A report on Battle of Lepanto

The Battle of Lepanto, Paolo Veronese
The banner of the Holy League, flown by John of Austria on his flagship Real. It is made of blue damask interwoven with gold thread, of a length of 7.3 m and a width of 4.4 m at the hoist. It displays the crucified Christ above the coats of arms of Pius V, of Venice, of Charles V, and of John of Austria. The coats of arms are linked by chains symbolizing the alliance.
Order of battle of the two fleets, with an allegory of the three powers of the Holy League in the foreground, fresco by Giorgio Vasari (1572, Sala Regia).
Depiction of the Ottoman Navy, detail from the painting by Tommaso Dolabella (1632)
One of the Venetian Galleasses at Lepanto (1851 drawing, after a 1570s painting).
Plan of the Battle (formation of the fleets just before contact)
Fresco in the Vatican's Gallery of Maps
The Victors of Lepanto, John of Austria, Marcantonio Colonna and Sebastiano Venier (anonymous oil painting, c. 1575, formerly in Ambras Castle, now Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna)
Jacopo Ligozzi, The Return of the Knights of Saint Stephen from the Battle of Lepanto (c. 1610, Santo Stefano dei Cavalieri, Pisa)
Battle of Lepanto by Martin Rota, 1572 print, Venice
Felipe II offers Prince Fernando to Victory by Titian, c. 1572–1575, Museo del Prado, Madrid
Monument to John of Austria in Messina
The Battle of Lepanto by Andrea Vicentino (c. 1600, Doge's Palace, Venice)
The Battle of Lepanto by Tommaso Dolabella (c. 1625–1630, Wawel Castle, Cracow)
The Battle of Lepanto by Andries van Eertvelt (1640)
The Battle of Lepanto by Juan Luna (1887, Spanish Senate, Madrid)
The Battle of Lepanto by Tintoretto
The Battle of Lepanto by anonymous
The Battle of Lepanto by Giorgio Vasari

Naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of Catholic states arranged by Pope Pius V, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras.

- Battle of Lepanto
The Battle of Lepanto, Paolo Veronese

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Portrait by Bartolomeo Passarotti (c. 1566, Walters Art Museum in Baltimore)

Pope Pius V

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Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572.

Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572.

Portrait by Bartolomeo Passarotti (c. 1566, Walters Art Museum in Baltimore)
Portrait by Scipione Pulzone, c. 1578
Pius V by Palma il Giovane.
The body of Pius V in his tomb in Santa Maria Maggiore
Portrait of Pius V by Pierre Le Gros on the tomb

Although outnumbered, the Holy League famously defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

Nafpaktos

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Town and a former municipality in Aetolia-Acarnania, West Greece, situated on a bay on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, 3 km west of the mouth of the river Mornos.

Town and a former municipality in Aetolia-Acarnania, West Greece, situated on a bay on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, 3 km west of the mouth of the river Mornos.

The Venetian fortress.
The Battle of Lepanto, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich/London.
View of the port.
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Houses by the port.
View from the fortress
A square
View from the port towards the fortress
Statue of Miguel de Cervantes at the port (he took part at the Battle of Lepanto)
View of the old harbour
Botsaris tower museum
Fortifications of the port
Fortifications along the sea wall

It fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1499 and was used as naval station by the Ottoman Navy in the 16th century, being the site of the decisive victory by the Holy League in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

Venice

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City in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

