Battle of Rancagua

Carga de O'Higgins, Pedro Subercaseaux
The Battle of Rancagua

The Battle of Rancagua, also known in Chile as the Disaster of Rancagua, occurred on October 1, 1814, to October 2, 1814, when the Spanish Army under the command of Mariano Osorio defeated the rebel Chilean forces led by Bernardo O’Higgins.

- Battle of Rancagua
Carga de O'Higgins, Pedro Subercaseaux

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Rancagua

City and commune in central Chile and part of the Rancagua conurbation.

City and commune in central Chile and part of the Rancagua conurbation.

The Battle of Rancagua during the Chilean War of Independence, by Pedro Subercaseaux.
Rancagua train station.
People of Rancagua in the Stations of the Cross ceremony.
The Estadio El Teniente hosted the 2015 Copa América.
Los Heroes Square
Bernardo O'Higgins Monument
Rancagua cathedral at night
Paseo Independencia, Rancagua
O'Higgins Region former Intendencia
Cachapoal province government's building (currently the Regional Presidential Delegation)
Medialuna de Rancagua

The city is notable in Chilean history as the scene of the Disaster of Rancagua of 1814, when Chilean forces fighting for independence from Spain were defeated.

Patria Vieja

Territories of the Captaincy General of Chile
La Casa Colorada, residence of Governor Mateo de Toro y Zambrano (Currently the Museo de Santiago)
Territories of the Captaincy General of Chile

Patria Vieja refers to a time period in the History of Chile occurring between the First Junta of the Government (September 18, 1810) and the Disaster of Rancagua (October 1, 1814).

Mariano Osorio

Spanish general and Governor of Chile, from 1814 to 1815.

Spanish general and Governor of Chile, from 1814 to 1815.

In the Disaster of Rancagua (1814) he was able to defeat the forces of Bernardo O'Higgins and Jose Miguel Carrera.

Portrait by José Gil de Castro

Bernardo O'Higgins

Chilean independence leader who freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence.

Chilean independence leader who freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence.

Portrait by José Gil de Castro
Ambrosio O'Higgins, Bernardo's father, whom he never met
Portrait of O'Higgins in the National Congress Library of Chile.
José Miguel Carrera, with whom O'Higgins had an ongoing feud
Bust of Bernardo O' Higgins, Richmond Upon Thames, Greater London, United Kingdom.
O'Higgins' breakout charge at the Battle of Rancagua
Generals José de San Martín (left) and Bernardo O'Higgins (right) during the crossing of the Andes.
O'Higgins meets Jose San Martin at the Battle of Maipu 1818.
Bernardo O'Higgins, erroneously depicted attending the declaration of Chilean independence.
Ramon Freire, Bernardo O'Higgins's closest ally, who was ultimately to depose him.
Bust of O'Higgins in Bogotá.
Mausoleum of O'Higgins in Cementerio General de Santiago, pictured by Recaredo Santos Tornero in Chile Ilustrado, in 1872

After an entire day of fighting at the battle of Rancagua, the Spanish commander, Mariano Osorio, was victorious—but O'Higgins managed to break out with a few of his men, issuing the command: Those who can ride, ride!

Santiago

Capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.

Capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.

