A report on Battle of Lepanto

The Battle of Lepanto, Paolo Veronese
The banner of the Holy League, flown by John of Austria on his flagship Real. It is made of blue damask interwoven with gold thread, of a length of 7.3 m and a width of 4.4 m at the hoist. It displays the crucified Christ above the coats of arms of Pius V, of Venice, of Charles V, and of John of Austria. The coats of arms are linked by chains symbolizing the alliance.
Order of battle of the two fleets, with an allegory of the three powers of the Holy League in the foreground, fresco by Giorgio Vasari (1572, Sala Regia).
Depiction of the Ottoman Navy, detail from the painting by Tommaso Dolabella (1632)
One of the Venetian Galleasses at Lepanto (1851 drawing, after a 1570s painting).
Plan of the Battle (formation of the fleets just before contact)
Fresco in the Vatican's Gallery of Maps
The Victors of Lepanto, John of Austria, Marcantonio Colonna and Sebastiano Venier (anonymous oil painting, c. 1575, formerly in Ambras Castle, now Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna)
Jacopo Ligozzi, The Return of the Knights of Saint Stephen from the Battle of Lepanto (c. 1610, Santo Stefano dei Cavalieri, Pisa)
Battle of Lepanto by Martin Rota, 1572 print, Venice
Felipe II offers Prince Fernando to Victory by Titian, c. 1572–1575, Museo del Prado, Madrid
Monument to John of Austria in Messina
The Battle of Lepanto by Andrea Vicentino (c. 1600, Doge's Palace, Venice)
The Battle of Lepanto by Tommaso Dolabella (c. 1625–1630, Wawel Castle, Cracow)
The Battle of Lepanto by Andries van Eertvelt (1640)
The Battle of Lepanto by Juan Luna (1887, Spanish Senate, Madrid)
The Battle of Lepanto by Tintoretto
The Battle of Lepanto by anonymous
The Battle of Lepanto by Giorgio Vasari

Naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of Catholic states arranged by Pope Pius V, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras.

- Battle of Lepanto
The Battle of Lepanto, Paolo Veronese

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Battle between the British frigate Shannon and the American frigate Chesapeake, painted in 1836 by Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg and depicting the capture of USS Chesapeake.

Naval warfare

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Combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving a major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.

Combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving a major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.

Battle between the British frigate Shannon and the American frigate Chesapeake, painted in 1836 by Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg and depicting the capture of USS Chesapeake.
Scene from an Egyptian temple wall shows Ramesses' combined land and sea victory in the Battle of the Delta.
An ancient Greek trireme vessel
The epic Battle of Salamis between Greek and Persian naval forces.
A Roman naval bireme depicted in a relief from the Temple of Fortuna Primigenia in Praeneste (Palastrina), which was built c. 120 BC; exhibited in the Pius-Clementine Museum (Museo Pio-Clementino) in the Vatican Museums.
The naval battle of Sluys, 1340, from Jean Froissart's Chronicles
A Song dynasty louchuan with a trebuchet, depicted in the Wujing Zongyao
A Chinese paddle-wheel driven ship, from a Qing dynasty encyclopedia published in 1726
A 17th-century model of Vietnamese "Mông đồng" ship. The vessel appears to be propelled by a score of oars and armed with one bombard and a smaller culverin. The roof is recorded to be protected against projectiles with hide or bronze plates.
Full size replica of Borobudur ship of the 8th century AD. This one had gone to expedition to Ghana in 2003–2004, reenacting the Srivijayan and Medang navigation and exploration.
Japanese samurai attacking a Mongol ship, 13th century
A replica of Korean turtle ship
An Eastern Han (25–220 AD) Chinese pottery boat fit for riverine and maritime sea travel, with an anchor at the bow, a steering rudder at the stern, roofed compartments with windows and doors, and miniature sailors.
The early-17th-century galleon Vasa on display at the Vasa Museum in Stockholm. Vasa, with its high stern castle and double battery decks, was a transitional design between the preferences for boarding tactics and the line of battle.
The Battle of the Saintes fought on 12 April 1782 near Guadeloupe
The Dutch fleet relieves Copenhagen after defeating the Swedes in the Battle of the Sound
The 1805 Battle of Trafalgar
The first battle between ironclads: CSS Virginia/Merrimac (left) vs. USS Monitor, in 1862 at the Battle of Hampton Roads
The Battle of Bomarsund during the Åland War (1854–1856), the part of the Crimean War. A sketch of the quarter deck of HMS Bulldog in Bomarsund, Edwin T. Dolby, 1854
, the first dreadnought battleship
and during the air attack
Aircraft carrier USS Lexington (CV-2) under heavy air attack during the Battle of the Coral Sea, the first carrier-versus-carrier battle in history.
Aircraft carrier USS Yorktown (CV-5) hit by an aerial torpedo during the Battle of Midway
Battle of Savo Island was the first in a series of night-time engagements between surface warships during the Solomon Islands campaign.
USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) launches an F-14 Tomcat while F/A-18 Hornets wait their turn during the Kosovo War
in the Persian Gulf (1991)
A United States Naval Landing Craft Air Cushion in the Pacific Ocean (2012)