City in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

Grand Canal from Rialto to Ca'Foscari
Venice in autumn, with the Rialto Bridge in the background
Venice view from the Bridge Priuli a Santa Sofia, to the Bridge de le Vele
Gondola Punta and Basilica Salute
St Mark's Basilica houses the relics of St Mark the Evangelist
The Doge's Palace, the former residence of the Doge of Venice
The Republic of Venice and its colonial empire Stato da Màr.
Piazza San Marco in Venice, with St. Mark's Campanile.
View of San Giorgio Maggiore Island from St. Mark's Campanile.
Monument to Bartolomeo Colleoni (1400-1475), captain-general of the Republic of Venice from 1455 to 1475.
The Fra Mauro Map of the world. The map was made around 1450 and depicts Asia, Africa and Europe.
View of San Marco basin in 1697.
Venice viewed from the International Space Station
Venice and surroundings in false colour, from Terra. The picture is oriented with North at the top.
Piazza San Marco under water in 2007
Acqua alta ("high water") in Venice, 2008
Like Murano, Burano is also a tourist destination, usually reached via vaporetto
The beach of Lido di Venezia
Bridge of Sighs, one of the most visited sites in the city
Venetian Arsenal houses the Naval Historical Museum
Piazzetta San Marco with Doge's Palace on the left and the columns of the Lion of Venice and St. Theodore in the center.
Gondolas share the waterway with other types of craft (including the vaporetti)
Cleaning of canals in the late 1990s.
Gondoliers on the Grand Canal
Venice Guggenheim Museum.
Cruise ships access the port of Venice through the Giudecca Canal.
Cruise ship and gondolas in the Bacino San Marco
Aerial view of Venice including the Ponte della Libertà bridge to the mainland.
Giudecca Canal. View from St Mark's Campanile.
Sandolo in a picture of Paolo Monti of 1965. Fondo Paolo Monti, BEIC.
P & O steamer, circa 1870.
Rialto Bridge
Vaporetti on the Grand Canal
The Venice Santa Lucia station
Cruise ships at the passenger terminal in the Port of Venice (Venezia Terminal Passeggeri)
Marco Polo International Airport (Aeroporto di Venezia Marco Polo)
Ca' Foscari University of Venice
The Travels of Marco Polo.
The Santa Maria della Salute
An 18th-century view of Venice by Venetian artist Canaletto.
The Palazzo Cavalli-Franchetti is an example of Venetian Gothic architecture alongside the Grand Canal.
The Ca' d'Oro.
Palazzo Dandolo.
The Baroque Ca' Rezzonico.
Murano glass chandelier Ca' Rezzonico
A Venetian glass goblet
La Fenice operahouse in the city.
The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the most prestigious and publicized.
Francesco Guardi's Regatta in Venice, Guardi was a member of the Venetian School.
The Morning Chocolate, by Pietro Longhi. Hot chocolate was a fashionable drink in Venice during the 1770s and 1780s.
Luxury shops and boutiques along the Rialto Bridge.
The Doge Andrea Gritti, reigned 1523–1538, portrait by Titian.
Carlo Goldoni, the most notable name in Italian theatre.
The explorer Sebastian Cabot.
thumb|The Grand Canal in Venice from Palazzo Flangini to Campo San Marcuola, Canaletto, circa 1738, J. Paul Getty Museum.
thumb|Francesco Guardi, The Grand Canal, circa 1760 (Art Institute of Chicago)
thumb|Morning Impression along a Canal in Venice, Veneto, Italy by Rafail Levitsky (1896)
thumb|View from the Bridge of Sighs (2017)
The whole comune (red) in the Metropolitan City of Venice
Ca' Loredan is Venice's City Hall
Palazzo Corner is the seat of the Metropolitan City of Venice
Palazzo Ferro Fini is the seat of the Regional Council of Veneto
People Mover in Venice
A map of the waterbus routes in Venezia
Bus in Mestre
Tram in Venice leaving Piazzale Roma
Iconic Della Salute by UK based Artist Raouf Oderuth

It was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce—especially silk, grain, and spice, and of art from the 13th century to the end of the 17th.

Ottoman Navy

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The naval warfare arm of the Ottoman Empire.

The naval warfare arm of the Ottoman Empire.