Municipality of Santiago Commune
1541 founding of Santiago. Painting by Pedro Lira, the portrait of Pedro de Valdivia and Juan Martín de Candia; proclaiming the City of Santiago de Chile, c. 1541
Inés de Suárez, successfully defending Santiago against a Mapuche attack in 1541
Map of colonial Santiago at the beginning of the 18th century.
The Calicanto bridge over the Mapocho river was the main symbol of the city of Santiago after its inauguration in 1779.
Battle of Maipú, 1818
La Alameda, Santiago in 1860
Map of Santiago in 1895.
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The Plaza de Armas in 1906.
View of Ahumada, in the city center, in the late 1920s.
Women prepare soup kitchens in 1932.
View of Alameda in 1930.
Extension of Greater Santiago, in 1965.
The expansion to the periphery forced the Santiago metro extension to the commune of Maipú and Puente Alto. here an Alstom NS 74 (center) begins to leave a metro station, while an Alstom NS 93 (far lower right) is nearing the same metro station.
The Gran Torre Santiago (Great Santiago Tower), part of the Costanera Center complex, is the second tallest building in Ibero-America
Northwestern Las Condes From Sky Costanera at dusk, Oct. 2018
Satellite image of Santiago taken by Landsat 8 on 24 October 2014.
Population of Santiago from 1820 to 2020 (projected).
Santiago by Human Development Index on a commune-basis in 2017.
Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport
Estación Central railway station, with an X'Trapolis trainset
Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado
Costanera Norte Expressway
Vicente Valdés station
Santiago Metro map as January, 2019
Los Leones station
Transantiago bus, with original color scheme (2005–2012)
Map of Santiago depicting main streets and airport.
Map of Santiago communes
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The statue of the Virgin Mary at San Cristobal Hill is one of the main symbols of the city.
Municipal Theatre of Santiago
Interior from Gabriela Mistral Cultural Center.
Estadio Nacional de Chile
Universidad de Chile
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Ski Center La Parva
Santiago Metropolitan Park
Santiago in the winter
Santiago in the summer
Palacio de La Moneda
Contemporary Art Museum of Santiago
Fine Arts Museum
Biblioteca Nacional de Chile
Former Congress Building
Chemamull statues at Precolumbian Art Museum of Santiago
Club de La Unión
Façade of the Santiago Stock Exchange
Basílica del Salvador
Paseo Bulnes, downtown Santiago
Paseo Ahumada, downtown Santiago
Entel Tower
A street in Santiago

Although some institutions, such as the National Institute and the National Library, were installed in the Patria Vieja, they were closed after the patriot defeat at the Battle of Rancagua in 1814.

Royalist army

Reconquista (Spanish America)

In the struggle for the independence of Spanish America, the Reconquista refers to the period of Colombian and Chilean history, following the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, during which royalist armies were able to gain the upper hand in the Spanish American wars of independence.

In the struggle for the independence of Spanish America, the Reconquista refers to the period of Colombian and Chilean history, following the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, during which royalist armies were able to gain the upper hand in the Spanish American wars of independence.

Royalist army

The new royalist force fought the patriot forces on October 1 in Rancagua, in which the patriots unsuccessfully tried to stop the expeditionaries from taking Santiago.

Hungarian general in 19th-century hussar style gala uniform; with characteristic tight dolman jacket, loose-hanging pelisse over-jacket, and busby

Hussar

Member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries.

Member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries.

Hungarian general in 19th-century hussar style gala uniform; with characteristic tight dolman jacket, loose-hanging pelisse over-jacket, and busby
Hungarian hussar in the 16th century. Woodcut by Jost Amman
Polish Winged Hussar, painting by Aleksander Orłowski
Hussar of the Magdeburg Hussar Commando (1763, drawing from Richard Knötel, Uniformenkunde, 1893)
Hessian hussars in America
Portrait of Russian hussar Evgraf Davydov by Kiprensky (1810s)
Prussian Hussar in 1744
French 4th Hussar at the Battle of Friedland, 14 June 1807. "Vive l'Empereur!" by Édouard Detaille, 1891
French 9th Hussar by Victor Huen
Cornet Henry John Wilkin, a British Hussar from the Crimean War
Chilean founding father Manuel Rodríguez, wearing the Húsares de la Muerte uniform
Confederate hussar from the 1st Virginia
Swedish hussar regiments 1895–1910
An officer of the British 11th Hussars (PAO) in the full dress of 1856, including dolman, pelisse, busby and sabretache
Hussars of the King's German Legion in 1813, all armed with the 1796 sabre
Hungarian hussars in battle during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Gendarmes of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1900
A Danish Guard Hussar in mounted parade uniform, including the red pelisse, sabretache and shabraque
An ERC 90 Sagaie of the 1st Parachute Hussar Regiment of the French Army in Côte d'Ivoire in 2003
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Alfonso XIII of Spain wearing a Regiment no. 4 "Pavia Húsares (Hussars) uniform, 1912
Winston Churchill as Cornet of the 4th Queen's Own Hussars, aged 21 (1895)

In 1813, as part of the army of the newly independent Chile, the regiment fought against the Spanish Army until its defeat at the disaster of the Battle of Rancagua.