Although they were sorely defeated in the Battle of Lepanto (1571) by the Holy League, the Ottomans soon rebuilt their naval strength, and afterwards successfully defended the island of Cyprus so that it would stay in Ottoman hands.

Portrait of Luis de Requesens, by Francisco Jover y Casanova (Prado museum)

Luis de Requesens y Zúñiga

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Spanish general, sailor, diplomat and politician.

Spanish general, sailor, diplomat and politician.

Portrait of Luis de Requesens, by Francisco Jover y Casanova (Prado museum)
Luis de Requesens y Zúñiga

In 1568 he was appointed lieutenant-general to John of Austria during the suppression of the Morisco Revolt in the Alpujarras, and he also accompanied John during the Lepanto campaign, his function being to watch and control his nominal commander-in-chief, whose excitable temperament was distrusted by the king.

Flag of the Order

Knights Hospitaller

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Medieval and early modern Catholic military order.

Medieval and early modern Catholic military order.

Flag of the Order
Flag of the Order
Early cross of the Knights Hospitaller
Pie postulatio voluntatis. Bull issued by Pope Paschal II in 1113 in favor of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, which was to transform what was a community of pious men into an institution within the Church. By virtue of this document, the pope officially recognized the existence of the new organisation as an operative and militant part of the Roman Catholic Church, granting it papal protection and confirming its properties in Europe and Asia.
The Knights Hospitaller in the 13th century
Grand Master Pierre d'Aubusson with senior knights, wearing the "Rhodian cross" on their habits. Dedicatory miniature in Gestorum Rhodie obsidionis commentarii (account of the Siege of Rhodes of 1480), BNF Lat 6067 fol. 3v, dated 1483/4.
Street of Knights in Rhodes
The Knights' castle at Rhodes
Rhodes and other possessions of the Knights Hospitallers of St. John.
Deed of Donation of the islands of Malta, Gozo and Tripoli to the Order of St John by Emperor Charles V in 1530.
Grand culverin of the Knights Hospitallers, 1500–1510, Rhodes
Arms of the Knights Hospitallers, quartered with those of Pierre d'Aubusson, on a bombard
Re-enactment of 16th-century military drills conducted by the Knights. Fort Saint Elmo, Valletta, Malta, 8 May 2005.
Ottoman attack on the post of the Castilian knights on 21 August 1565
Hospitaller galleys capturing an Ottoman vessel in the Malta Channel in 1652
Hospitaller galley c. 1680
Auberge de Castille in Valletta, an example of 18th-century Baroque architecture built by the Order.
View of the fortifications of Valletta
A 1742 Tarì coin of the Knights Hospitaller, depicting the head of John the Baptist on a platter.
Emperor Paul wearing the Crown of the Grand Master of the Order of Malta (1799).
View from Valletta, Malta, showing Fort Saint Angelo, belonging to the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.
Coat of arms of the Order of Malta
Prince Oskar of Prussia, Bailiwick of Brandenburg of the Chivalric Order of Saint John of the hospital at Jerusalem Herrenmeister since 1999

