A report on Battle of Lepanto

The Battle of Lepanto, Paolo Veronese
The banner of the Holy League, flown by John of Austria on his flagship Real. It is made of blue damask interwoven with gold thread, of a length of 7.3 m and a width of 4.4 m at the hoist. It displays the crucified Christ above the coats of arms of Pius V, of Venice, of Charles V, and of John of Austria. The coats of arms are linked by chains symbolizing the alliance.
Order of battle of the two fleets, with an allegory of the three powers of the Holy League in the foreground, fresco by Giorgio Vasari (1572, Sala Regia).
Depiction of the Ottoman Navy, detail from the painting by Tommaso Dolabella (1632)
One of the Venetian Galleasses at Lepanto (1851 drawing, after a 1570s painting).
Plan of the Battle (formation of the fleets just before contact)
Fresco in the Vatican's Gallery of Maps
The Victors of Lepanto, John of Austria, Marcantonio Colonna and Sebastiano Venier (anonymous oil painting, c. 1575, formerly in Ambras Castle, now Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna)
Jacopo Ligozzi, The Return of the Knights of Saint Stephen from the Battle of Lepanto (c. 1610, Santo Stefano dei Cavalieri, Pisa)
Battle of Lepanto by Martin Rota, 1572 print, Venice
Felipe II offers Prince Fernando to Victory by Titian, c. 1572–1575, Museo del Prado, Madrid
Monument to John of Austria in Messina
The Battle of Lepanto by Andrea Vicentino (c. 1600, Doge's Palace, Venice)
The Battle of Lepanto by Tommaso Dolabella (c. 1625–1630, Wawel Castle, Cracow)
The Battle of Lepanto by Andries van Eertvelt (1640)
The Battle of Lepanto by Juan Luna (1887, Spanish Senate, Madrid)
The Battle of Lepanto by Tintoretto
The Battle of Lepanto by anonymous
The Battle of Lepanto by Giorgio Vasari

Naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of Catholic states arranged by Pope Pius V, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras.

- Battle of Lepanto
The Battle of Lepanto, Paolo Veronese

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Venetian Walls of S. Luca ("Bastioni San Luca") in Famagusta

Siege of Famagusta

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The siege of Famagusta happened in Venetian-controlled Famagusta, the last Christian possession in Cyprus.

The siege of Famagusta happened in Venetian-controlled Famagusta, the last Christian possession in Cyprus.

Venetian Walls of S. Luca ("Bastioni San Luca") in Famagusta
Depiction of the siege by Giovanni Camocio, 1574
Sack of Famagusta
1570-1576 Titian's Flaying of Marsyas. Some researchers such as Helen Lessore speculate that Bragadin's flaying provided the inspiration for this painting.

From a military point of view, the besieged garrison's perseverance required a massive effort by the Ottoman Turks, who were so heavily committed that they were unable to redeploy in time when the Holy League built up the fleet which was later victorious against the Muslim power at Lepanto: this was the legacy of Bragadin and his Venetians to Christianity, as Theodore Mommsen wrote.

Badge of the order.

Order of Saint Stephen

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Roman Catholic Tuscan dynastic military order founded in 1561.

Roman Catholic Tuscan dynastic military order founded in 1561.

Badge of the order.
Galley of the Order of Saint Stephen (1611 celebrating drawing).
Flag of the galleys of the Order of Saint Stephen, 1562-end of XVIII century.

In its early years, the Order took part successfully in the Spanish wars against the Ottomans, being present at the siege of Malta (1565), the Battle of Lepanto (1571) and the capture in 1607 of Annaba in Algeria by the then admiral Jacopo Inghirami.

Genoese Navy

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The naval contingent of the Republic of Genoa's military.

The naval contingent of the Republic of Genoa's military.

The Genoese fleet returning to port after a successful expedition against the Ottoman Turks. Depicted in the 1597 painting View of Genoa.
The Battle of Meloria (1284) established Genoese naval domination in the Western Mediterranean for nearly a century.
Stern of a replica 17th century Genoese war-galley emblazoned with the white and red cross of Genoa.
A map of the world in 1544 created by Genoese cartographer Battista Agnese.
Portrait of Admiral Andrea Doria, who advocated for a strong Genoese navy in the 16th century.
Coat of arms of the modern Italian Navy, the Marina Militare, which incorporates the Genoese flag (seen on the top right)
The port and fleet of Genoa in the early 14th century, by Quinto Cenni

However, in 1571 the Genoese navy contributed 29 galleys (53 ships in total) to the Holy League fleet at the pivotal Battle of Lepanto, during which the Genoese admiral Giovanni Andrea Doria smashed the right flank of the Ottoman fleet.

Ottoman Cyprus

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Eyalet (province) of the Ottoman Empire made up of the island of Cyprus, which was annexed into the Empire in 1571.

Eyalet (province) of the Ottoman Empire made up of the island of Cyprus, which was annexed into the Empire in 1571.