The Battle of Zonchio in 1499.
The Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa defeated the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza in 1538.
The Ottoman fleet during the Capture of Tunis at La Goulette in 1574.
In the siege of Nice in 1543, the combined forces of the Franco-Ottoman alliance managed to capture the city.
Ottoman fleet anchored at the French port of Toulon in 1543. Miniature by Matrakçı Nasuh, who was travelling with the fleet.
Selman Reis defending Jeddah against a Portuguese attack in 1517.
Ottoman and Acehnese guns, dismantled following the Dutch conquest of Aceh in 1874. Illustrated London News.
Surviving fragment of the first world map of Ottoman admiral Piri Reis (1513) showing the Atlantic Ocean and the Americas.
Zaporozhian Cossacks in chaika boats, destroying Ottoman galleys and capturing Caffa in 1616.
German map of the final phase of the siege of Candia during the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1645–1669. It clearly illustrates the city's trace italienne fortifications, and the proximity of the characteristic Ottoman siege trenches.
(1829), built by the Imperial Naval Arsenal on the Golden Horn in Constantinople, was for many years the largest warship in the world. A ship of the line with 128 guns on 3 decks, she participated in numerous important naval battles, including the siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855) during the Crimean War.
Nordenfelt-class Ottoman submarine (1886) was the first submarine in history to fire a torpedo while submerged under water. Two submarines of this class, Nordenfelt II (, 1886) and Nordenfelt III (, 1887) joined the Ottoman fleet. They were built in pieces by Des Vignes (Chertsey) and Vickers (Sheffield) in England, and assembled at the Taşkızak Naval Shipyard in Constantinople (Istanbul).
Ottoman submarine Abdül Hamid at the Taşkızak Naval Shipyard in Constantinople (Istanbul), 1886.
The two dreadnought battleships purchased by the Ottoman Navy but seized by the British government a short time before delivery, due to the outbreak of World War I in 1914: (renamed, in the foreground) and (renamed, at left).
Fantasy drawing of Sultan Osman I underway for the Ottoman Navy. The royal yacht Ertuğrul is at left, and the cruiser Hamidiye is in the background.
The Ottoman Navy at the Golden Horn in Constantinople, in the early days of WWI.
Ottoman battlecruiser (formerly SMS Goeben) in 1914
was a torpedo boat (in service between 1910–1923) that sank the pre-dreadnought battleship 
 during the Battle of Gallipoli in World War I. Considered in the same league as the minelayer in terms of the role that she played in the naval engagements during the battle, Muâvenet-i Millîye strongly influenced the course of the conflicts by generating a domino effect which caused the failure of the Allied strategy.
Silhouettes of the warships of the Ottoman Navy, as projected for 1914 (including the undelivered dreadnought Sultan Osman-ı Evvel)
TCG Yavuz (B-70) in Istanbul, 1947
Ottoman Ministry of the Navy (Bahriye Nezareti) in the Kasımpaşa quarter of the Beyoğlu district in Istanbul, along the northern shoreline of the Golden Horn. It is currently the headquarters of the Northern Sea Area Command (Kuzey Deniz Saha Komutanlığı) of the Turkish Navy.
Turkish Naval High School (1773) in Heybeliada Island near Istanbul.
"Göke" (1495) was the flagship of Kemal Reis
Barbarossa's galley during his campaign in France (1543–1544)
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Turgut Reis
Piri Reis
Piyale Pasha
Uluç Ali Reis
Gazi Hasan Pasha
Bozcaadalı Hasan Hüsnü Pasha (1890)
Ali Osman Pasha
Fuat Hüsnü Kayacan
Naval uniform 1910
Naval uniform 1909–1916
Naval uniform 1909–1916
Naval uniform 1916–1925
Naval uniform 1916–1925
Naval uniforms as of 1915
Muzaffer Adil Bey
Rauf Orbay
Necip Okaner
Ships of the Indian ocean, including an Ottoman carrack on the right.

The Ottoman naval victory at the Battle of Preveza in 1538 and the Battle of Djerba in 1560 ensured the Ottoman supremacy in the Mediterranean Sea for several decades, until the Ottomans suffered their first ever military defeat at the hands of the Europeans at the Battle of Lepanto (1571).

