Battle of Lepanto

The Battle of Lepanto, Paolo Veronese
The banner of the Holy League, flown by John of Austria on his flagship Real. It is made of blue damask interwoven with gold thread, of a length of 7.3 m and a width of 4.4 m at the hoist. It displays the crucified Christ above the coats of arms of Pius V, of Venice, of Charles V, and of John of Austria. The coats of arms are linked by chains symbolizing the alliance.
Order of battle of the two fleets, with an allegory of the three powers of the Holy League in the foreground, fresco by Giorgio Vasari (1572, Sala Regia).
Depiction of the Ottoman Navy, detail from the painting by Tommaso Dolabella (1632)
One of the Venetian Galleasses at Lepanto (1851 drawing, after a 1570s painting).
Plan of the Battle (formation of the fleets just before contact)
Fresco in the Vatican's Gallery of Maps
The Victors of Lepanto, John of Austria, Marcantonio Colonna and Sebastiano Venier (anonymous oil painting, c. 1575, formerly in Ambras Castle, now Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna)
Jacopo Ligozzi, The Return of the Knights of Saint Stephen from the Battle of Lepanto (c. 1610, Santo Stefano dei Cavalieri, Pisa)
Battle of Lepanto by Martin Rota, 1572 print, Venice
Felipe II offers Prince Fernando to Victory by Titian, c. 1572–1575, Museo del Prado, Madrid
Monument to John of Austria in Messina
The Battle of Lepanto by Andrea Vicentino (c. 1600, Doge's Palace, Venice)
The Battle of Lepanto by Tommaso Dolabella (c. 1625–1630, Wawel Castle, Cracow)
The Battle of Lepanto by Andries van Eertvelt (1640)
The Battle of Lepanto by Juan Luna (1887, Spanish Senate, Madrid)
The Battle of Lepanto by Tintoretto
The Battle of Lepanto by anonymous
The Battle of Lepanto by Giorgio Vasari

Naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of Catholic states arranged by Pope Pius V, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras.

- Battle of Lepanto
The Battle of Lepanto, Paolo Veronese

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Alpha

Oil in canvas, 2nd half of 16th century, probably by Juan Pantoja de la Cruz.
Museo del Prado, Madrid.

John of Austria

Illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

Illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

Oil in canvas, 2nd half of 16th century, probably by Juan Pantoja de la Cruz.
Museo del Prado, Madrid.
Portrait of Don Juan by Jooris van der Straeten
Portrait, ca. 1559-60 by Alonso Sánchez Coello.
Portrait, ca. 1560 by Alonso Sánchez Coello.
John of Austria in armour, by Alonso Sánchez Coello, 1567.
John of Austria monument in Messina
Battle of Lepanto.
The Victors of Lepanto (from left: Don Juan de Austria, Marcantonio Colonna, Sebastiano Venier).
Coat of arms of John of Austria. Being the illegitimate son of Charles V, in his coat the partitions of the armories of his father were modified. It consisted of a divided shield in which the arms of Castile and León were placed in a cut and not quartered (repeated in four quarters), as usual. To the sinister, departures, Aragon and Aragon-Sicily. On the whole, in escusón, Austria and Duchy of Burgundy. In the coat of arms of John of Austria did not incorporate the blazons of Granada, Franche-Comté, Brabant, Flanders and Tyrol that appeared in the coat of arms of his father. On the outside, surrounding the shield, the necklace of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Engraving of John of Austria.
The Joyous Entry of John of Austria into Brussels, 1 May 1577. Print from 'The Wars of Nassau' by W. Baudartius, Amsterdam 1616.
Tomb of John of Austria by Giuseppe Galeotti (according to a design by Ponzano) in the fifth chamber of the Pantheon in the Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain

He became a military leader in the service of his half-brother, King Philip II of Spain, and is best known for his role as the admiral of the Holy Alliance fleet at the Battle of Lepanto.

Republic of Venice

Sovereign state and maritime republic in parts of present-day Italy (mainly northeastern Italy) which existed for 1100 years from 697 AD until 1797 AD. Centered on the lagoon communities of the prosperous city of Venice, it incorporated numerous overseas possessions in modern Croatia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Greece, Albania and Cyprus.

