exchange for the northern German provinces, at the Treaty of Kiel.

Grande Armée

La Grande ArméeGrand ArmyFrench Army
The French Emperor Napoleon I attempted to militarily coerce Tsar Alexander I of Russia into rejoining his unpopular Continental System by invading Russia with about 650,000 troops, collectively known as the Grande Armée, and eventually occupied Moscow in late 1812, after the bloody yet indecisive Battle of Borodino.
Napoleon led a new army to the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813, in the defence of France in 1814 and in the Waterloo Campaign in 1815, but the Napoleonic French army would never regain the heights of the Grande Armée of June 1812.

Confederation of the Rhine

StateGermanyRheinbund
Napoleon's army also contained Polish and Italian troops, as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine (mainly Württemberg and Saxony).
The success of the Confederation depended on Napoleon's success in battle; it collapsed when he lost the Battle of Leipzig in 1813.

German Campaign of 1813

German campaignWars of LiberationBefreiungskriege
The battle was the culmination of the German campaign of 1813 and involved 600,000 soldiers, 2,200 artillery pieces, the expenditure of 200,000 rounds of artillery ammunition and 127,000 casualties, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I.
The high point of allied strategy was the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, which ended in Napoleon's decisive defeat.

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher

BlücherPrince BlücherGebhard von Blücher
Following this, the Coalition forces, under individual command of Gebhard von Blücher, Crown Prince Charles John of Sweden, Karl von Schwarzenberg, and Count Benningsen of Russia, followed the strategy outlined in the Trachenberg Plan: they would avoid clashes with Napoleon, but seek confrontations with his marshals.
He earned his greatest recognition after leading his army against Napoleon I at the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813 and the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

Richard Bogue

The Swedes also had under their command a company of the British Rocket Brigade armed with Congreve rockets, under the command of Captain Richard Bogue.
Captain Richard Bogue (24 October 1782 – 18 October 1813) was an officer of the British Army, who commanded the Rocket Brigade at the Battle of Leipzig, where he was killed.

Alexander I of Russia

Alexander ITsar Alexander IEmperor Alexander I
The coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden, led by Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, decisively defeated the French army of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. The French Emperor Napoleon I attempted to militarily coerce Tsar Alexander I of Russia into rejoining his unpopular Continental System by invading Russia with about 650,000 troops, collectively known as the Grande Armée, and eventually occupied Moscow in late 1812, after the bloody yet indecisive Battle of Borodino.
Although the French were victorious in the initial battles during the campaign in Germany, they were eventually defeated at the Battle of Leipzig in the autumn of 1813, which proved to be a decisive victory.

Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck

There was a drafting of the battle plan, with marshals Prince Volkonsky of Russia, Johan Christopher Toll of Sweden, Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck and Gerhard von Scharnhorst of Prussia taking part in the planning.
Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck (5 May 1768– 12 January 1848) was a Prussian field marshal and military adviser in the Napoleonic Wars, notable for designing the campaign plan of the Battle of Leipzig and the subsequent invasion of France.

O Battery (The Rocket Troop) Royal Horse Artillery

O BatteryO Battery, RHAO Battery (The Rocket Troop)
The Swedes also had under their command a company of the British Rocket Brigade armed with Congreve rockets, under the command of Captain Richard Bogue.
In that year the battery fought as the only British Army unit present at the Battle of Leipzig as 'The Rocket Brigade' under Captain Richard Bogue.

First French Empire

French EmpireFranceFrench
The coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden, led by Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, decisively defeated the French army of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French.
Pushed back, as he had been in Spain, from bastion to bastion, after the action on the Berezina, Napoleon had to fall back upon the frontiers of 1809, and then—having refused the peace offered to him by Austria at the Congress of Prague (4 June–10 August 1813), from a dread of losing Italy, where each of his victories had marked a stage in the accomplishment of his dream—on those of 1805, despite Lützen and Bautzen, and on those of 1802 after his defeat at Leipzig, when Bernadotte—now Crown Prince of Sweden—turned upon him, General Moreau also joined the Allies, and longstanding allied nations, such as Saxony and Bavaria, forsook him as well.

Ignác Gyulay

Ignaz GyulaiCount GyulayGiulay
Upon learning of Schwarzenberg's main plan — to call for a secondary attack on the bridge between Leipzig and Lindenau to be led by Blücher and Gyulay, and a main attack astride the Pleiße river to be led by Merveldt, Hessen-Homburg and the Prussian Guard, he insisted that this was a disastrous tactic as it would not permit the Coalition army to fully encircle and outflank that of Napoleon or at least decisively defeat and destroy his army.
Again leading a corps, he fought at the decisive Battle of the Nations in 1813.

Maximilian, Count of Merveldt

MerveldtCount Maximilian von MerveldtMaximilian Friedrich von Merveldt
Upon learning of Schwarzenberg's main plan — to call for a secondary attack on the bridge between Leipzig and Lindenau to be led by Blücher and Gyulay, and a main attack astride the Pleiße river to be led by Merveldt, Hessen-Homburg and the Prussian Guard, he insisted that this was a disastrous tactic as it would not permit the Coalition army to fully encircle and outflank that of Napoleon or at least decisively defeat and destroy his army.
He was wounded and captured at the Battle of Leipzig and, as a condition of release, he agreed not to bear arms against France again.

