Battle of Pressburg

Brezalauspurcthree battlesthree battles of Bratislavabattle at ''Brezalauspurcbattle fought at ''BrezalauspurcBattle of BrezalauspurcBattle of Pozsonybattles between the Bavarians and the HungariansHungarians defeated a Bavarian armyPressburg
The Battle of Pressburg (Schlacht von Pressburg) or Battle of Pozsony (Pozsonyi csata), or Battle of Bratislava (Bitka pri Bratislave) was a three-day-long battle, fought between 4–6 July 907, during which the East Francian army, consisting mainly of Bavarian troops led by Margrave Luitpold, was annihilated by Hungarian forces.wikipedia
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Bratislava

PressburgPozsonyBratislava, Slovakia
Some specialists place it in the vicinity of Zalavár (Mosapurc); others in a location close to Bratislava (Pressburg), the traditional assumption.
The medieval settlement Brezalauspurc (literally: Braslav's castle) is sometimes attributed to Bratislava, but the actual location of Brezalauspurc is under scholarly debate.

Principality of Hungary

HungarianHungariansHungary
The Battle of Pressburg (Schlacht von Pressburg) or Battle of Pozsony (Pozsonyi csata), or Battle of Bratislava (Bitka pri Bratislave) was a three-day-long battle, fought between 4–6 July 907, during which the East Francian army, consisting mainly of Bavarian troops led by Margrave Luitpold, was annihilated by Hungarian forces. In 900, the advisors to the new king of East Francia, Louis the Child, and led by his regent, Hatto I, Archbishop of Mainz, refused to renew the East Francian (German)–Hungarian alliance, which ended upon the death of Arnulf of Carinthia, the prior king Consequently, in 900 the Hungarians took over Pannonia (Transdanubia) from the Duchy of Bavaria, then a part of East Francia.
The Hungarians succeeded in extending the de iure Bavarian-Hungarian border to the River Enns (until 955), and the principality was not attacked from this direction for 100 years after the Battle of Pressburg.

Battle of Rednitz

Rednitz
It is more likely they were led by the same unknown, but brilliant commander who led them during the battles of Brenta, Eisenach, Rednitz and Augsburg.
During this war, after the Battle of Pressburg, the Hungarians continued their campaigns against East Francia, in order to subdue completely the Germans, beaten in 907.

Battle of Lechfeld (910)

Battle of AugsburgAugsburgBattle of Lechfeld
It is more likely they were led by the same unknown, but brilliant commander who led them during the battles of Brenta, Eisenach, Rednitz and Augsburg.
However he makes some mistakes by putting this battle in 907, quickly after the Battle of Pressburg, its place at Ennsburg in Bavaria, and instead of Swabians, names the Bavarians as its participants.

Hungarian invasions of Europe

Hungarian invasionsMagyarsHungarian
These battles, part of the Hungarian invasions of Europe, were their greatest triumphs, and they inflicted the heaviest losses of enemy forces, including in most cases the enemy commander.
In 907 they defeated the invading Bavarians near Brezalauspurc, destroying their army, successfully defending Hungary and laying Great Moravia, Germany, France and Italy open to Magyar raids.

Duchy of Bavaria

BavariaBavarianDukes of Bavaria
The Battle of Pressburg (Schlacht von Pressburg) or Battle of Pozsony (Pozsonyi csata), or Battle of Bratislava (Bitka pri Bratislave) was a three-day-long battle, fought between 4–6 July 907, during which the East Francian army, consisting mainly of Bavarian troops led by Margrave Luitpold, was annihilated by Hungarian forces. In 900, the advisors to the new king of East Francia, Louis the Child, and led by his regent, Hatto I, Archbishop of Mainz, refused to renew the East Francian (German)–Hungarian alliance, which ended upon the death of Arnulf of Carinthia, the prior king Consequently, in 900 the Hungarians took over Pannonia (Transdanubia) from the Duchy of Bavaria, then a part of East Francia. According to Aventinus they even occupied and burned Regensburg, the capital city of the Duchy of Bavaria (the city being later strengthened with huge walls wide of 2 and high of 8 meters by the new Bavarian prince Arnulf ), and Osterhofen.
Resistance to these inroads became gradually feebler, and tradition has it that on 5 July 907 almost the whole of the Bavarian tribe perished in the Battle of Pressburg against these formidable enemies.