Sovereign state and maritime republic in parts of present-day Italy (mainly northeastern Italy) which existed for 1100 years from 697 AD until 1797 AD. Centered on the lagoon communities of the prosperous city of Venice, it incorporated numerous overseas possessions in modern Croatia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Greece, Albania and Cyprus.

The Republic of Venice in 1789
The Doge of Venice, illustrated in the manuscript Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel. Painted by Lucas d'Heere in the 2nd half of the 16th century. Preserved by the Ghent University Library.
The Republic of Venice in 1789
The Venetia c 600 AD
The Venetia c 840 AD
Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000
Procession in St Mark's Square by Gentile Bellini in 1496
Leonardo Loredan, Doge of Venice during the War of the League of Cambrai.
The Venetian fort of Palamidi in Nafplion, Greece, one of many forts that secured Venetian trade routes in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Greater coat of arms of the Republic, with its various possessions and claims, in the aftermath of the Morean War
The Republic of Venice around 1700
Drawing of the Doge's Palace, late 14th century
The governmental structure of the Venetian Republic
The hearing given by the Doge in the Sala del Collegio in Doge's Palace by Francesco Guardi, 1775–80
The Flag of Veneto.
Siege of Tyre (1124) in the Holy Land
Siege of Constantinople (1203)
Voyage of Marco Polo into the Far East during the Pax Mongolica
The Piraeus Lion in Venice, in front of the Venetian Arsenal
Relief of the Venetian Lion on the Landward Gate in Zara (Zadar), capital of the Venetian Dalmatia
Relief of the Venetian Lion in Parenzo (Poreč)
Vicenza, Piazza dei Signori.
Udine, Piazza Libertà.
Piazza delle Erbe, Verona
Relief of the Venetian Lion in Cattaro (Kotor)
Relief of the Venetian Lion in Candia (Heraklion)
Relief of the Venetian Lion in Frangokastello, Crete
Venetian blazon with the Lion of Saint Mark, as frequently found on the New Fortress walls, Corfu.

Two months later, the naval forces of the Holy League, composed mainly of Venetian, Spanish, and papal ships under the command of Don John of Austria, defeated the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Lepanto.

Portrait by Sofonisba Anguissola (1573)

Philip II of Spain

King of Spain from 1556, King of Portugal from 1580, and King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until his death in 1598.

King of Spain from 1556, King of Portugal from 1580, and King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until his death in 1598.

Portrait by Sofonisba Anguissola (1573)
The Baptism of Philip II in Valladolid, Castile. Historical ceiling preserved in Palacio de Pimentel (Valladolid).
Portrait by Titian, c. 1550.
Philip, in the prime of his life, by Anthonis Mor
Philip II wearing the order of the garter by Jooris van der Straeten, c. 1554
Portrait of Philip II on 1/5 Philipsdaalder, struck 1566, Guelders, Low Countries
Personal guidon of Philip II
A marble bust of Philip II of Spain by Pompeo Leoni, son of Leone Leoni, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Titian; after the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, Philip offers his short-lived heir Fernando to Glory in this allegory
Standard of the tercios morados of the Spanish army under Philip II
Philip II berating William of Orange, by Cornelis Kruseman
Reward letter of Philip II to the family of Balthasar Gerards, assassin of William the Silent, 1590
Anthony I of Portugal
Spanish Empire of Philip II, III and IV including all charted and claimed territories, maritime claims (mare clausum) and other features.
Titian portrait of Philip as prince (1551), aged about twenty-four dressed in a lavishly decorated set of armour.
Irish groat with Philip and Mary's initials and portraits.
Philip and Mary I of England, 1558
Philip's European and North African dominions in 1581
Philip's dominions in 1598
Statue of Philip II at the Sabatini Gardens in Madrid (F. Castro, 1753).
Cannon with arms of Philip II as King of Spain and jure uxoris King of England and France.
Portrait of Philip II as King of Portugal by Sánchez Coello, circa 1580
Princess Maria of Portugal
Queen Mary Tudor of England
Queen Elisabeth of Valois
Queen Anna of Austria by Sofonisba Anguissola
thumb|Cenotaph of Philip and three of his four wives at El Escorial.
thumb|Philip and his niece Anna banqueting with family and courtiers, by Alonso Sánchez Coello

Earlier, however, after several setbacks in his reign and especially that of his father, Philip did achieve a decisive victory against the Turks at Lepanto in 1571, with the allied fleet of the Holy League, which he had put under the command of his illegitimate brother, John of Austria.

