Battle of Pressburg

Peter Johann Nepomuk Geiger: Schlacht bei Pressburg (1850)
Bavaria and the depending territories (including Moravia) in 900, before the Hungarian conquest
Way of the Hungarian, and conquest of the Carpathian Basin; the Bavarian and Moravian lands, occupied after 900: light green; upper left: authentic image of a Hungarian warrior.
The Bavarian campaign against Hungary and the Battle of Pressburg
Portrait of Grand Prince Árpád
Hungarian mounted archer shooting a knight who chases him, Basilica of Aquileia, 12. century
Peter Johann Nepomuk Geiger: Luitpold's last stand
Wilhelm Lindenschmit the Elder: Death of Luitpold in the Battle of Pressburg 907
Battle of Bánhida
The map showing the Hungarian-East Frankish war of 907

Three-day-long battle, fought between 4–6 July 907, during which the East Francian army, consisting mainly of Bavarian troops led by Margrave Luitpold, was annihilated by Hungarian forces.

- Battle of Pressburg

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Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin

Series of historical events ending with the settlement of the Hungarians in Central Europe at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries.

Hungarian Conquest (of the Carpathian Basin) – painting by Mihály Munkácsy
First page of the Illuminated Chronicle
Map showing the basic territory of Bijelo Brdo culture (10th–12th century), according to the book of Russian archaeologist Valentin Vasilyevich Sedov. By this view, the area of the village of Bijelo Brdo itself is excluded from this territory.
River Dniester at Dzvenyhorod (Chortkiv Raion, Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine)
Heads of the seven Hungarian tribes, depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle
Central and Southeastern Europe around 850
Ruins of the 9th-century church at Zalavár
Europe around 900
The Hungarian land-taking
Svatopluk I of Moravia disguised as a monk in Arnulf of East Francia's court in the Chronicle of Dalimil
Leo the Wise and his son, Constantine Porphyrogenitus on a Byzantine golden solidus
Seal of Simeon I of Bulgaria
The Hungarians' arrival in the Carpathian Basin depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle
Hungarian Conquest memorial at the Verecke Pass (Ukraine)
Berengar I of Italy
Ruins of the Moravian fortress at Ducové (Slovakia)
Settlements bearing the name of a Hungarian tribe in the Carpathian Basin (after Sándor Török). They may point at the places where the Hungarians lived amongst other peoples and help in reconstructing where the tribes settled.
Common Corncockle: its Hungarian name (konkoly) is of Slavic origin
The seven chieftains of the Hungarians, a detail of the Feszty Panorama
"Comparison of the major Hg distributions from ancient Hungarian populations ... Brackets mark east Eurasian Hgs", by Maár et al. 2021
"The frequency of paternal haplogroups in the Hungarian Conqueror samples", by Fóthi et al. 2020

The Hungarians strengthened their control over the Carpathian Basin by defeating a Bavarian army in a battle fought at Brezalauspurc on 4 July 907.


Capital and largest city of Slovakia.

An original Biatec and its replica on a former 5-koruna coin
Bratislava was bombarded by the United States Army Air Forces, during the Nazi Occupation in 1944
Iron Curtain memorial in Bratislava
Map of Bratislava
Satellite view of Bratislava
Bratislava Castle
Kuchajda lake
High-rise apartments in Bratislava
The building of National Council of the Slovak Republic
Grassalkovich Palace, seat of the president of Slovakia
Episcopal Summer Palace, the seat of the government of Slovakia
Primate's Palace at Primate's Square, the seat of the city's mayor
National Bank of Slovakia
High-rise buildings at Mlynské Nivy, one of Bratislava's business districts
Business and shopping centre in Eurovea
New Danube waterfront
Digital Park administrative complex
Slovak Philharmonic
Universitas Istropolitana building
Paparazzi statue in Bratislava's Old Town
The earliest known depiction of Pressburg Castle, 14th century
Pressburg (Bratislava) in 1588
Pressburg (Bratislava) in the 17th century
Coronation of Maria Theresa in 1741
Bratislava in the 19th century
Bratislava in 1915
Main entrance of the Bratislava Castle
Hviezdoslav Square
Primate's Square
Michael's Gate
Laurinc Gate
Reformed church
Church of Saint Stephen
Trinitarian Church
The Old Town of Bratislava
Streets of the Old Town
Bratislava Old Town
The Rococo-style "House of the Good Shepherd", home to the Museum of Clocks
Laurinská Street
Stará Tržnica Market Hall, the oldest indoor market in Bratislava
Einsteinova street
Danube promenade
Danube river and the Slovak National Uprising Bridge
Apollo Bridge
Polus City Shopping Center
Slovak Radio headquarters building
CityShuttle train connects Bratislava with Austria's capital Vienna.
Refinery of Slovnaft in Bratislava
Map of Bratislava in city centre
Manhole cover in Bratislava
Danube embankment

The medieval settlement Brezalauspurc (literally Braslav's castle) is sometimes attributed to Bratislava, but the actual location of Brezalauspurc is under scholarly debate.

Principality of Hungary

The earliest documented Hungarian state in the Carpathian Basin, established 895 or 896, following the 9th century Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin.

Europe in the late tenth century, Principality of Hungary (cyan)
A detail of the Arrival of the Hungarians, Árpád Feszty's and his assistants' vast (1800 m2) cyclorama, painted to celebrate the 1000th anniversary of the Magyar conquest of Hungary, now displayed at the Ópusztaszer National Heritage Park in Hungary
Europe around 900
Principality of Hungary in 998 AD

The Hungarians succeeded in extending the de jure Bavarian-Hungarian border to the River Enns (until 955), and the principality was not attacked from this direction for 100 years after the Battle of Pressburg.