Battle of Eisenach (908)

Battle of EisenachEisenachpitched battle at Eisenach
It is more likely they were led by the same unknown, but brilliant commander who led them during the battles of Brenta, Eisenach, Rednitz and Augsburg.
After the Battle of Pressburg ended with a catastrophical defeat of the attacking East Francian armies led by Luitpold prince of Bavaria, the Hungarians following the nomadic warfare philosophy: destroy your enemy completeley or force him to submit to you, first forced Arnulf prince of Bavaria to pay them tribute, and let their armies to cross the lands of the duchy for attacking other German and Christian territories, then started long range campaigns against the other East Francian duchies.

Louis the Child

Louis IVLouis IIILudwig IV
In 900, the advisors to the new king of East Francia, Louis the Child, and led by his regent, Hatto I, Archbishop of Mainz, refused to renew the East Francian (German)–Hungarian alliance, which ended upon the death of Arnulf of Carinthia, the prior king Consequently, in 900 the Hungarians took over Pannonia (Transdanubia) from the Duchy of Bavaria, then a part of East Francia.
In 907 they inflicted a heavy defeat on the Bavarians who had invaded Hungary, killing the Margrave Liutpold and many high nobles in the Battle of Pressburg.

Battle of Riade

Battle of MerseburgRiadewas defeated by Henry I
They made serious mistakes, which resulted in defeats, such as the Battle of Riade, when the Hungarians did not learn of Henry the Fowler's military reforms, only finding out in the course of the battle, which was too late.
In 906 they broke up Great Moravia and one year later destroyed a Bavarian army under Margrave Luitpold at the Battle of Pressburg.

Zalavár

BlatnogradBlatnohradMosaburc
Some specialists place it in the vicinity of Zalavár (Mosapurc); others in a location close to Bratislava (Pressburg), the traditional assumption.
Specialists claim that Urbs Paludarum, Brazlavo's burg (Moosburg), was the place of the Battle of Pressburg, instead of Bratislava.

Great Moravia

MoraviaGreat Moravian EmpireMoravians
In 902 the Hungarian armies, probably led by Kurszán, defeated Great Moravia, and occupied its eastern area, followed by Hungarian suzerainty over the rest of Moravia and Dalamancia (territory in the surroundings of Meissen).
It is without doubt that no Moravian forces fought in the battle at Brezalauspurc where the Hungarians routed a large Bavarian force in 907.

Luitpold, Margrave of Bavaria

LuitpoldLuitpold of BavariaLiutpold
The Battle of Pressburg (Schlacht von Pressburg) or Battle of Pozsony (Pozsonyi csata), or Battle of Bratislava (Bitka pri Bratislave) was a three-day-long battle, fought between 4–6 July 907, during which the East Francian army, consisting mainly of Bavarian troops led by Margrave Luitpold, was annihilated by Hungarian forces. After losing Pannonia, Luitpold, the Margrave of Bavaria allied with Bavaria's former enemy Mojmir II of Moravia.
He organised the Frankish defence against the Magyars under Grand Prince Árpád after invading Hungary, on 4 July 907 was killed east of Vienna in the Battle of Pressburg.

March of Pannonia

PannoniaMargrave of PannoniaUpper Pannonia
An important result of the Battle of Pressburg was the Kingdom of East Francia could not regain control over the Carolingian March of Pannonia, including the territory of the later marchia orientalis (March of Austria), lost in 900.
Upon the defeat of Margrave Luitpold at the 907 Battle of Pressburg, all East Frankish lands beyond the Enns river were lost.

Mojmir II of Moravia

Mojmír IIMojmir IIMojmír
After losing Pannonia, Luitpold, the Margrave of Bavaria allied with Bavaria's former enemy Mojmir II of Moravia.
In 907, the Magyars routed the Bavarian army at the three battles of Bratislava.

Annales iuvavenses

Annals of SalzburgAnnales ex Annalibus IuvavensibusSalzburg Annals
The Battle of Pressburg is mentioned in several annals, including the Annales iuvavenses, Annales Alamannici, Continuator Reginonis, Annales Augienses, and in the necrologies of important people such as kings, dukes, counts, and spiritual leaders.
The Salzburg annals are also the only source for an assassination attempt on incapacitated King Carloman by the Bavarians in 878, the first medieval mention of Vienna in 881, and the location of the Battle of Pressburg (Brezalauspurc) against the Hungarians in 907.

Jelek (son of Árpád)

Jelek
Anonymus writes that Zoltán, his youngest son succeeded Árpád as Grand Prince in 907, allowing assumptions that Árpád and his three eldest sons – Tarkacsu, Jelek (or Üllő) and Jutocsa – were killed in the Battle of Pressburg.

Margraviate of Austria

March of AustriaAustriaMargrave of Austria
An important result of the Battle of Pressburg was the Kingdom of East Francia could not regain control over the Carolingian March of Pannonia, including the territory of the later marchia orientalis (March of Austria), lost in 900.
Upon the defeat of Margrave Luitpold of Bavaria at the 907 Battle of Pressburg, all East Frankish lands beyond the Enns river were lost.