A model of a Maltese design typical of the 16th century, the last great era of the war galley in the Mediterranean Sea

Galley

Type of ship that is propelled mainly by oars.

Type of ship that is propelled mainly by oars.

A model of a Maltese design typical of the 16th century, the last great era of the war galley in the Mediterranean Sea
The English-built Charles Galley, a "galley frigate" built in the 1670s. It was not a "true" galley, but the term still became part of its name due to its oars.
Watercolor of United States ships at the Battle of Valcour Island, depicting several "row galleys"; similar function, but based on very different designs from Mediterranean galleys.
Assyrian warship, a bireme with pointed bow. 700 BC
Dionysus riding on a small galley-like craft in a painting from the Dionysus cup by Exekias, from c. 530 BC
A reconstruction of an ancient Greek galley squadron based on images of modern replica Olympias
A Roman naval bireme in a relief from the Temple of Fortuna Primigenia in Praeneste, (Palastrina) built c. 120 BC, (in the Museo Pio-Clementino).
Odysseus and the Sirens, Ulixes mosaic at the Bardo National Museum in Tunis, Tunisia, 2nd century AD
Two compact liburnians used by the Romans in the campaigns against the Dacians in the early 2nd century AD; relief from Trajan's Column, c. 113 AD.
Triumph of Poseidon and Amphitrite: the couple in procession, mosaic detail from Cirta, Roman Africa, ca. 315–325 AD, (in the Louvre)
Venetian great galley with three sails taking pilgrims to Jerusalem (Conrad Grünenberg 1486/7).
A 3D model of the basic hull structure of a Venetian "galley of Flanders", a large trading vessel of the 15th century. The reconstruction by archaeologist Courtney Higgins is based on measurements given in contemporary ship treatises.
Illustration of a 15th-century trade galley from a manuscript by Michael of Rhodes (1401–1445) written in 1434.
Painting of the Battle of Haarlemmermeer of 1573 by Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom. Note the use of small sailing vessels and galleys on both sides.
Ottoman galleys in battle with raiding boats in the Black Sea; Sloane 3584 manuscript, c. 1636
The Battle of Lepanto in 1571, naval engagement between allied Christian forces and the Ottoman Turks.
French ship under attack by Barbary pirates, c. 1615
Dutch ships ramming Spanish galleys in the Battle of the Narrow Seas, October 1602.
A painting of the Battle of Grengam in 1720 by Ferdinand Perrot (1808–41) showing a large Russian galley engaging Swedish frigates at close range. Note the crowded fighting platform (rambade) in the bow.
A galley from Banten, 1598. The galley has balai (raised fighting platform). Four cetbang can be seen.
Illustration of an Egyptian rowed ship of c. 1250 BC. Due to a lack of a proper keel, the vessel has a truss, a thick cable along its length, to prevent it from losing its shape.
A schematic view of the mortise and tenon technique for shipbuilding that dominated the Mediterranean until the 7th century AD.
The stern of the modern trireme replica Olympias with twin side rudders
The Athlit ram, a preserved original warship ram from around 530–270 BC. It weighs nearly half a tonne and was probably fitted to a "five" or a "four".
14th-century painting of a light galley, from an icon now at the Byzantine and Christian Museum at Athens
A Venetian galea sottile from the late 15th century from Vittore Carpaccio's Return of the Ambassadors in the series Legend of Saint Ursula (1497–1498). Note the oars arranged in groups of three according to the alla sensile rowing method.
The ubiquitous bow fighting platform (rambade) of early modern galleys. This model is of a 1715 Swedish galley, somewhat smaller than the standard Mediterranean war galley, but still based on the same design.
Modern reconstruction of a cross-section of an ancient Greek trireme, showing the three levels of rowers.
Model of a Venetian three-banked galley rowed alla sensile, with three rowers sharing a bench but handling one oar each
An illustration from 1643 showing the layout of rowing benches as well and placement of rowers on a galley with 16 pairs of oars. It also shows a rower at the top of the stroke using the standing rowing technique typical of a scaloccio rowing.
The ram bow of the trireme Olympias, a modern full-scale reconstruction of a classical Greek trireme.
The Byzantine fleet repels the Rus' attack on Constantinople in 941. The Byzantine dromons are rolling over the Rus' vessels and smashing their oars with their spurs.
Byzantine ship attacking with Greek fire. Madrid Skylitzes manuscript, 11th century.
Battle between Venetian and Holy Roman fleets; detail of fresco by Spinello Aretino 1407–1408.
Contemporary depiction of the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 that shows the strict formations of the opposing fleets. Fresco in the Gallery of Maps in Vatican Museum.
The Galley Subtle, one of the very few Mediterranean-style galleys employed by the English. This illustration is from the Anthony Roll (c. 1546) and was intended as its centerpiece.
Gouache of a late 17th-century French royal galley. The vessel is richly decorated with red and blue damask, brocade, and velvet for the stern canopy and flags, and carved gilded ornaments on railings, outrigger, and hull.
La Liberté, a full-scale replica of a 17th-century galley in Switzerland, though without any rowing benches

