Battle of San Pasqual

Battle of San Pasqual, Charles Waterhouse
A map of the battle site
Captain Archibald H. Gillespie of the United States Marine Corps was attacked by lancers, front and rear, at San Pascual
Marker of reburied U.S. Servicemen who died during the Battle of San Pasqual

Military encounter that occurred during the Mexican–American War in what is now the San Pasqual Valley community of the city of San Diego, California.

- Battle of San Pasqual
Battle of San Pasqual, Charles Waterhouse

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Andrés Pico

Andrés Pico (November 18, 1810 – February 14, 1876) was a Californio who became a successful rancher, fought in the contested Battle of San Pascual during the Mexican–American War, and negotiated promises of post-war protections for Californios in the 1847 Treaty of Cahuenga.

Carson on a visit to Washington, D.C., 1868

Kit Carson

American frontiersman.

American frontiersman.

Carson on a visit to Washington, D.C., 1868
Early photograph (possibly the first) of Kit Carson wearing a beaver hat
Mountain man Kit Carson and his favorite horse, Apache, from The Life and Adventures of Kit Carson, the Nestor of the Rocky Mountains by De Witt C. Peters. The book was Carson's first biography and was printed in 1858.
Jim Bridger
John Charles Frémont, photographer and date unknown
An 1874 dime novel with a depiction of Carson on the cover, stabbing two Native people, one through the chest, and one through the back.
General James Henry Carleton
The Navajo at Fort Sumner, the end of The Long Walk
Josefa Carson, Carson's third and last wife, holds Carson's son
The last known photograph of Carson was taken around March 20, 1868, during Carson's visit to Boston with Ouray and Ute chiefs two months before his death, by the photographer James Wallace Black and was signed by Carson. It is the largest extant photograph of him.
Kit Carson bronze statue by Frederick William MacMonnies, 1906

Later in the war, Carson was a scout and courier who was celebrated for his rescue mission after the Battle of San Pasqual and for his coast-to-coast journey from California to Washington, DC to deliver news of the conflict in California to the government.

Coat of arms

1st Cavalry Regiment (United States)

United States Army regiment that has its antecedents in the early 19th century in the formation of the United States Regiment of Dragoons.

United States Army regiment that has its antecedents in the early 19th century in the formation of the United States Regiment of Dragoons.

Coat of arms
George Catlin sketch of Colonel Henry Dodge, commander of the Battalion of Mounted Rangers, 1833.
Captain Nathan Boone
In the right foreground stands a subaltern of the First Regiment of Dragoons; in the left foreground is an ordnance sergeant-of which there was one on every Army post.
1st Regiment of Dragoons in Mexican–American War
1st Cavalry at Brandy Station, February 1864
1866 picture of model showing correct uniform of a Company "A" 1st US Cavalry SGT wearing Hardee hat
Map showing the movements of the Center Task Force in Operation Torch. Task Force Red can be seen landing east of Oran and driving south to the Tafaraoui airdrome.
An M48 tank of "A" Troop, 1st Squadron, 1st Cavalry, is stuck in mud and water during an operation 15 km northeast of Hill 29, 2 August 1968

On the morning of 6 December 1846, Kearny's 150-man command met and defeated an equal number of California lancers at San Pasqual, about 40 miles from San Diego, under Major Andrés Pico.

Edward Fitzgerald Beale

National figure in the 19th-century United States.

National figure in the 19th-century United States.

Bealville Historic marker along Caliente-Bodfish Road near Caliente, California.
Edward Fitzgerald Beale gravestone in Chester Rural Cemetery

He fought in the Mexican–American War, emerging as a hero of the Battle of San Pasqual in 1846.

San Diego

Major city in the U.S. state of California on the coast of the Pacific Ocean and immediately adjacent to the Mexican border.

Major city in the U.S. state of California on the coast of the Pacific Ocean and immediately adjacent to the Mexican border.

The Kumeyaay, also known as the Diegueño, have inhabited the area of San Diego for thousands of years.
San Diego's namesake is the 15th-century Spanish saint Didacus of Alcalá.
José María Estudillo served as commandant of the Presidio of San Diego and founded the Estudillo family, a powerful San Diego clan of Californios.
The 1846 Battle of San Pasqual was a decisive battle between American and Californio forces during the U.S. Conquest of California.
The namesake of Horton Plaza, Alonzo Horton developed "New Town," which became Downtown San Diego.
Balboa Park on the cover of a guidebook for the World Exposition of 1915
Satellite view of San Diego and Tijuana, Mexico
Mission Valley facing Northwest, taken from Arista Street. Mission Bay can be seen in the distance.
Normal Heights, a neighborhood of San Diego
San Diego skyline, seen in January 2021
Surfers at Pacific Beach
Coastal canyon in Torrey Pines State Reserve
San Diego viewed against the Witch Creek Fire smoke
Map of racial distribution in San Diego, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people:
A U.S. Navy vice admiral and an intelligence specialist celebrating Hispanic American Heritage Month in San Diego
USS Midway museum ship
F/A-18 Hornet flying over San Diego and the USS John C. Stennis
View on Harbor Drive
Downtown San Diego, as seen from Coronado Island
Qualcomm corporate headquarters
Official portrait of Mayor Todd Gloria
San Diego City Council chambers
San Diego Police Department car in the city center
San Diego State University's Hepner Hall
University of California, San Diego's Geisel Library, named for Theodor Seuss Geisel ("Dr. Seuss")
The Museum of Us
Petco Park, home of the Padres since 2004
I-5 looking south toward downtown San Diego
View of Coronado and San Diego from the air
Cross Border Xpress bridge from the terminal in San Diego on the right to the main terminal of Tijuana Airport on the left