Louis the Child

The king of East Francia from 899 until his death and was also recognized as king of Lotharingia after 900.

Louis the Child as he appears on the Imperial Sword.

In 907 they inflicted a heavy defeat on the Bavarians who had invaded Hungary, killing the Margrave Luitpold and many high nobles in the Battle of Pressburg.

Duchy of Bavaria

Frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian kingdom from the sixth through the eighth century.

Duchy of Bavaria (red, including the Austrian march) within the Holy Roman Empire circa 1000.
Bavaria, with Carantania, around 788
Duchy of Bavaria (red, including the Austrian march) within the Holy Roman Empire circa 1000.
Bavaria and Frankish Avar March, in the time of Charlemagne
Duchy of Bavaria (red, including the Austrian march) within the Holy Roman Empire circa 1000.
Bavaria in 976, with the marches of Austria, Carinthia and Verona
Coat of Arms of the House of Welf
Coat of arms of counts of Bogen, later House of Wittelsbach
Bavarian lands after 1392 partition
The Bavarian Square banner in the Wappenbuch des St. Galler Abtes Ulrich Rösch, 15th century
Late Coat of arms of Wittelsbachs

Resistance to these inroads became gradually feebler, and tradition has it that on 5 July 907 almost the whole of the Bavarian tribe perished in the Battle of Pressburg against these formidable enemies.

Margraviate of Austria

Medieval frontier march, centered along the river Danube, between the river Enns and the Vienna Woods (Wienerwald), within the territory of modern Austrian provinces of Upper Austria and Lower Austria.

Map of the Margraviate of Austria within the Duchy of Bavaria circa 1000 CE.
The first mention of the word Ostarrîchi (996), the word is marked with a red circle.
Map of the Margraviate of Austria within the Duchy of Bavaria circa 1000 CE.
Duchy of Bavaria and its dependencies in 976

Upon the defeat of Margrave Luitpold of Bavaria at the 907 Battle of Pressburg, all East Frankish lands beyond the Enns river were lost.

March of Pannonia

Frontier march of the Carolingian Empire, named after the former Roman province of Pannonia and carved out of the preceding and larger Avar march.

Map of Carolingian Empire showing location of Pannonian March.
The march in 850

Upon the defeat of Margrave Luitpold at the 907 Battle of Pressburg, all East Frankish lands beyond the Enns river were lost.


Village in Hungary, located in Zala County.

Millennial Monument (built by Imre Makovecz in 2009)
Sculptures of Saints Cyril and Methodius (erected in 2013)
Tree of Life in the Millennial Monument (erected in 2011)

Specialists claim that Urbs Paludarum, Brazlavo's burg (Moosburg), was the place of the Battle of Pressburg, instead of Bratislava.

Luitpold, Margrave of Bavaria

The ancestor of the Luitpolding dynasty which ruled Bavaria and Carinthia until the mid-tenth century.

Death of Luitpold in the Battle of Pressburg (Wilhelm Lindenschmit the Elder)

He organised the Frankish defence against the Magyars under Grand Prince Árpád after invading Hungary, on 4 July 907 was killed east of Vienna in the Battle of Pressburg.

Great Moravia

The first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, possibly including territories which are today part of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, Germany, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine.

Great Moravia in the late 9th century
Great Moravian sword from Blatnica, unearthed in the 19th century, originally interpreted as a burial equipment from a "ducal" mound
The core of Great Moravia
Principalities and lands within Great Moravia
Jewelry from a princely burial site at Kolín, 850–900 AD
Spherical gombiki from the Mikulčice Archaeological Park
Map of Moravia within East Francia in 814
A map presenting the theory of the co-existence of two principalities (Moravia and Nitra) before the 830s
Modern depiction of Rastislav as an Orthodox saint
Constantine and Methodius in Rome
Statue of Svatopluk I on Bratislava Castle, Slovakia
The papal bull Scire vos volumus of 879 addressed to Svatopluk
Icon of St Gorazd, a disciple of St Cyril and Method of Moravian origin, who was the designated successor of archbishop Method
Svatopluk I with three twigs and his three sons—Mojmír II, Svatopluk II and Predslav
Reconstruction of a Great Moravian gatehouse and ramparts in Thunau am Kamp, Austria
Foundations of a pre-Romanesque rotunda at the Great Moravian court in Ducové
Svatopluk I disguised as a monk in the court of Arnulf, King of East Francia (from the 14th-century Chronicle of Dalimil)
Church of St. Margaret of Antioch in Kopčany, Slovakia, one of remaining buildings for which the Great Moravian origin is considered
Stone foundations of a church in Valy u Mikulčic, Czech Republic
Exhibition Among the tribes and the state. Room with the Early medieval princely burial from Kolín (Starý Kolín), 850–900 AD
An example of the Glagolitic script created by Saint Cyril for the mission in Great Moravia (Baščanska ploča from Croatia). The inscribed stone slab records Croatian king Zvonimir's donation of a piece of land to a Benedictine abbey in the time of abbot Drzhiha.
A silver cross from Mikulčice

It is without doubt that no Moravian forces fought in the battle at Brezalauspurc, where the Hungarians routed a large Bavarian force in 907.