Ottoman Cyprus in 1609 in red. The rest of the Ottoman Empire in light-yellow
Administrative map of Cyprus drawn by the British in 1878, showing the Ottoman administrative division of the island at the time of the handover
Chalcography depicting Famagusta in 1703
Traditional clothing of (from right to left) a Christian resident of Ammochostos (Famagusta, Cyprus), a Christian woman of Magossa, and a Greek monk of the Monastery of Tchiko (Kykkos), near Lefka, 1873
The Hala Sultan Tekke, built in 1817, was one of many landmarks constructed by the Ottoman Turks in Cyprus.
The Limassol Medieval Castle was rebuilt in 1590 by the Ottomans.
Büyük Han
Bekir Pasha Aqueduct

Four months later, on 7 October, the naval forces of the League, composed mainly of Venetian, Spanish, and Papal ships under the command of Don John of Austria, defeated the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in one of the decisive battles in general — and naval battles in particular — of world history.

Battle between Spanish and Ottoman galleys. Oil on canvas attributed to Cornelis de Wael.

Battle of Cape Corvo

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Naval engagement of the Ottoman–Habsburg wars fought as part of the struggle for the control of the Mediterranean.

Naval engagement of the Ottoman–Habsburg wars fought as part of the struggle for the control of the Mediterranean.

Battle between Spanish and Ottoman galleys. Oil on canvas attributed to Cornelis de Wael.
Embarkation of Spanish Troops on the Mediterranean Coast, by Andries van Eertvelt.
Spanish Men-of-War Engaging Barbary Pirates, painting of 1615 by Cornelis Vroom.
Engraving of Pedro Téllez-Girón y Velasco, 3rd Duke of Osuna.

Cape Corvo was the first major victory of the Spanish fleets under Pedro Téllez-Girón, 3rd Duke of Osuna, the Spanish Viceroy of Sicily, as well as the greatest Spanish victory over the Ottoman Empire since the Battle of Lepanto.

Marcantonio Barbaro depicted by Tintoretto.

Marcantonio Barbaro

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Italian diplomat of the Republic of Venice.

Italian diplomat of the Republic of Venice.

Marcantonio Barbaro depicted by Tintoretto.

Barbaro negotiated a peace treaty in the aftermath of his country's loss of Cyprus in 1571 and the Battle of Lepanto later the same year.

Paolo Giordano Orsini in a group painting by Giovanni Maria Butteri, 1575

Paolo Giordano I Orsini

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Italian nobleman, and the first duke of Bracciano from 1560.

Italian nobleman, and the first duke of Bracciano from 1560.

Paolo Giordano Orsini in a group painting by Giovanni Maria Butteri, 1575

In 1571 he took part in the battle of Lepanto.

Palmanova

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Town and comune in northeast Italy.

Town and comune in northeast Italy.

alt=The monumental gate Aquileia|Monumental gate Aquileia
alt=The monumental gate Aquileia|Monumental gate Aquileia (back)
alt=The monumental gate Cividale|Monumental gate Cividale
alt=A piazza in Palmanova, including the Palmanovan Duomo|Piazza Grande with the Duomo
alt=A stone wall set into the hillside surrounding Palmanova|Fortress around Palmanova
alt=Arches|Arches on the edge of Palmanova

The city’s founding date commemorated the victory of the Christian forces (supplied primarily by the Italian states and the Spanish kingdom) over the Ottoman Turks in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, during the War of Cyprus.

Painting of the Battle of Lepanto. Unknown artist, after a print by Martin Rota, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London

Lepanto (poem)

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Painting of the Battle of Lepanto. Unknown artist, after a print by Martin Rota, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London

"Lepanto" is a poem by G. K. Chesterton celebrating the victory of the Holy League in the Battle of Lepanto written in irregular stanzas of rhyming, roughly paeonic tetrameter couplets, often ending in a quatrain of four dimeter lines.

Pisa

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City and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.

City and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.

Hypothetical map of Pisa in the fifth century AD
Hypothetical map of Pisa in the 11th century AD
New city walls, erected in 1156 by Consul Cocco Griffi
Idealized depiction of Pisa from the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle.
Bonus certificate of Pisa, issued July 19, 1875
The Leaning Tower of Pisa.
The Monumental Campo Santo in the Piazza del Duomo
Façade of Santa Maria della Spina.
St. Francis' Church
Palazzo della Carovana or dei Cavalieri.
Cittadella vecchia.
Convent, Pisa, Italy, 1895. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection (S03_06_01_001 image 291).
Lungarno di Pisa.
Pisa
A.C. Pisa 1909 play at the Arena Garibaldi – Stadio Romeo Anconetani, as seen from the Leaning Tower
Pisa river view

Santo Stefano dei Cavalieri, church sited on Piazza dei Cavalieri, and also designed by Vasari. It had originally a single nave; two more were added in the 17th century. It houses a bust by Donatello, and paintings by Vasari, Jacopo Ligozzi, Alessandro Fei, and Pontormo. It also contains spoils from the many naval battles between the Cavalieri (Knights of St. Stephan) and the Turks between the 16th and 18th centuries, including the Turkish battle pennant hoisted from Ali Pacha's flagship at the 1571 Battle of Lepanto.