Boosted towards the end of the 16th century by an air of invincibility following the successful defence of their island in 1565 and compounded by the Christian victory over the Ottoman fleet in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, the knights set about protecting Christian merchant shipping to and from the Levant and freeing the captured Christian slaves who formed the basis of the Barbary corsairs' piratical trading and navies.

A Venetian map of Candia

Cretan War (1645–1669)

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Conflict between the Republic of Venice and her allies (chief among them the Knights of Malta, the Papal States and France) against the Ottoman Empire and the Barbary States, because it was largely fought over the island of Crete, Venice's largest and richest overseas possession.

Conflict between the Republic of Venice and her allies (chief among them the Knights of Malta, the Papal States and France) against the Ottoman Empire and the Barbary States, because it was largely fought over the island of Crete, Venice's largest and richest overseas possession.

A Venetian map of Candia
Map of Canea (Chania) and its fortifications, 1651
1651 map by Francesco Basilicata depicting the Venetian Lion of St. Mark standing guard over the Regno di Candia. By that time however, all of the island, except for the capital Candia, was under Ottoman control.
A Maltese galley. Although being gradually replaced by sailing ships, galleys formed still a large part of the Mediterranean navies during the 17th century.
Battle of the Venetian fleet against the Turks at Phocaea (Focchies) in 1649. Painting by Abraham Beerstraten, 1656.
Map of the Dardanelles and vicinity
The Fourth Battle of the Dardanelles, by Pieter Casteleyn, 1657
Grand Vizier Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha
German map of the final phase of the Siege of Candia. It clearly illustrates the city's trace italienne fortifications, and the proximity of the characteristic Ottoman siege trenches, especially in the northwestern sector (bottom right), to the walls.
Schematics detailing the Ottoman trenches and mines and the Venetian counter-mines at Candia, by Johann Bernhard Scheither, 1672.
During the, the Venetians in Dalmatia with the support of the local population managed to compel the Ottoman garrison of Klis Fortress to surrender.

In June 1656 however, a combined Venetian–Maltese fleet of 67 ships under Marcello inflicted on the Ottomans, with 108 ships under Kenan Pasha, their "worst naval defeat since Lepanto": Sixty Ottoman ships were destroyed and 24 captured and 5,000 Christian galley slaves set free, although the Venetians and Maltese suffered some casualties too, including the loss of Captain General Marcello.

Gulf of Patras from space, top is North-East

Gulf of Patras

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Branch of the Ionian Sea in Western Greece.

Branch of the Ionian Sea in Western Greece.

Gulf of Patras from space, top is North-East
Gulf of Patras seen from the coast of Achaea; the mountains of Aetolia in the background

A number of major naval battles took place in the Gulf of Patras: the Battle of Patras in 1772, and the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, one of the largest naval battles ever fought.

The Battle of Scheveningen, 10 August 1653, painted by Jan Abrahamsz Beerstraaten.

Age of Sail

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Period that lasted at the latest from the mid-16th to the mid-19th centuries, in which the dominance of sailing ships in global trade and warfare culminated, particularly marked by the introduction of naval artillery, and ultimately reached its highest extent at the advent of the analogue Age of Steam.

Period that lasted at the latest from the mid-16th to the mid-19th centuries, in which the dominance of sailing ships in global trade and warfare culminated, particularly marked by the introduction of naval artillery, and ultimately reached its highest extent at the advent of the analogue Age of Steam.

