Battle of Okinawa

US Marine from the 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines on Wana Ridge provides covering fire with his Thompson submachine gun, 18 May 1945.
A map of US operations at Okinawa
Tekketsu Kinnōtai child soldiers on Okinawa
The battleship USS Idaho (BB-42) shelling Okinawa on 1 April 1945
Generals Mitsuru Ushijima, Isamu Chō and other officers of the Thirty-Second Army in Okinawa, April 1945
US Marine reinforcements wade ashore to support the beachhead on Okinawa, 1 April 1945.
A 6th Marine Division demolition crew watches explosive charges detonate and destroy a Japanese cave, May 1945.
US Marines pass a dead Japanese soldier in a destroyed village, April 1945.
American soldiers of the 77th Infantry Division listen impassively to radio reports of Victory in Europe Day on 8 May 1945.
Soldiers of the 96th Infantry Division attack Japanese positions on Big Apple Ridge.
Lt. Col. Richard P. Ross Jr., commander of 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines braves sniper fire to place the United States' colors over the parapets of Shuri Castle on 30 May. This flag was first raised over Cape Gloucester and then Peleliu.
A Japanese prisoner of war sits behind barbed wire after he and 306 others were captured within the last 24 hours of the battle by 6th Marine Division.
Two US Coast Guardsmen pay homage to their comrade killed in the Ryukyu Islands.
Two wounded American soldiers make their way to a medical aid station on Okinawa, 20 April 1945.
Two US M4 Sherman tanks knocked out by Japanese artillery at Bloody Ridge, 20 April 1945
The last picture of US Army Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. (right), taken on 18 June 1945. Later in the day, he was killed by Japanese artillery fire.
The last picture of US Army Brig. Gen. Claudius Miller Easley, taken on 19 June 1945. He was later killed by Japanese machine-gun fire.
A group of Japanese prisoners taken on the island of Okuku in June 1945
A US Marine Corps Stinson Sentinel observation plane flies over the razed Naha, capital of Okinawa, in May 1945.
Two US Marines share a foxhole with an Okinawan war orphan in April 1945.
Overcoming the civilian resistance on Okinawa was aided by US propaganda leaflets, one of which is being read by a prisoner awaiting transport.
The Cornerstone of Peace Memorial with names of all military and civilians from all countries who died in the Battle of Okinawa
Marines celebrate Victory over Japan Day on Okinawa, August 1945
Japanese commanders of Okinawa (photographed early in February 1945). In center: (1) Admiral Minoru Ota, (2) Lt. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima, (3) Lt. Gen. Isamu Cho, (4) Col. Hitoshi Kanayama, (5) Col. Kikuji Hongo, and (6) Col. Hiromichi Yahara
Japanese soldiers arriving on Okinawa
Japanese high school girls wave farewell to a kamikaze pilot departing to Okinawa
A US military diagram of typical Japanese hill defensive tunnels and installations
A Japanese Type 89 150mm gun hidden inside a cave defensive system
A map of Okinawa's airfields, 1945
The super battleship {{Ship|Japanese battleship|Yamato||2}} explodes after persistent attacks from US aircraft.
American aircraft carrier {{USS|Bunker Hill|CV-17|6}} burns after being hit by two kamikaze planes within 30 seconds.
Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm Avengers, Seafires and Fireflies on {{HMS|Implacable|R86|6}} warm up their engines before taking off.
{{HMS|Formidable|67|6}} on fire after a kamikaze attack on May 4. The ship was out of action for fifty minutes.

Major battle of the Pacific War fought on the island of Okinawa by United States Army (USA) and United States Marine Corps (USMC) forces against the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA).

- Battle of Okinawa

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Kadena Air Base

Highly strategic United States Air Force base in the towns of Kadena and Chatan and the city of Okinawa, in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

A U.S. Air Force E-3 Sentry from the 961st Airborne Air Control Squadron taxis on the runway before take-off from Kadena Air Base in 2015.
Kadena Air Base
View of Kadena Air Base
An Australian AP-3C Orion at Kadena Air Base in October 2018
Lockheed SR-71 side view the first SR-71A-LO delivered (SN 61-7950) 061122-F-1234P-045

Kadena Air Base's history dates back to just before the Battle of Okinawa in April 1945, when a local construction firm completed a small airfield named Yara Hikojo near the village of Kadena.

2nd Marine Division

Division of the United States Marine Corps, which forms the ground combat element of the II Marine Expeditionary Force (II MEF).

2nd Marine Division insignia
Staff Sergeant Timerlate Kirven (left) and Corporal Samuel J. Love, Sr., the first African-American Marines to be decorated with Purple Hearts by the 2nd Marine Division for the battle of Saipan.
Two Marines from the 1st Battalion, 6th Marine Regiment in Fallujah, Iraq, during July 2005
Structure of 2nd Marine Division
A 2nd Marine Division insignia adorns a memorial at Camp Lejeune

The 2nd Marine Division earned renown in World War II, distinguishing itself at Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Saipan, Tinian, and Okinawa.

6th Marine Division (United States)

United States Marine Corps World War II infantry division formed in September 1944.

