Battle of Mukden

Mukden
The Battle of Mukden, one of the largest land battles to be fought before World War I and the last and the most decisive major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, was fought from 20 February to 10 March 1905 between Japan and Russia near Mukden in Manchuria.wikipedia
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Mikhail Batyanov

Fearing further Japanese advances, General Kuropatkin ordered that the town of Tieling be put to the torch, and marched his remaining men 10 days further north to a new defense line at Hspingkai (modern Siping, Jilin province, China), where General Mikhail Batyanov (who replaced General von Bilderling as commander of the Third Manchurian Army) organized defenses against a possible renewed Japanese offensive.
During the Russo-Japanese War, he was appointed commander of the Third Manchuria Army in May 1905, replacing General Alexandr von Bilderling after the Battle of Mukden.

Imperial Russian Army

Russian Imperial ArmyRussian ArmyRussian
The army was defeated by Japan during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05, notable engagements being the Siege of Port Arthur and the Battle of Mukden.

Ground warfare

Land warfarelandground combat
The Battle of Mukden, one of the largest land battles to be fought before World War I and the last and the most decisive major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, was fought from 20 February to 10 March 1905 between Japan and Russia near Mukden in Manchuria.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
The Battle of Mukden, one of the largest land battles to be fought before World War I and the last and the most decisive major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, was fought from 20 February to 10 March 1905 between Japan and Russia near Mukden in Manchuria.

Battle

firefightBattlesskirmishes
The Battle of Mukden, one of the largest land battles to be fought before World War I and the last and the most decisive major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, was fought from 20 February to 10 March 1905 between Japan and Russia near Mukden in Manchuria.

Manchuria

ManchurianThree Eastern ProvincesNortheast
The Battle of Mukden, one of the largest land battles to be fought before World War I and the last and the most decisive major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, was fought from 20 February to 10 March 1905 between Japan and Russia near Mukden in Manchuria. The severe casualties, bitter cold climate, and approach of the Russian Baltic Fleet created pressure on Marshal Ōyama to effect the complete destruction of the Russian forces, rather than just another victory from which the Russians could withdraw farther into Manchuria.

Provinces of China

ProvinceprovincesChinese provinces
The city is now called Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning province in China.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
Fearing further Japanese advances, General Kuropatkin ordered that the town of Tieling be put to the torch, and marched his remaining men 10 days further north to a new defense line at Hspingkai (modern Siping, Jilin province, China), where General Mikhail Batyanov (who replaced General von Bilderling as commander of the Third Manchurian Army) organized defenses against a possible renewed Japanese offensive. The city is now called Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning province in China.

Imperial Japanese Army

Japanese ArmyJapanese Imperial ArmyJapanese
The Russian forces, numbering more than 340,000, under General Alexei Nikolajevich Kuropatkin, fought the attacking Imperial Japanese Army forces numbering more than 270,000, led by Marshal Marquess Ōyama Iwao.

Marquess

MarquisMarchionessmarquisate
The Russian forces, numbering more than 340,000, under General Alexei Nikolajevich Kuropatkin, fought the attacking Imperial Japanese Army forces numbering more than 270,000, led by Marshal Marquess Ōyama Iwao.

Franco-Prussian War

Franco-German WarWar of 1870Franco Prussian War
The Japanese side alone fired 20.11 million rifle and machine gun rounds and 279,394 artillery shells in just over ten days of fighting (the Russians fired more), matching the ammunition consumption of the German army in the entire 191-day Franco-Prussian War.

Battle of Liaoyang

LiaoyangbattleBattle of Shoushanpu
Following the Battle of Liaoyang (24 August to 4 September 1904), Russian forces retreated to the river Sha Ho south of Mukden and regrouped.

Battle of Shaho

ShahoBattle of Sha-ho River
From 5 October 1904 to 17 October 1904, during the Battle of Shaho, the Russians unsuccessfully counter-attacked, but managed to temporarily slow the Japanese advance.

Battle of Sandepu

SandepuBattle of San-de-pu
A second Russian counter-offensive, the Battle of Sandepu, fought from (25–29 January 1905) was likewise unsuccessful.

Lüshunkou District

Port ArthurLüshunLüshunkou
The fall of Port Arthur to General Nogi freed up the Japanese 3rd Army, which advanced north to reinforce the Japanese lines near Mukden in preparation for an attack.

Baltic Fleet

Russian Baltic FleetBalticRed Banner Baltic Fleet
The severe casualties, bitter cold climate, and approach of the Russian Baltic Fleet created pressure on Marshal Ōyama to effect the complete destruction of the Russian forces, rather than just another victory from which the Russians could withdraw farther into Manchuria.

First Sino-Japanese War

Sino-Japanese WarSino-Japanese War (1894-1895)Sino–Japanese War
All during the war, the Japanese had pursued a meticulous civil affairs policy aimed at avoiding civilian casualties and keeping the Chinese populace on their side – a stark contrast with the previous First Sino-Japanese War and subsequent Second Sino-Japanese War.

Second Sino-Japanese War

Sino-Japanese WarJapanese invasion of ChinaJapanese invasion
All during the war, the Japanese had pursued a meticulous civil affairs policy aimed at avoiding civilian casualties and keeping the Chinese populace on their side – a stark contrast with the previous First Sino-Japanese War and subsequent Second Sino-Japanese War.

Hun River (Liao River tributary)

Hun RiverHunShen River
Then Kuropatkin decided to withdraw his troops north towards Mukden to face the Japanese forces head-on on the city's southwest and at the banks of the Hun River in the city's southeast.

Mikhail Alekseyev

Mikhail AlekseevAlexeyevAlekseev
The Hun River, guarded by the Russian left flank commanded by Major General Mikhail Alekseyev, remained frozen, and was not an obstacle to the Japanese attack.

Tieling

Tieling CityTiehlingTieling Prefecture
Fearing further Japanese advances, General Kuropatkin ordered that the town of Tieling be put to the torch, and marched his remaining men 10 days further north to a new defense line at Hspingkai (modern Siping, Jilin province, China), where General Mikhail Batyanov (who replaced General von Bilderling as commander of the Third Manchurian Army) organized defenses against a possible renewed Japanese offensive.