In the ensuing Battle of San Pasqual, fought in the San Pasqual Valley which is now part of the city of San Diego, the Americans suffered their worst losses in the campaign.

Stephen W. Kearny

One of the foremost antebellum frontier officers of the United States Army.

One of the foremost antebellum frontier officers of the United States Army.

Sword and scabbard used during the War of 1812 by Stephen Watts Kearny.
Gen. Kearny proclaiming New Mexico part of the United States, August 15, 1846, on the Plaza in Las Vegas, New Mexico.
Stephen Watts Kearny's U.S. Dragoons officer's full dress coat in 1840's.

Kearny was slightly wounded in this encounter, the Battle of San Pasqual.

Alta California

Province of New Spain, formally established in 1804.

Province of New Spain, formally established in 1804.

Map of N. America showing California when it was part of New Spain. Map dated 1789 from Dobson's Encyclopedia.
Mexico in 1838. From Britannica 7th edition
Mexican departments created in 1836 (shown after 1845 Texas independence), Las Californias at far left in gray.
Map of Mexico. S. Augustus Mitchell, Philadelphia, 1847. New California is depicted with a north-eastern border at the meridian leading north of the Rio Grande headwaters.

After the United States Navy's seizure of the cities of southern California, the Californios formed irregular units, which were victorious in the Siege of Los Angeles, and after the arrival of the United States Army, fought in the Battle of San Pasqual and the Battle of Domínguez Rancho.

Robert F. Stockton

United States Navy commodore, notable in the capture of California during the Mexican–American War.

United States Navy commodore, notable in the capture of California during the Mexican–American War.

Coat of Arms of Robert F. Stockton
Commodore Robert F. Stockton

On December 6, 1846, Stockton learned that General Stephen Kearny had arrived in California with a small force and that he was besieged by vastly superior enemy forces at the Battle of San Pasqual.

Anthony Pico, former chairman of the Viejas Band of Kumeyaay

Kumeyaay

Tribe of Indigenous peoples of the Americas who live at the northern border of Baja California in Mexico and the southern border of California in the United States.

Tribe of Indigenous peoples of the Americas who live at the northern border of Baja California in Mexico and the southern border of California in the United States.

Anthony Pico, former chairman of the Viejas Band of Kumeyaay
Engraving by Arthur Carl Victor Schott, Sorony & Co., 1857
Kumeyaay were displaced to construct the El Capitan Reservoir
Barona Resort Hotel
Valle de Guadalupe, B.C.
Kumeyaay items
Frame of an ‘ewaa
Kumeyaay coiled basket, woven by Celestine Lachapa, 19th century, San Diego Museum of Us
Kumeyaay willow storage basket at the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California cultural museum, Mexicali

The Mexicans and the Californios were victorious over the Americans at the Battle of San Pasqual.

Escondido, California

City in San Diego County's North County region, 30 mi northeast of downtown San Diego, 15 miles from the ocean, and 40 miles from the Mexican border.

City in San Diego County's North County region, 30 mi northeast of downtown San Diego, 15 miles from the ocean, and 40 miles from the Mexican border.

The 1846 Battle of San Pasqual was a battle between American and Californio forces during the U.S. Conquest of California.
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Aerial view of a citrus orchard in the San Pascual Valley in Escondido, California
Boating activities at Dixon Lake
Aerial view of Palomar Medical Center in Escondido, California
Historic Downtown Escondido
251x251px
A portion of the disc golf course at Kit Carson Park
Picnic Areas at Dixon Lake
Aerial view of Escondido City Hall and Grape Day Park behind
Historic railroad station
An aerial view of Interstate 15 approaching the Route 78 interchange in Escondido, California.
Escondido city buses entering and departing the Escondido Transit Center.
The Sprinter light rail train preparing to depart the platform at the Escondido Transit Center.

In 1846, during the Mexican–American War, the Battle of San Pasqual was fought southeast of Escondido.