Battle of Lepanto

The Battle of Lepanto, Paolo Veronese
The banner of the Holy League, flown by John of Austria on his flagship Real. It is made of blue damask interwoven with gold thread, of a length of 7.3 m and a width of 4.4 m at the hoist. It displays the crucified Christ above the coats of arms of Pius V, of Venice, of Charles V, and of John of Austria. The coats of arms are linked by chains symbolizing the alliance.
Order of battle of the two fleets, with an allegory of the three powers of the Holy League in the foreground, fresco by Giorgio Vasari (1572, Sala Regia).
Depiction of the Ottoman Navy, detail from the painting by Tommaso Dolabella (1632)
One of the Venetian Galleasses at Lepanto (1851 drawing, after a 1570s painting).
Plan of the Battle (formation of the fleets just before contact)
Fresco in the Vatican's Gallery of Maps
The Victors of Lepanto, John of Austria, Marcantonio Colonna and Sebastiano Venier (anonymous oil painting, c. 1575, formerly in Ambras Castle, now Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna)
Jacopo Ligozzi, The Return of the Knights of Saint Stephen from the Battle of Lepanto (c. 1610, Santo Stefano dei Cavalieri, Pisa)
Battle of Lepanto by Martin Rota, 1572 print, Venice
Felipe II offers Prince Fernando to Victory by Titian, c. 1572–1575, Museo del Prado, Madrid
Monument to John of Austria in Messina
The Battle of Lepanto by Andrea Vicentino (c. 1600, Doge's Palace, Venice)
The Battle of Lepanto by Tommaso Dolabella (c. 1625–1630, Wawel Castle, Cracow)
The Battle of Lepanto by Andries van Eertvelt (1640)
The Battle of Lepanto by Juan Luna (1887, Spanish Senate, Madrid)
The Battle of Lepanto by Tintoretto
The Battle of Lepanto by anonymous
The Battle of Lepanto by Giorgio Vasari

Naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of Catholic states arranged by Pope Pius V, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras.

- Battle of Lepanto
The Battle of Lepanto, Paolo Veronese

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Alpha

Gulf of Patras from space, top is North-East

Gulf of Patras

Branch of the Ionian Sea in Western Greece.

Branch of the Ionian Sea in Western Greece.

Gulf of Patras from space, top is North-East
Gulf of Patras seen from the coast of Achaea; the mountains of Aetolia in the background

A number of major naval battles took place in the Gulf of Patras: the Battle of Patras in 1772, and the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, one of the largest naval battles ever fought.

The Battle of Scheveningen, 10 August 1653, painted by Jan Abrahamsz Beerstraaten.

Age of Sail

Period that lasted at the latest from the mid-16th to the mid-19th centuries, in which the dominance of sailing ships in global trade and warfare culminated, particularly marked by the introduction of naval artillery, and ultimately reached its highest extent at the advent of the analogue Age of Steam.

Period that lasted at the latest from the mid-16th to the mid-19th centuries, in which the dominance of sailing ships in global trade and warfare culminated, particularly marked by the introduction of naval artillery, and ultimately reached its highest extent at the advent of the analogue Age of Steam.

The Battle of Scheveningen, 10 August 1653, painted by Jan Abrahamsz Beerstraaten.
A ship of war, Cyclopaedia 1728, Vol 2
Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean
Several of Zheng He's 15th century ships as depicted on a woodblock print, early 17th century

For warships, the age of sail runs roughly from the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, the last significant engagement in which oar-propelled galleys played a major role, to the development of steam-powered warships.

Reconstruction of a Ming dynasty Kaiyuan bow by Chinese bowyer Gao Xiang. This is a horn, bamboo, and sinew composite.

Composite bow

Traditional bow made from horn, wood, and sinew laminated together, a form of laminated bow.

Traditional bow made from horn, wood, and sinew laminated together, a form of laminated bow.

Reconstruction of a Ming dynasty Kaiyuan bow by Chinese bowyer Gao Xiang. This is a horn, bamboo, and sinew composite.
Heon Kim using a modern Korean composite bow
Early Bronze Age cultures in the Asian steppe
Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh
Ottoman horse archer
Scythians shooting with bows, Panticapaeum (known today as Kertch, Crimea), 4th century BCE
A Saracen pirate holding a bow of the then-popular short Kipchak (Mamluk) design
A Persian miniature representing a man with a composite bow
Zhang Xian shooting a pebble bow at the tiangou causing an eclipse

Until 1571, archers with composite bows were a main component of the forces of the Ottoman Empire, but in the Battle of Lepanto in that year, they lost most of these troops and never replaced them.

Jerónimo Corte-Real

Portuguese epic poet, who came of a noble Portuguese stock.