The zenith of galley usage in warfare came in the late 16th century with battles like that at Lepanto in 1571, one of the largest naval battles ever fought.

Ottoman Empire

Empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

Empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

The Ottoman Empire in 1683
The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, depicted in an Ottoman miniature from 1523
The Ottoman Empire in 1683
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror's entry into Constantinople; painting by Fausto Zonaro (1854–1929)
An Ottoman miniature of the Battle of Mohács in 1526
Map of Ottoman territorial acquisitions up to 1683
The Second Siege of Vienna in 1683, by Frans Geffels (1624–1694).
Austrian troops led by Prince Eugene of Savoy captured Belgrade in 1717. Austrian control in Serbia lasted until the Turkish victory in the Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–1739). With the 1739 Treaty of Belgrade, the Ottoman Empire regained northern Bosnia, Habsburg Serbia (including Belgrade), Oltenia and the southern parts of the Banat of Temeswar.
Ottoman troops attempting to halt the advancing Russians during the Siege of Ochakov in 1788
Selim III receiving dignitaries during an audience at the Gate of Felicity, Topkapı Palace. Painting by Konstantin Kapıdağlı.
The siege of the Acropolis in 1826–1827 during the Greek War of Independence
Opening ceremony of the First Ottoman Parliament at the Dolmabahçe Palace in 1876. The First Constitutional Era lasted only two years until 1878. The Ottoman Constitution and Parliament were restored 30 years later with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908.
Ottoman troops storming Fort Shefketil during the Crimean War of 1853–1856
The Empire in 1875 under sultan Abdul-Aziz
Declaration of the Young Turk Revolution by the leaders of the Ottoman millets in 1908
Admiral Wilhelm Souchon, who commanded the Black Sea Raid on 29 October 1914, and his officers in Ottoman naval uniforms
The Armenian genocide was the result of the Ottoman government's deportation and ethnic cleansing policies regarding its Armenian citizens after the Battle of Sarikamish (1914–1915) and the collapse of the Caucasus Front against the Imperial Russian Army and Armenian volunteer units during World War I. An estimated 600,000 to more than 1 million, or up to 1.5 million people were killed.
Mehmed VI, the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, leaving the country after the abolition of the Ottoman sultanate, 17 November 1922
Ambassadors at the Topkapı Palace
Inside Harem, the private residence of the sultan in Topkapı Palace
Yusuf Ziya Pasha, Ottoman ambassador to the United States, in Washington, 1913
An Ottoman trial, 1877
An unhappy wife complains to the Qadi about her husband's impotence as depicted in an Ottoman miniature.
Ottoman sipahis in battle, holding the crescent banner (by Józef Brandt)
Selim III watching the parade of his new army, the Nizam-ı Cedid (New Order) troops, in 1793
A German postcard depicting the Ottoman Navy at the Golden Horn in the early stages of World War I. At top left is a portrait of Sultan Mehmed V.
Ottoman pilots in early 1912
Administrative divisions in 1899 (year 1317 Hijri)
A European bronze medal from the period of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, 1481
The Ottoman Bank was founded in 1856 in Constantinople. On 26 August 1896, the bank was occupied by members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.
Smyrna under Ottoman rule in 1900
View of Galata (Karaköy) and the Galata Bridge on the Golden Horn, c. 1880–1893
1911 Ottoman calendar shown in several different languages such as: Ottoman Turkish, Greek, Armenian, Hebrew, Bulgarian and French.
Abdülmecid II was the last caliph of Islam and a member of the Ottoman dynasty.
Mehmed the Conqueror and Patriarch Gennadius II
The original Church of St. Anthony of Padua, Istanbul was built in 1725 by the local Italian community of Istanbul.
Depiction of a hookah shop in Lebanon, Ottoman Empire
Beyazıt State Library was founded in 1884.
Ahmet Nedîm Efendi, one of the most celebrated Ottoman poets
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, designed by Sinan in the 16th century and a major example of the Classical Ottoman style
Ottoman miniature lost its function with the Westernization of Ottoman culture.
Turkish women baking bread, 1790
Observatory of Taqi ad-Din in 1577
Girl Reciting the Qurān (Kuran Okuyan Kız), an 1880 painting by the Ottoman polymath Osman Hamdi Bey, whose works often showed women engaged in educational activities.
Members of Beşiktaş J.K. in 1903
Members of Galatasaray S.K. (football) in 1905
Miniature from Surname-i Vehbi showing the Mehteran, the music band of the Janissaries
The shadow play Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire.
Musicians and dancers entertain the crowds, from Surname-i Hümayun, 1720.
A Musical Gathering - 18th century
Acrobacy in Surname-i Hümayun