6th Marine Division insignia
The 6th Marine Division wade ashore to support the beachhead on Okinawa, 1 April 1945.
Initial plan of the assault showing the 6th Marine Division's role
Sugar Loaf Hill as seen from the north
A patrol of Marines from the 6th Marine Division searches the ruins of Naha, Okinawa in April 1945.
A 6th Division Marine demolition crew watches explosive charges detonate and destroy a Japanese cave, May 1945.

During the invasion of Okinawa it saw combat at Yae-Take and Sugar Loaf Hill and was awarded a Presidential Unit Citation.

Leapfrogging (strategy)

Military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War against the Empire of Japan during World War II.

Allied island-hopping campaign 1943–1945: 
 Blue – Japanese-held territory Aug. 1945 
 Dark red – Allied territory 
  Red – Occupied Nov. 1943 
  Dark pink – Occupied Apr. 1944 
  Pink – Occupied Oct. 1944 
  Light pink – Occupied Aug. 1945

MacArthur said his version of leapfrogging was different from what he called island hopping, which was the style favored by the Central Pacific Area commanded by Admiral Chester Nimitz that favored direct assaults on heavily defended beaches and islands leading to massive casualties for such small parcels of land like at Tarawa, Peleliu, Saipan, Guam, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa.

Tenth United States Army

The last army level command established during the Pacific War during World War II, and included divisions from both the U.S. Army and the U.S. Marine Corps.

Tenth Army Shoulder Insignia

During the Battle of Okinawa (1 April through 22 June 1945), the Tenth Army consisted of XXIV Corps of the U.S. Army (consisting of the 7th, 27th, 77th and 96th Army infantry divisions) and III Amphibious Corps of the U.S. Marine Corps (consisting of the 1st, 2nd and 6th Marine divisions).

1st Marine Division

Marine division of the United States Marine Corps headquartered at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California.

Structure of 1st Marine Division
A Marine of the 1st Marine Regiment on Guadalcanal.
Marines of 1st Marine Division fighting on Okinawa, 1945.
Marines of 1st Marine Division at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir.
3/3 Marines observe an airstrike during Operation Harvest Moon
A wounded 2/5 Marine receives treatment during the Battle of Huế
1/5 Marines await a helicopter during Operation Imperial Lake
Letter by Gen Mattis distributed throughout division before the 2003 invasion of Iraq
19th Naval Construction Battalion Plaque as the third Battalion 17th Marines with the 1st Marine Division Seabee Museum Archives

Others were awarded for the battles of Peleliu and Okinawa.

77th Sustainment Brigade

Unit of the United States Army that inherited the lineage of the 77th Infantry Division , which served in World War I and World War II.

77th Sustainment Brigade shoulder sleeve insignia
Men of the 307th Infantry Regiment (attached to the British 42nd Division for instruction), headed by a British regimental band, marching past Major-General Arthur Solly-Flood (42nd Division) on a road near Famechon, France, 7 June 1918.
Square Division example: 1940 US Infantry Division. On the far left can be seen two Brigades of two Regiments each.
Men of Company I, 308th Infantry, resting after capturing German second line trenches 1½ miles north of Le Four de Paris; Lieutenant Stewart in charge: Foret d'Argonne (Forest of Argonne), September 1918.
1st BLT, 306th in the Kerama Islands on 27 March 1945
Men of the 77th Infantry division listen to radio reports of Germany's surrender on 8 May 1945.
Triangular Division example: 1942 U.S. infantry division. The brigades of the Square division have been removed, and there are three regiments directly under divisional control.

In late March (26–29), the division made 15 landings, securing Kerama Retto and Keise Shima for the assault on Okinawa.

Royal New Zealand Navy

Maritime arm of the New Zealand Defence Force.

Crest of the Royal New Zealand Navy
HMNZS Leander and USS
St. Louis fire on Jintsu
HMNZS Royalist in Waitemata Harbour, 1956
RNZN ships, Cook Strait, 2011
Offshore patrol vessel HMNZS Wellington
The multi-role vessel Canterbury with the frigate Te Kaha in the background
RNZN frigate and USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) in the North Arabian Sea during Operation Enduring Freedom
A boarding team from HMNZS Te Mana during the ship's deployment to the Gulf of Oman in 2004
White Ensign 1945–1968
White Ensign 1968–present
Queen's Colour of the Royal New Zealand Navy

They took part in the Battle of Okinawa and operations in the Sakishima Islands, near Japan.

United States Fifth Fleet

Numbered fleet of the United States Navy.

The U.S. Fifth Fleet's emblem
U.S. Navy, Royal Navy, and Royal Australian Navy destroyers on joint operations in the Persian Gulf.
The Fifth Fleet's area of responsibility, 2009.

While operating under Spruance's command as the Fifth Fleet, the fleet took part in the Mariana Islands campaign of June–August 1944, the Iwo Jima campaign of February–March 1945, and the Okinawa campaign of April–June 1945.


United States Naval Construction Battalions, better known as the Navy Seabees, form the U.S. Naval Construction Force (NCF).