Gesta Hungarorum

Gesta UngarorumAnonymousAnonymus
Some historians, based on Gesta Hungarorum written by Anonymus say that the Bavarian attack was caused by the supposed death of Árpád, the Grand Prince of the Hungarians, because the Germans thought that the death of the leader would weaken the Hungarians' capability to fight, but others say that there is no solid evidence that Árpád had died in 907, because all the dates about the period of the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin, given by Anonymus are wrong, as historian Gyula Kristó argued.
Anonymus did not allude to the Hungarians' decisive victory over the united Bavarian forces in the Battle of Pressburg in 907, but he narrated battles unknown from other works.

Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin

Hungarian Conquestconquest of the Carpathian Basintheir conquest of the Carpathian Basin
In 900, the advisors to the new king of East Francia, Louis the Child, and led by his regent, Hatto I, Archbishop of Mainz, refused to renew the East Francian (German)–Hungarian alliance, which ended upon the death of Arnulf of Carinthia, the prior king Consequently, in 900 the Hungarians took over Pannonia (Transdanubia) from the Duchy of Bavaria, then a part of East Francia. The most significant result of the Battle of Pressburg is that the Hungarians secured the lands they gained during the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin, prevented a German invasion that jeopardized their future and established the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Hungarians strengthened their control over the Carpathian Basin by defeating a Bavarian army in a battle fought at Brezalauspurc on 4 July 907.

Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria

Arnulf of BavariaArnulf the BadArnulf
According to Aventinus they even occupied and burned Regensburg, the capital city of the Duchy of Bavaria (the city being later strengthened with huge walls wide of 2 and high of 8 meters by the new Bavarian prince Arnulf ), and Osterhofen.
Together with numerous Bavarian nobles, Arnulf's father was killed in the 907 Battle of Pressburg (Bratislava), when the Bavarian Heerbann under his command suffered a crushing defeat in a campaign against the Hungarian forces of Grand Prince Árpád.

Dietmar I (archbishop of Salzburg)

Dietmar ITheotmar of SalzburgDietmar I, Archbishop of Salzburg
This is also evidenced by how the German army, in addition to political and military leaders (Prince Sieghard, a number of counts, among them were Meginward, Adalbert, Hatto, Ratold, Isangrim) brought some of the most influential clergy members from East Francia (Dietmar I, Archbishop of Salzburg, the Chancellor of the Realm; Zacharias, Bishop of Säben-Brixen, Utto, Bishop of Freising), along with a large number of priests.
He died fighting against the Hungarians at Brezalauspurc on July 4, 907.

Slovakia

SlovakSVKSlovak Republic
In three battles (4–5 July and 9 August 907) near Bratislava, the Magyars routed Bavarian armies.

Svatopluk II

Svätopluk IIyoung Svätopluk
This is why some historians (mainly in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century) tried to identify the Battle of Pressburg with the Battle of Bánhida, mentioned in the Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum by Simon of Kéza, which narrates about a great victory of the Hungarians against the Great Moravian forces led by Svatopluk II, and try to locate the battle at this place.
Historical records contain no mention of Mojmír II, Svatopluk II, or their possible successors in connection with the three battles of Bratislava where the invading tribes defeated the Bavarian army.

East Francia

East FrankishEast Frankish KingdomEastern Francia
The Battle of Pressburg (Schlacht von Pressburg) or Battle of Pozsony (Pozsonyi csata), or Battle of Bratislava (Bitka pri Bratislave) was a three-day-long battle, fought between 4–6 July 907, during which the East Francian army, consisting mainly of Bavarian troops led by Margrave Luitpold, was annihilated by Hungarian forces. In 900, the advisors to the new king of East Francia, Louis the Child, and led by his regent, Hatto I, Archbishop of Mainz, refused to renew the East Francian (German)–Hungarian alliance, which ended upon the death of Arnulf of Carinthia, the prior king Consequently, in 900 the Hungarians took over Pannonia (Transdanubia) from the Duchy of Bavaria, then a part of East Francia. An important result of the Battle of Pressburg was the Kingdom of East Francia could not regain control over the Carolingian March of Pannonia, including the territory of the later marchia orientalis (March of Austria), lost in 900.

Kingdom of Hungary

HungaryHungarianHungarian Kingdom
The most significant result of the Battle of Pressburg is that the Hungarians secured the lands they gained during the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin, prevented a German invasion that jeopardized their future and established the Kingdom of Hungary.