Meanwhile, the Holy league consisting of mostly Spanish and Venetian fleets won a victory over the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto (1571), off southwestern Greece; Catholic forces killed over 30,000 Turks and destroyed 200 of their ships.

The banner of the Holy League, flown by John of Austria on his flagship Real. It is made of blue damask interwoven with gold thread, of a length of 7.3 m and a width of 4.4 m at the hoist. It displays the crucified Christ above the coats of arms of Pius V, of Venice, of Charles V, and of John of Austria. The coats of arms are linked by chains symbolizing the alliance.
The banner was given to Toledo Cathedral in 1616 by Philip III of Spain. It was moved to the Museum of Santa Cruz in 1961.

Holy League (1571)

These Christian states were to have a force of 200 galleys, 100 other ships, 50,000 infantry, 4,500 cavalry and adequate artillery ready by 1 April each year.

These Christian states were to have a force of 200 galleys, 100 other ships, 50,000 infantry, 4,500 cavalry and adequate artillery ready by 1 April each year.

The banner of the Holy League, flown by John of Austria on his flagship Real. It is made of blue damask interwoven with gold thread, of a length of 7.3 m and a width of 4.4 m at the hoist. It displays the crucified Christ above the coats of arms of Pius V, of Venice, of Charles V, and of John of Austria. The coats of arms are linked by chains symbolizing the alliance.
The banner was given to Toledo Cathedral in 1616 by Philip III of Spain. It was moved to the Museum of Santa Cruz in 1961.
The coats of arms of the leaders of the Holy League (Habsburg Spain, Pope Pius V, Republic of Venice, John of Austria) as depicted in the printed order of battle published on 14 November 1571 by Antonio Lafreri in Rome.

On 7 October 1571, the League won a decisive victory over the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in the Gulf of Patras.

Occhiali

Italian farmer, then Ottoman privateer and admiral, who later became beylerbey of the Regency of Algiers, and finally Grand Admiral (Kapudan Pasha) of the Ottoman fleet in the 16th century.

Italian farmer, then Ottoman privateer and admiral, who later became beylerbey of the Regency of Algiers, and finally Grand Admiral (Kapudan Pasha) of the Ottoman fleet in the 16th century.

Uluç Ali Reis bust at the Mersin Naval Museum.
Ottoman troops (about 5,000 janissaries) led by Uluç Ali, then Pasha of Algiers, marching on Tunis in 1569.
Statue of Uluç Ali Reis in his hometown of Le Castella, Italy.

