Battle of Okinawa

US Marine from the 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines on Wana Ridge provides covering fire with his Thompson submachine gun, 18 May 1945.
A map of US operations at Okinawa
Tekketsu Kinnōtai child soldiers on Okinawa
The battleship USS Idaho (BB-42) shelling Okinawa on 1 April 1945
Generals Mitsuru Ushijima, Isamu Chō and other officers of the Thirty-Second Army in Okinawa, April 1945
US Marine reinforcements wade ashore to support the beachhead on Okinawa, 1 April 1945.
A 6th Marine Division demolition crew watches explosive charges detonate and destroy a Japanese cave, May 1945.
US Marines pass a dead Japanese soldier in a destroyed village, April 1945.
American soldiers of the 77th Infantry Division listen impassively to radio reports of Victory in Europe Day on 8 May 1945.
Soldiers of the 96th Infantry Division attack Japanese positions on Big Apple Ridge.
Lt. Col. Richard P. Ross Jr., commander of 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines braves sniper fire to place the United States' colors over the parapets of Shuri Castle on 30 May. This flag was first raised over Cape Gloucester and then Peleliu.
A Japanese prisoner of war sits behind barbed wire after he and 306 others were captured within the last 24 hours of the battle by 6th Marine Division.
Two US Coast Guardsmen pay homage to their comrade killed in the Ryukyu Islands.
Two wounded American soldiers make their way to a medical aid station on Okinawa, 20 April 1945.
Two US M4 Sherman tanks knocked out by Japanese artillery at Bloody Ridge, 20 April 1945
The last picture of US Army Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. (right), taken on 18 June 1945. Later in the day, he was killed by Japanese artillery fire.
The last picture of US Army Brig. Gen. Claudius Miller Easley, taken on 19 June 1945. He was later killed by Japanese machine-gun fire.
A group of Japanese prisoners taken on the island of Okuku in June 1945
A US Marine Corps Stinson Sentinel observation plane flies over the razed Naha, capital of Okinawa, in May 1945.
Two US Marines share a foxhole with an Okinawan war orphan in April 1945.
Overcoming the civilian resistance on Okinawa was aided by US propaganda leaflets, one of which is being read by a prisoner awaiting transport.
The Cornerstone of Peace Memorial with names of all military and civilians from all countries who died in the Battle of Okinawa
Marines celebrate Victory over Japan Day on Okinawa, August 1945
Japanese commanders of Okinawa (photographed early in February 1945). In center: (1) Admiral Minoru Ota, (2) Lt. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima, (3) Lt. Gen. Isamu Cho, (4) Col. Hitoshi Kanayama, (5) Col. Kikuji Hongo, and (6) Col. Hiromichi Yahara
Japanese soldiers arriving on Okinawa
Japanese high school girls wave farewell to a kamikaze pilot departing to Okinawa
A US military diagram of typical Japanese hill defensive tunnels and installations
A Japanese Type 89 150mm gun hidden inside a cave defensive system
A map of Okinawa's airfields, 1945
The super battleship {{Ship|Japanese battleship|Yamato||2}} explodes after persistent attacks from US aircraft.
American aircraft carrier {{USS|Bunker Hill|CV-17|6}} burns after being hit by two kamikaze planes within 30 seconds.
Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm Avengers, Seafires and Fireflies on {{HMS|Implacable|R86|6}} warm up their engines before taking off.
{{HMS|Formidable|67|6}} on fire after a kamikaze attack on May 4. The ship was out of action for fifty minutes.

Major battle of the Pacific War fought on the island of Okinawa by United States Army (USA) and United States Marine Corps (USMC) forces against the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA).

- Battle of Okinawa
US Marine from the 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines on Wana Ridge provides covering fire with his Thompson submachine gun, 18 May 1945.

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Alpha

Shuri Castle

Shuri, Okinawa

District of the city of Naha, Okinawa.

District of the city of Naha, Okinawa.

Shuri Castle
A cobblestone road in Shuri-kinjocho
Shuri in Taishō period

As Shuri was the center of the Japanese defense, it was the prime target of American assault in the battle of Okinawa which was fought from March to June 1945.

Motobu Peninsula and surrounding islands

Motobu Peninsula

Peninsula in the Yanbaru region of Okinawa Island.

Peninsula in the Yanbaru region of Okinawa Island.

Motobu Peninsula and surrounding islands
View of the Motobu Peninsula from Onna, Okinawa
Cape Bise

The peninsula was the center of power for the kingdom of Hokuzan in medieval times, and was the site of fierce fighting during the Battle of Okinawa in 1945.

Admiral Minoru Ōta

Minoru Ōta

Admiral Minoru Ōta
Japanese commanders on Okinawa prior to the Battle of Okinawa
The Commander's Room of the underground Naval Headquarters.
Ōta committed suicide here.
Last telegram to Vice-Admiral.(Japanese modern translation )

Minoru Ōta (大田 実) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II, and the final commander of the Japanese naval forces defending the Oroku Peninsula during the Battle of Okinawa.