Portuguese epic poet, who came of a noble Portuguese stock.

"São Miguel e as Suas Almas" ("Saint Michael and his souls") by Jerónimo Corte Real, at the church of Santo Antão, Évora, Portugal . Dated 1570-90

Austriada, an epic in 15 cantos celebrating the victory of John of Austria (Don Juan de Austria) over the Turks at Lepanto, was written in Spanish and published in 1578.

Ottoman Cyprus

Eyalet (province) of the Ottoman Empire made up of the island of Cyprus, which was annexed into the Empire in 1571.

Eyalet (province) of the Ottoman Empire made up of the island of Cyprus, which was annexed into the Empire in 1571.

Ottoman Cyprus in 1609 in red. The rest of the Ottoman Empire in light-yellow
Administrative map of Cyprus drawn by the British in 1878, showing the Ottoman administrative division of the island at the time of the handover
Chalcography depicting Famagusta in 1703
Traditional clothing of (from right to left) a Christian resident of Ammochostos (Famagusta, Cyprus), a Christian woman of Magossa, and a Greek monk of the Monastery of Tchiko (Kykkos), near Lefka, 1873
The Hala Sultan Tekke, built in 1817, was one of many landmarks constructed by the Ottoman Turks in Cyprus.
The Limassol Medieval Castle was rebuilt in 1590 by the Ottomans.
Büyük Han
Bekir Pasha Aqueduct

Four months later, on 7 October, the naval forces of the League, composed mainly of Venetian, Spanish, and Papal ships under the command of Don John of Austria, defeated the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in one of the decisive battles in general — and naval battles in particular — of world history.

Badge of the order.

Order of Saint Stephen

Roman Catholic Tuscan dynastic military order founded in 1561.

Roman Catholic Tuscan dynastic military order founded in 1561.

Badge of the order.
Galley of the Order of Saint Stephen (1611 celebrating drawing).
Flag of the galleys of the Order of Saint Stephen, 1562-end of XVIII century.

In its early years, the Order took part successfully in the Spanish wars against the Ottomans, being present at the siege of Malta (1565), the Battle of Lepanto (1571) and the capture in 1607 of Annaba in Algeria by the then admiral Jacopo Inghirami.

The Church of San Domenico Maggiore in Naples (apse area).

San Domenico Maggiore

Gothic, Roman Catholic church and monastery, founded by the friars of the Dominican Order, and located in the square of the same name in the historic center of Naples.

Gothic, Roman Catholic church and monastery, founded by the friars of the Dominican Order, and located in the square of the same name in the historic center of Naples.

The Church of San Domenico Maggiore in Naples (apse area).
Interior.
Coffins of members of the royal Aragonese family (covered in red, upper level).

Pieces of great visual suggestion are the two busts from the 18th century: one of Pope Pius V, promoter of the famous battle of Lepanto in 1571, and one of St. Dominic, founder of the Dominican order, represented according with the typical iconography: a star on his head, a dog running with a torch in his mouth, and a church.

Paolo Giordano Orsini in a group painting by Giovanni Maria Butteri, 1575

Paolo Giordano I Orsini

Italian nobleman, and the first duke of Bracciano from 1560.

Italian nobleman, and the first duke of Bracciano from 1560.

Paolo Giordano Orsini in a group painting by Giovanni Maria Butteri, 1575

In 1571 he took part in the battle of Lepanto.

The Battle of Lepanto (Luna painting)

Painting by Filipino painter and revolutionary activist Juan Luna.

Painting by Filipino painter and revolutionary activist Juan Luna.

Painted by Luna in 1887, the masterpiece is about the Battle of Lepanto of October 7, 1571.

Battle between Spanish and Ottoman galleys. Oil on canvas attributed to Cornelis de Wael.

Battle of Cape Corvo

Naval engagement of the Ottoman–Habsburg wars fought as part of the struggle for the control of the Mediterranean.

Naval engagement of the Ottoman–Habsburg wars fought as part of the struggle for the control of the Mediterranean.

Battle between Spanish and Ottoman galleys. Oil on canvas attributed to Cornelis de Wael.
Embarkation of Spanish Troops on the Mediterranean Coast, by Andries van Eertvelt.
Spanish Men-of-War Engaging Barbary Pirates, painting of 1615 by Cornelis Vroom.
Engraving of Pedro Téllez-Girón y Velasco, 3rd Duke of Osuna.

Cape Corvo was the first major victory of the Spanish fleets under Pedro Téllez-Girón, 3rd Duke of Osuna, the Spanish Viceroy of Sicily, as well as the greatest Spanish victory over the Ottoman Empire since the Battle of Lepanto.