Our Lady of the Rosary

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Marian title.

Marian title.

Illustration Our Lady of the Rosary
Basilica of Our Lady of the Rosary in Fátima, Portugal
Our Lady of the Rosary by Anthony van Dyck, between 1623 and 1624
The Vision of Saint Dominic by Bernardo Cavallino, 1640
Our Lady of Victory by Józef Mehoffer, 1896-1897, stained glass window in Fribourg Cathedral

7 October is the anniversary of the decisive victory of the combined fleet of the Holy League of 1571 over the Ottoman navy at the Battle of Lepanto.

A galleass of the Spanish Armada

Galleass

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Galleasses were military ships developed from large merchant galleys, and intended to combine galley speed with the sea-worthiness and artillery of a galleon.

Galleasses were military ships developed from large merchant galleys, and intended to combine galley speed with the sea-worthiness and artillery of a galleon.

A galleass of the Spanish Armada
Engraving of a galleass from Plan de Plusieurs Batiments de Mer avec leurs Proportions (c. 1690) by Henri Sbonski de Passebon. Engraving by Claude Randon.

Venetian Galleasses were used successfully at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, their firepower helping to break the force of the first Turkish attack, and eventually helping to win victory for the Holy League fleet.

This portrait attributed to Juan de Jáuregui, 
who did paint Cervantes, is unauthenticated. No authenticated image of Cervantes exists.

Miguel de Cervantes

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Early Modern Spanish writer widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.

Early Modern Spanish writer widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.

This portrait attributed to Juan de Jáuregui, 
who did paint Cervantes, is unauthenticated. No authenticated image of Cervantes exists.
An incident in the story of Don Quixote (1870), by Robert Hillingford.
Santa María la Mayor, in Alcalá de Henares, where Cervantes was reputedly baptised; the square in front is named Plaza Cervantes
Monument of Cervantes erected in 1929, Madrid.
Statue of Miguel de Cervantes at the harbour of Naupactus (Lepanto)
Cervantes at the battle of Lepanto, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau.
Statue of Cervantes outside the National Library of Spain.
Cervantes was buried at the Convent of the Barefoot Trinitarians in Madrid.
The windmill scene from Don Quijote, by Gustave Doré
An illustration from Don Quijote, by Doré
Cervantes's La Galatea (1585), original title page.
Frontispiece of the Viaje (1614)

In 1570, he enlisted in a Spanish Navy infantry regiment, and was badly wounded at the Battle of Lepanto in October 1571.

Müezzinzade in a 1571 broadsheet

Müezzinzade Ali Pasha

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Ottoman statesman and naval officer.

Ottoman statesman and naval officer.

Müezzinzade in a 1571 broadsheet

He was the Grand Admiral (Kapudan Pasha) in command of the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto, where he was killed in action.

Messina

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Harbour city and the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.

Harbour city and the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.

13th-century coins minted during the reign of Frederick II.
17th century map of Messina
An image of the 1908 Messina earthquake aftermath. Ruins of the Duomo
a tract of around 30 kilometres of beaches of Messina
the Feluca, a typical boat used by the fishermen of Messina to hunt swordfish
Via Garibaldi, one of the main streets of Messina. After the 1908 earthquake it was widened and lengthened to the south to conform to the new urban plan
Abandoned houses dating from the 18th century in the ancient quarter of Tirone
Cathedral of Messina.
Church of the Santissima Annunziata dei Catalani.
13th century Church of Santa Maria degli Alemanni
The extant octagonal tower of the 11th century Matagrifone Castle and the Cristo Re sanctuary
The giants Mata and Grifone, whose stories are told about the city, are brought around Messina during the second week of August
The Madonna della Lettera that dominates the port of Messina is the Patron Saint of the city, celebrated on the 3rd of June
Fountain of Orion in Piazza Duomo
Porta Grazia
Statue of Don John of Austria, hero of Lepanto
Palazzo della Provincia, Corso Cavour
One of the two surviving Four Fountains dating from the 17-18th centuries. Located on the corner of Via 1 Settembre and Via Cardines
The statue of Messina
Pitoni, a common dish in Messina

The Christian ships that won the Battle of Lepanto (1571) left from Messina: the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes, who took part in the battle, recovered for some time in the Grand Hospital.