Henry A. Courtney Jr., Medal of Honor recipient

Henry A. Courtney Jr.

Officer of the United States Marine Corps Reserve during World War II and a posthumous recipient of the Medal of Honor.

Officer of the United States Marine Corps Reserve during World War II and a posthumous recipient of the Medal of Honor.

Henry A. Courtney Jr., Medal of Honor recipient
Brick from Korean War Veterans Memorial
Korean War Veterans Memorial
Korean War Veterans Memorial

His next combat action was the Battle of Okinawa, for which he was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.

Ryukyuan people

East Asian ethnic group native to the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan.

East Asian ethnic group native to the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan.

Haplogroup dispersal and migration routes into Japan.
The gusuku fortification are on the Gusuku Sites and Related Properties of the Kingdom of Ryukyu UNESCO's list.
Map of Okinawa Island, showing the Sanzan period polities.
The castle town and Ryukyu Kingdom's capital Shuri Castle.
Five Ryukyuan men, Meiji period.
The kamekōbaka (Turtleback tomb) is the traditional Ryukyuan family tomb.

During World War II and battles like the Battle of Okinawa (1945), approximately 150,000 civilians (1/3 of the population) were killed in Okinawa alone.

Japanese Commanders on Okinawa: (photographed early in February 1945). In center: (1) Admiral Minoru Ota, (2) Lt. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima, (3) Lt. Gen. Isamu Cho, (4) Col. Hitoshi Kanayama, (5) Col. Kikuji Hongo, and (6) Col. Hiromichi Yahara.

Thirty-Second Army (Japan)

Army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the final stages of World War II.

Army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the final stages of World War II.

Japanese Commanders on Okinawa: (photographed early in February 1945). In center: (1) Admiral Minoru Ota, (2) Lt. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima, (3) Lt. Gen. Isamu Cho, (4) Col. Hitoshi Kanayama, (5) Col. Kikuji Hongo, and (6) Col. Hiromichi Yahara.

It was annihilated during the Battle of Okinawa.

Joseph Stilwell

United States Army general who served in the China Burma India Theater during World War II.

United States Army general who served in the China Burma India Theater during World War II.

then-Lt. Col. Stilwell as Assistant Chief of Staff, IV Army Corps, October 1918 in France.
Gen. Frank Merrill (left) with Stilwell in Burma
Stilwell marches out of Burma, May 1942
Stilwell with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and Soong Mei-ling
Stilwell awarding medals at Myitkyina, 1944
A bust of Stilwell at the "Former Residence of General Stilwell" Museum in Chongqing

On 23 June 1945, after the death of Lieutenant General Simon B. Buckner, Jr. on 18 June, Stilwell was appointed as commander of the Tenth United States Army shortly after the end of Japanese resistance in the Battle of Okinawa.

Ernie Pyle in 1945

Ernie Pyle

Pulitzer Prize–winning American journalist and war correspondent who is best known for his stories about ordinary American soldiers during World War II.

Pulitzer Prize–winning American journalist and war correspondent who is best known for his stories about ordinary American soldiers during World War II.

Ernie Pyle in 1945
Ernie Pyle birthplace in Dana, Indiana
Pyle with a crew from the US Army's 191st Tank Battalion at the Anzio beachhead in 1944
Pyle at Anzio, Italy, 1944
Pyle shares a cigarette with soldiers on Okinawa
Ernie Pyle shortly after being killed on Iejima, April 18, 1945
Ernie Pyle funeral
The Ernie Pyle Memorial on Iejima, Japan
Pyle's headstone at Memorial Cemetery in Honolulu
The Ernie Pyle Boeing B-29
The Ernie Pyle Library in Albuquerque

He was killed by enemy fire on Iejima (then known as Ie Shima) during the Battle of Okinawa.

Mississippi anchored off New York City circa 1918

USS Mississippi (BB-41)

The third ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 20th state.

The third ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 20th state.

Mississippi anchored off New York City circa 1918
A Sopwith Camel takes off from Mississippi, 6 April 1919
Mississippi supporting Lingayen Gulf landing. USS West Virginia and HMAS Shropshire are in the background.
USS Mississippi firing a Terrier missile

She shelled Japanese forces during the Gilbert and Marshall Islands and the Philippines campaigns and the invasions of Peleliu and Okinawa.

Sea view of Kerama Islands with surrounding coral reefs

Kerama Islands

Island group 32 km southwest of Okinawa Island in Japan.

Island group 32 km southwest of Okinawa Island in Japan.

Sea view of Kerama Islands with surrounding coral reefs
The 77th Infantry Division on Zamani Island during World War II

During World War II and preliminary to the Battle of Okinawa, soldiers of the 77th Infantry Division landed in the Kerama Islands on March 26, 1945.