Parade at the Victory Day (Zafer Bayramı) in Istanbul

Military parade

Formation of soldiers whose movement is restricted by close-order manoeuvering known as drilling or marching.

Formation of soldiers whose movement is restricted by close-order manoeuvering known as drilling or marching.

Parade at the Victory Day (Zafer Bayramı) in Istanbul
United States Presidential Inaugural Parade held in Washington D.C.
A marching contingent during the Republic Day Parade from India Gate, in New Delhi
Saint-Cyr cadets at the Bastille Day military parade on the Champs-Élysées
Carabinieri Cavalry Regiment at the military parade of Festa della Repubblica 2007
A military parade in Cairo, 1955
A military parade in Morocco, 1960
Parade during Defender of the Fatherland Day in Nur-Sultan.
Queen's Birthday Parade, Hamilton, Bermuda, 2000.
Cadets parade in Donetsk, Ukraine.
A parade of tanks of the ČSLA in Prague on Victory Day, 9 May 1985.
The Nyland Brigade (Uudenmaan prikaati) at the 2014 Festival Parade of the Finnish Defense Forces on the Valtakatu street in Lappeenranta, Finland
Bundeswehr personnel on the Nürburgring.
25th March military parade in Greece
A spectacular overview of the 55th Republic Day Parade from India Gate in New Delhi
A Polish Air Force ceremonial guard during the Armed Forces Day parade.
The N. G. Kuznetsov Naval Academy, led by Captain Anatoliy Karpenko, during a parade on Leningrad's Palace Square in 1983.
A Russian Armed Forces Honour Parade on Red Square in November 2018.
A Victory Day Parade in Victory Park, Dushanbe.
The Serbian Guards Unit during the Belgrade Military Parade.
The troops of the Household Division during the 2017 Trooping the Colour
President George H. W. Bush greeting Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. on the parade route.
Cadets of the Bolivarian Military University of Venezuela in their unique slow march in a military parade
Victory Day parade in Zagreb 2015, on 20 anniversary of its victorious Operation Storm.

2 October - anniversary of the Battle of Rancagua

Joaquín Prieto

Chilean military and political figure.

Chilean military and political figure.

After the defeat in the Battle of Rancagua, which he wasn't a part of, Prieto fled to Mendoza, Argentina to build up the Liberation Army of the Andes.

Late 1820s painting

José de San Martín

Argentine general and the primary leader of the southern and central parts of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru.

Argentine general and the primary leader of the southern and central parts of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru.

Late 1820s painting
The Battle of Bailén was one of the most important battles fought by José de San Martín at the Peninsular War.
Arrival of San Martín and Carlos María de Alvear to Buenos Aires, aboard the frigate George Canning.
José de San Martín, trapped under his dead horse during the battle of San Lorenzo, is saved by Juan Bautista Cabral.
Meeting of Manuel Belgrano and José de San Martín at the Yatasto relay.
Training of the Army of the Andes at camp Plumerillo.
Generals José de San Martín (left) and Bernardo O'Higgins (right) during the crossing of the Andes.
The Battle of Chacabuco between the Army of the Andes and Spanish forces in 1817.
Bernardo O'Higgins, commander of the Army of the Andes along with San Martín, and Supreme Director of Chile after the victory at Chacabuco.
The Chilean Declaration of Independence took place on 18 February 1818, shortly before the battles of Cancha Rayada and Maipú.
The "Embrace of Maipú" between José de San Martín and Bernardo O'Higgins, after the victory in the Battle of Maipú.
San Martín before the Congress of Buenos Aires
Parade of the Army of the Andes in Rancagua.
The Numancia battalion, formerly a royalist unit, joins the forces of San Martín.
José de San Martín's proclamation of the independence of Peru on 28 July 1821 in Lima. Painting by Juan Lepiani
The Guayaquil conference between Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín. The real conference took place inside an office, and not in the countryside as the portrait suggests.
General San Martín in Paris, 1848.
Mausoleum of San Martín at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral. The three statues are national personifications of Argentina, Chile and Peru.
The Cerro de la Gloria, monument to the Army of the Andes at Mendoza, Argentina
Equestrian statue in Boulogne-sur-Mer, in France.

San Martín's plan was complicated as well by the Disaster of Rancagua, a royalist victory that restored absolutism in Chile, ending the Patria Vieja period.