French invasion of Russia

Russian campaignNapoleon's invasion of RussiaPatriotic War of 1812
The French Emperor Napoleon I attempted to militarily coerce Tsar Alexander I of Russia into rejoining his unpopular Continental System by invading Russia with about 650,000 troops, collectively known as the Grande Armée, and eventually occupied Moscow in late 1812, after the bloody yet indecisive Battle of Borodino.
It was not until the decisive Battle of Nations (October 16–19, 1813) that he was finally defeated and afterwards no longer had the troops to stop the Coalition's invasion of France.

Congreve rocket

Congreve rocketsrocketrockets
The Swedes also had under their command a company of the British Rocket Brigade armed with Congreve rockets, under the command of Captain Richard Bogue.
The 12-pounder deployed at very close range was a fearsome weapon, as was seen at the battles of Göhrde and Leipzig in 1813, as well as the crossing of the Adour River and the Battle of Toulouse in 1814.

Johann von Klenau

Klenau
Johann von Klenau's Austrian IV Corps attacked with 24,500 men backed up by Pirth's 10th Brigade (4,550) and Ziethen's 11th Brigade (5,365).
He commanded the IV Corps at the 1813 Battle of Dresden and again at the Battle of Nations at Leipzig, where he prevented the French from outflanking the main Austrian force on the first day of the engagement.

Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg

SchwarzenbergPrince of SchwarzenbergPrince Schwarzenberg
The coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden, led by Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, decisively defeated the French army of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. Following this, the Coalition forces, under individual command of Gebhard von Blücher, Crown Prince Charles John of Sweden, Karl von Schwarzenberg, and Count Benningsen of Russia, followed the strategy outlined in the Trachenberg Plan: they would avoid clashes with Napoleon, but seek confrontations with his marshals.
Returning to the fray, he led the Allied army north again and played a major role in Napoleon's decisive defeat at the Battle of Leipzig on 16–18 October.

Napoleon

Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon INapoleon I of France
The coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden, led by Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, decisively defeated the French army of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. The French Emperor Napoleon I attempted to militarily coerce Tsar Alexander I of Russia into rejoining his unpopular Continental System by invading Russia with about 650,000 troops, collectively known as the Grande Armée, and eventually occupied Moscow in late 1812, after the bloody yet indecisive Battle of Borodino.
A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, but his tactical victory at the minor Battle of Hanau allowed retreat onto French soil.

Battle of Dennewitz

DennewitzbattleJüterbog and Dennewitz
This policy led to victories at Großbeeren, Kulm, Katzbach, and Dennewitz.
A month later the Saxons accepted Bernadotte's invitation and switched sides at a crucial moment during the Battle of Leipzig, dooming the French to defeat.

Peninsular War

Peninsula WarSpanish War of IndependencePeninsula
Making matters even worse for Napoleon, in June 1813 the combined armies of Great Britain, Portugal, and Spain, under the command of Britain's Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington, had decisively routed French forces at the Battle of Vitoria in the Peninsular War, and were now advancing towards the Pyrenees and the Franco-Spanish border.
Napoleon had just suffered a major defeat at the Battle of Leipzig on 19 October and was in retreat, so Wellington left the clearance of Catalonia to others.

Trachenberg Plan

Trachenberg
Following this, the Coalition forces, under individual command of Gebhard von Blücher, Crown Prince Charles John of Sweden, Karl von Schwarzenberg, and Count Benningsen of Russia, followed the strategy outlined in the Trachenberg Plan: they would avoid clashes with Napoleon, but seek confrontations with his marshals.
The plan was successful, and at the Battle of Leipzig, where the Allies had a considerable numerical advantage, the Emperor was soundly defeated and driven out of Germany, across the Rhine back into France itself.

Charles XIV John of Sweden

Jean-Baptiste BernadotteCharles XIV JohnBernadotte
Following this, the Coalition forces, under individual command of Gebhard von Blücher, Crown Prince Charles John of Sweden, Karl von Schwarzenberg, and Count Benningsen of Russia, followed the strategy outlined in the Trachenberg Plan: they would avoid clashes with Napoleon, but seek confrontations with his marshals.
In 1813, following a dispute over Swedish Pomerania, Crown Prince Charles John aligned Sweden with Napoleon's enemies in the Sixth Coalition, contributing to a decisive French defeat at Leipzig.

Friedrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf

Friedrich von KleistKleistGeneral von Kleist
General Kleist, moving along the Pleiße, attacked Marshals Poniatowski and Augereau in the village of Markkleeberg.
During the War of Liberation he was given a corps with which he fought in the battles of Kulm and Leipzig.

Michel Ney

Marshal NeyNeyMarshall Ney
The northern front was defended by Marshals Michel Ney and Auguste de Marmont, and the eastern front by Marshal Jacques MacDonald.
Ney later fought at Dennewitz and Leipzig, where he was again wounded.

Markkleeberg

GautzschGroßstädtelnMarkkleeberg-Ost
General Kleist, moving along the Pleiße, attacked Marshals Poniatowski and Augereau in the village of Markkleeberg.
In 1813 much of the Battle of Leipzig took place where today's Markkleeberg is situated.