The Seabee logo
CB Navy Yard Bougainville with the Seabee Expression
3rd Marine Div. 2nd Raider's sign on Bougainville. 53rd CB was the shore party to the 2nd Raiders of Green Beach, D-Day.
The Naval Infantry Battalion Flag was mandated by Naval Regulation as the military colors for the Construction Battalions.
USMC-directed fixed bayonet drill at Camp Peary NTC, VA in 1943
"17th Special" Seabees with the 7th Marines on Peleliu made national news in an official U.S. Navy press release. NARA-532537
MIT grad Lt Cmdr. Edward Swain Hope CEC was the most senior African American officer in the United States Navy during WWII.
Winterized wildcat Seabee#1 at Umiat
53rd Construction Battalion sign
19th CB Plaque produced while designated 3rd Battalion 17th Marines
CB insignia worn on USMC issue garrison cap.
Fleet Marine Force Combat Operation Insignia for Seabees and Corpsmen.
"NCDU 45", Ensign Karnowski (CEC), ChCarp. Conrad C. Millis, MMCB2 Lester Meyers and three gunners mates. The unit received a Presidential Unit Citation with Ens. Karnowski earning the Navy Cross & French Croix de Guerre with Palm, while MM2 Meyers received a Silver Star. Two men were wounded and one killed.
Seabees in both UDT 3 and 4 made signs to greet the Marines assaulting Guam. Lt. Crist confiscated this sign. However, Team 4 was able to leave theirs on the beach for the Marines to see that the Seabees had been there first.
Lt Luehrs was one of the 30 Officers from the 7th NCR that Lt. Crist staged for UDTs 1 & 2. He and Chief Acheson were the first UDT swimmers.
Carp. W. H. Achenson Silver Star ceremony for UDT 1 action at Engibi where he stripped down to swim trunks and did reconnaissance in broad daylight on a hostile beach becoming a role model of UDTs being swimmers.
Lt. Crist(CEC), Lt. Cmdr. Kaufmann, and Lt. Carberry right to left at Silver and bronze stars awards
The 53rd CB erecting camera towers on Bikini Atoll for filming the tests.
Yo Do Island airfield constructed behind enemy lines by ACB 1. It was credited with saving 60 aviators. Seabees in photo are refueling Corsairs on 15 July 1952. (USN)
Naval Air Station Cubi Point left, U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay right. Seabees leveled a mountain that civilian contractors said could not be done. (USN)
Suspension bridge built by NMCB 5 CCAD in Timor-Leste 2015 (Seabee Museum)
Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, constructed by NMCB 71, dia. 165' x 54' height
Tank for PM3a nuclear reactor built by MCB 1 at McMurdo Station
STAT 1104 in Port Hueneme L-R standing: John Klepher, Dale Brakken, William Hoover KIA, Ltjg Peterlin, Cmdr L.W.Eyman, Douglas Mattick, James Keenan, J.R. McCully, Marvin Shields KIA, kneeling: Richard Supczak, F.J. Alexander Jr, James Wilson, Jack Allen. For their actions in the Battle of Dong Xoai, STAT 1104 received a Navy Unit Commendation a Medal of Honor, 2 Silver Stars, 6 Bronze Stars with Vs and 9 purple hearts. (USN)
Vietnam era EO3 – EO1 collar devices
Tektite I assembled by ACB 2
CIA runway by MCB 6 Det Alfa on Swan Island
Naval Support Unit Seabees securing a diplomatic compound in Dec. 2010. (Dept. of State)
NMCB 15 Seabee mans a machine gun while travelling through Al Hillah, Iraq in May 2003.
NMCB 5 attached to Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa set tents for displaced flood victims in Ethiopia. (2006)
Seabees from NMCB 3 pave a road in the Northern Mariana Islands
NMCB 40 Seabee Engineer Reconnaissance Team assess the structural capacity of a bridge during field exercises.
US Navy 030404-N-1050K-023U.S. Seabees from ACBs 1 and 2 place a deck section in the assembly of the Elevated Causeway System-Modular (ELCAS (M)) at Camp Patriot, Kuwait (Apr 2003).
Underwater Construction Team 2 along with divers of the National Park Service ascertain the condition and status of the battleship USS Arizona Memorial in 2013
USMC barracks inspection during NMCB 74's military training at Camp Lejeune in March 1968
USMC M60 instruction at Camp Lejeune for MCB 71 in 1967
SCW insignia: Seabee Officers and enlisted
FMF insignia for USN: Officer, Enlisted, and Chaplain
US Navy 050728-N-8268B-022 A Logistical Amphibious Recovery Craft (LARC) amphibious vehicle assigned to Beachmaster Unit One (BMU-1) launches from the Military Sealift Command (MSC) sea barge heavy lift ship SS Cape Mohican (T-AKR-5065)
The Fighting Seabee Statue at Quonset Point, where the Seabee Museum and Memorial Park commemorates Camp Endicott which is on the National Register of Historic Places (U.S. Navy)

The invasion of Okinawa took four Construction Brigades of 55,000 men.