On 7 October 1571, Uluj Ali commanded the left flank of Ali Pasha's fleet in the Battle of Lepanto.

The Battle of Lepanto

Ottoman–Venetian War (1570–1573)

Fought between 1570 and 1573.

Fought between 1570 and 1573.

The Battle of Lepanto
A Divan decision addressing to the qadi of Uskudar about rations before the outbreak of war.
Map of the siege of Nicosia, by Giovanni Camoccio, 1574
Marco Antonio Bragadin, Venetian commander of Famagusta, was gruesomely killed after the Ottomans took the city.
The Battle of Lepanto 1571, engraved by Martin Rota.

Two months later, at the Battle of Lepanto, the united Christian fleet destroyed the Ottoman fleet, but was unable to take advantage of this victory.

Venice

City in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

City in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

Grand Canal from Rialto to Ca'Foscari
Venice in autumn, with the Rialto Bridge in the background
Venice view from the Bridge Priuli a Santa Sofia, to the Bridge de le Vele
Gondola Punta and Basilica Salute
St Mark's Basilica houses the relics of St Mark the Evangelist
The Doge's Palace, the former residence of the Doge of Venice
The Republic of Venice and its colonial empire Stato da Màr.
Piazza San Marco in Venice, with St. Mark's Campanile.
View of San Giorgio Maggiore Island from St. Mark's Campanile.
Monument to Bartolomeo Colleoni (1400-1475), captain-general of the Republic of Venice from 1455 to 1475.
The Fra Mauro Map of the world. The map was made around 1450 and depicts Asia, Africa and Europe.
View of San Marco basin in 1697.
Venice viewed from the International Space Station
Venice and surroundings in false colour, from Terra. The picture is oriented with North at the top.
Piazza San Marco under water in 2007
Acqua alta ("high water") in Venice, 2008
Like Murano, Burano is also a tourist destination, usually reached via vaporetto
The beach of Lido di Venezia
Bridge of Sighs, one of the most visited sites in the city
Venetian Arsenal houses the Naval Historical Museum
Piazzetta San Marco with Doge's Palace on the left and the columns of the Lion of Venice and St. Theodore in the center.
Gondolas share the waterway with other types of craft (including the vaporetti)
Cleaning of canals in the late 1990s.
Gondoliers on the Grand Canal
Venice Guggenheim Museum.
Cruise ships access the port of Venice through the Giudecca Canal.
Cruise ship and gondolas in the Bacino San Marco
Aerial view of Venice including the Ponte della Libertà bridge to the mainland.
Giudecca Canal. View from St Mark's Campanile.
Sandolo in a picture of Paolo Monti of 1965. Fondo Paolo Monti, BEIC.
P & O steamer, circa 1870.
Rialto Bridge
Vaporetti on the Grand Canal
The Venice Santa Lucia station
Cruise ships at the passenger terminal in the Port of Venice (Venezia Terminal Passeggeri)
Marco Polo International Airport (Aeroporto di Venezia Marco Polo)
Ca' Foscari University of Venice
The Travels of Marco Polo.
The Santa Maria della Salute
An 18th-century view of Venice by Venetian artist Canaletto.
The Palazzo Cavalli-Franchetti is an example of Venetian Gothic architecture alongside the Grand Canal.
The Ca' d'Oro.
Palazzo Dandolo.
The Baroque Ca' Rezzonico.
Murano glass chandelier Ca' Rezzonico
A Venetian glass goblet
La Fenice operahouse in the city.
The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the most prestigious and publicized.
Francesco Guardi's Regatta in Venice, Guardi was a member of the Venetian School.
The Morning Chocolate, by Pietro Longhi. Hot chocolate was a fashionable drink in Venice during the 1770s and 1780s.
Luxury shops and boutiques along the Rialto Bridge.
The Doge Andrea Gritti, reigned 1523–1538, portrait by Titian.
Carlo Goldoni, the most notable name in Italian theatre.
The explorer Sebastian Cabot.
thumb|The Grand Canal in Venice from Palazzo Flangini to Campo San Marcuola, Canaletto, circa 1738, J. Paul Getty Museum.
thumb|Francesco Guardi, The Grand Canal, circa 1760 (Art Institute of Chicago)
thumb|Morning Impression along a Canal in Venice, Veneto, Italy by Rafail Levitsky (1896)
thumb|View from the Bridge of Sighs (2017)
The whole comune (red) in the Metropolitan City of Venice
Ca' Loredan is Venice's City Hall
Palazzo Corner is the seat of the Metropolitan City of Venice
Palazzo Ferro Fini is the seat of the Regional Council of Veneto
People Mover in Venice
A map of the waterbus routes in Venezia
Bus in Mestre
Tram in Venice leaving Piazzale Roma