The Battle of Scheveningen, 10 August 1653, painted by Jan Abrahamsz Beerstraaten.
A ship of war, Cyclopaedia 1728, Vol 2
Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean
Several of Zheng He's 15th century ships as depicted on a woodblock print, early 17th century

For warships, the age of sail runs roughly from the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, the last significant engagement in which oar-propelled galleys played a major role, to the development of steam-powered warships.

Portrait of Andrea Doria, c. 1520, by Sebastiano del Piombo

Andrea Doria

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Genoese statesman, condottiero, and admiral, who played a key role in the Republic of Genoa during his lifetime.

Genoese statesman, condottiero, and admiral, who played a key role in the Republic of Genoa during his lifetime.

Portrait of Andrea Doria, c. 1520, by Sebastiano del Piombo
Natal home of Andrea Doria in Oneglia
Portrait of Andrea Doria as Neptune by Agnolo Bronzino
The Palace of Andrea Doria in Genoa.

This victory secured Turkish dominance over the eastern Mediterranean for the next 33 years, until the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

Tiziano Aspetti, Marcantonio Bragadin (1571 ca.)

Marco Antonio Bragadin

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Italian lawyer and military officer of the Republic of Venice.

Italian lawyer and military officer of the Republic of Venice.

Tiziano Aspetti, Marcantonio Bragadin (1571 ca.)
1570-1576 Titian's Flaying of Marsyas. Some researchers such as Helen Lessore speculate that Bragadin's flaying provided the inspiration for this painting.
Tomb in San Zanipolo

From a military point of view, the besieged garrison's perseverance required a massive effort by the Ottoman Turks, who were so heavily committed that they were unable to redeploy in time when the Holy League built up the fleet that was later victorious against the Muslim power at Lepanto.

Sovereign Military Order of Malta

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Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of a military, chivalric, and noble nature.

Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of a military, chivalric, and noble nature.

Coat of arms of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
The traditional red military uniform worn by Grand Masters
Blessed Gerard, founder of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem. Copper engraving by Laurent Cars, about 1725.
The Battle of Lepanto (1571), unknown artist, late 16th century
Emperor Paul of Russia wearing the Crown of the Grand Master of the Order of Malta (1799).
Palazzo Malta, Rome, Italy
Fra' Giacomo dalla Torre del Tempio di Sanguinetto, 80th Prince and Grand Master
A Knight of Grace and Devotion in contemporary church robes
Cardinal Raymond Burke, Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta since 2014
Coat of arms of the Knights of Malta from the façade of the church of San Giovannino dei Cavalieri, Florence, Italy
Vehicle registration plate of the Order, as seen in Rome, Italy
Flags of Knights Hospitaller in Saint Peter's Castle, Bodrum, Turkey.
Left to right: Fabrizio Carretto (1513–1514);
Amaury d'Amboise (1503–1512);
Pierre d'Aubusson (1476–1503);
Jacques de Milly (1454–1451).
Flags of Malta and the SMOM on Fort St. Angelo
Logotype of the [[Military Corps of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta|Military Corps of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta]]
Military Corps of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, ACISMOM, in parade during Festa della Repubblica in Rome (2007)
Roundel of the air force of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
SMOM Savoia-Marchetti SM.82 at the Italian Air Force Museum
Foreign relations with the SMOM:
Diplomatic relations
Other official relations

The fleet of the Order contributed to the ultimate destruction of the Ottoman naval power in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, led by John of Austria, half brother of King Philip II of Spain.

Ottoman illustration of Lala Mustafa Pasha

Lala Mustafa Pasha

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Lala Mustafa Pasha (c.

Lala Mustafa Pasha (c.

Ottoman illustration of Lala Mustafa Pasha
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His invasion and brutal treatment of the Venetian leaders in Cyprus led to Pope Pius V promoting a Roman Catholic coalition against the Ottomans which turned into the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.