Portrait by Titian, probably with Lambert Sustris, 1548

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

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Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519 to 1556, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon) from 1516 to 1556, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506 to 1555.

Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519 to 1556, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon) from 1516 to 1556, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506 to 1555.

Portrait by Titian, probably with Lambert Sustris, 1548
The entrance gate to the Prinsenhof (Dutch; literally "Princes' court") in Ghent, where Charles was born.
A painting by Bernhard Strigel representing the extended Habsburg family, with a young Charles in the middle.
A portrait by Bernard van Orley, 1519. The insignia of the Order of the Golden Fleece are prominently displayed.
A Portrait of Charles V with a Dog by Jakob Seisenegger, 1532
The Dominions of the Habsburgs at the time of the abdication of Charles V in 1556
The Palace of Coudenberg in Brussels from a 17th-century painting, before it burnt down in 1731. Brussels served as the main seat of the Imperial court of Charles V in the Low Countries.
The city of Toledo served as the main seat of the Imperial court of Charles V in Castile.
The exterior of the Palace of Charles V in Granada was built upon his wedding to Isabel of Portugal in 1526.
Pope Clement VII and Emperor Charles V on horseback under a canopy, by Jacopo Ligozzi, c. undefined 1580. It depicts the entry of the Pope and the Emperor into Bologna in 1530, when Charles was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Clement VII.
A panorama of Augsburg, the main German seat of the Imperial court and the location of many of the Imperial Diets presided over by Charles V. A hand-coloured woodcut from the Nuremberg Chronicle.
Francis I and Charles V made peace at the Truce of Nice in 1538. Francis actually refused to meet Charles in person, and the treaty was signed in separate rooms.
Charles V in the 1550s, after Titian
Summons for Martin Luther to appear at the Diet of Worms, signed by Charles V. The text on the left was on the reverse side.
16th-century perception of German soldiers during Charles's reign (1525) portrayed in the manuscript "Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel". Painted by Lucas d'Heere in the second half of the 16th century. Preserved in the Ghent University Library.
Isabella of Portugal, Charles's wife. Portrait by Titian, 1548
Emperor Charles V and Empress Isabella. Peter Paul Rubens after Titian, 17th century
The bronze effigies of Charles and Isabella at the Basilica in El Escorial.
Titian's La Gloria, one of the several paintings commissioned by Charles V in memory of his wife Isabella
The children of Phillip and Joanna
In Allegory on the abdication of Emperor Charles V in Brussels, Frans Francken the Younger depicts Charles V in the allegorical act of dividing the entire world between Philip II of Spain and Emperor Ferdinand I.
Habsburg dominions in the centuries following their partition by Charles V.
Deathbed of the emperor at the Monastery of Yuste, Cáceres
A miniature representing Charles V enthroned over his enemies (from left): Suleiman, Pope Clement VII, Francis I, the Duke of Cleves, the Duke of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse. In reality, Charles was never able to completely defeat them.
Equestrian armour of Emperor Charles V. Piece drawn from the collection of the Royal Armoury of Madrid
Statue of Charles V in Granada, Spain
Escutcheon of Charles V, watercolour, John Singer Sargent, 1912. Metropolitan Museum of Art
{{Center|Margaret of Parma}}
{{Center|John of Austria}}
Coat of arms of King Charles I of Spain before becoming emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor.
Arms of Charles, Infante of Spain, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, KG at the time of his installation as a knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.
Variant of the Royal Bend of Castile used by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

Decisive naval victory eluded Charles; it would not be achieved until after his death, at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.