It was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce—especially silk, grain, and spice, and of art from the 13th century to the end of the 17th.

Portrait by Titian, probably with Lambert Sustris, 1548

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519 to 1556, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon) from 1516 to 1556, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506 to 1555.

Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519 to 1556, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon) from 1516 to 1556, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506 to 1555.

Portrait by Titian, probably with Lambert Sustris, 1548
The entrance gate to the Prinsenhof (Dutch; literally "Princes' court") in Ghent, where Charles was born.
A painting by Bernhard Strigel representing the extended Habsburg family, with a young Charles in the middle.
A portrait by Bernard van Orley, 1519. The insignia of the Order of the Golden Fleece are prominently displayed.
A Portrait of Charles V with a Dog by Jakob Seisenegger, 1532
The Dominions of the Habsburgs at the time of the abdication of Charles V in 1556
The Palace of Coudenberg in Brussels from a 17th-century painting, before it burnt down in 1731. Brussels served as the main seat of the Imperial court of Charles V in the Low Countries.
The city of Toledo served as the main seat of the Imperial court of Charles V in Castile.
The exterior of the Palace of Charles V in Granada was built upon his wedding to Isabel of Portugal in 1526.
Pope Clement VII and Emperor Charles V on horseback under a canopy, by Jacopo Ligozzi, c. undefined 1580. It depicts the entry of the Pope and the Emperor into Bologna in 1530, when Charles was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Clement VII.
A panorama of Augsburg, the main German seat of the Imperial court and the location of many of the Imperial Diets presided over by Charles V. A hand-coloured woodcut from the Nuremberg Chronicle.
Francis I and Charles V made peace at the Truce of Nice in 1538. Francis actually refused to meet Charles in person, and the treaty was signed in separate rooms.
Charles V in the 1550s, after Titian
Summons for Martin Luther to appear at the Diet of Worms, signed by Charles V. The text on the left was on the reverse side.
16th-century perception of German soldiers during Charles's reign (1525) portrayed in the manuscript "Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel". Painted by Lucas d'Heere in the second half of the 16th century. Preserved in the Ghent University Library.
Isabella of Portugal, Charles's wife. Portrait by Titian, 1548
Emperor Charles V and Empress Isabella. Peter Paul Rubens after Titian, 17th century
The bronze effigies of Charles and Isabella at the Basilica in El Escorial.
Titian's La Gloria, one of the several paintings commissioned by Charles V in memory of his wife Isabella
The children of Phillip and Joanna
In Allegory on the abdication of Emperor Charles V in Brussels, Frans Francken the Younger depicts Charles V in the allegorical act of dividing the entire world between Philip II of Spain and Emperor Ferdinand I.
Habsburg dominions in the centuries following their partition by Charles V.
Deathbed of the emperor at the Monastery of Yuste, Cáceres
A miniature representing Charles V enthroned over his enemies (from left): Suleiman, Pope Clement VII, Francis I, the Duke of Cleves, the Duke of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse. In reality, Charles was never able to completely defeat them.
Equestrian armour of Emperor Charles V. Piece drawn from the collection of the Royal Armoury of Madrid
Statue of Charles V in Granada, Spain
Escutcheon of Charles V, watercolour, John Singer Sargent, 1912. Metropolitan Museum of Art
{{Center|Margaret of Parma}}
{{Center|John of Austria}}
Coat of arms of King Charles I of Spain before becoming emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor.
Arms of Charles, Infante of Spain, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, KG at the time of his installation as a knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.
Variant of the Royal Bend of Castile used by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

Decisive naval victory eluded Charles; it would not be achieved until after his death, at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.