A report on Battle of Taiyuan

Major battle fought in 1937 between China and Japan named for Taiyuan , which lay in the 2nd Military Region.

- Battle of Taiyuan

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Gen. Yan Xishan

Yan Xishan

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Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China.

Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China.

Gen. Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan in the early 1920s, shortly after taking power in Shanxi.
Yan Xishan's soldiers in Liaozhou (now Zuoquan County) in 1925 during the war with Henan warlord Fan Zhongxiu.
Yan Xishan--"China's Next President".
Chinese troops marching to defend the mountain pass at Xinkou.
Yan Xishan in 1947
During the siege of Taiyuan, Yan told foreign journalists that he and his followers would swallow cyanide pills before they let the PLA take Shanxi. Many of his followers committed suicide when Taiyuan fell.
Yan retired from public life in 1950. He spent much of his retirement writing, analyzing contemporary political issues and promoting Yan Xishan Thought.
Yan Xishan's tomb in Shilin District, Taipei.

A representative of the Japanese Army, speaking of the final defense of Taiyuan, said that "nowhere in China have the Chinese fought so obstinately".

Shanxi

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Landlocked province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region.

Landlocked province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region.

Pagoda of Fogong Temple built in 1056
Yan Xishan, warlord of Shanxi during the Republic of China.
Chinese troops marching to defend the mountain pass at Xinkou.
The Shanxi Museum located on the west bank of Fen River in downtown Taiyuan.
The Pagoda of Fogong Temple, Ying County, built in 1056.
A street in Pingyao.
Temple of Guandi in Datong.
Chenghuangshen (City God) Temple of Pingyao.
Western gate of a Temple of Heshen (River God) in Hequ, Xinzhou.

A representative of the Japanese Army, speaking of the final defense of Taiyuan, said that "nowhere in China have the Chinese fought so obstinately".

Taiyuan

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Capital and largest city of Shanxi Province, People's Republic of China.

Capital and largest city of Shanxi Province, People's Republic of China.

A sitting bodhisattva statue originally from Tianlongshan Grottoes, currently in Museum Rietberg, Zürich
Main battles involved for the establishment of Tang Dynasty originated from Taiyuan.
The hall of the holy mother in Jinci, constructed from 1023 to 1032 during the Song dynasty
Taiyuan Cathedral, photographed by Edouard Chavannes in 1907
Chinese soldiers and civilians celebrating the victory at Pingxingguan in 1937
Taiyuan Campaign
Satellite image of Taiyuan
Map of the region including Taiyuan (labeled as TʻAI-YÜAN (YANGKÜ) 太原) (AMS, 1956)
Taiyuan Riverside Sports Arena
A 1 route bus at Taiyuan
Taiyuan Airport
Taiyuan Railway Station
Tounao was created in Taiyuan.
Changfeng (长风) footbridge on Fen River and Shanxi Theater
Shanxi Folklore Museum courtyard with old Confucian temple
The twin towers inside the Yongzuo Temple.
Jinci Temple

Because Yan succeeded in keeping Shanxi uninvolved in most of the major battles between rival warlords that occurred in China during the 1910s and 1920s, Taiyuan was never taken from Yan by an invading army until the Japanese conquered it in 1937.

Demchugdongrub

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Qing dynasty Mongol prince descended from the Borjigin imperial clan who lived during the 20th century and became the leader of an independence movement in Inner Mongolia.

Qing dynasty Mongol prince descended from the Borjigin imperial clan who lived during the 20th century and became the leader of an independence movement in Inner Mongolia.

Demchugdongrub in his Japanese style uniform
Prince Demchugdongrub (left), Li Shouxin (center)

The forces under his command participated in Operation Chahar and the Battle of Taiyuan, when the Japanese and Mongol forces finally captured most of Suiyuan province.

General Fu Zuoyi

Fu Zuoyi

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Chinese military leader.

Chinese military leader.

General Fu Zuoyi
General Fu Zuoyi

As Commander of 7th Army Group he fought in Operation Chahar, the Battle of Taiyuan and the 1939–1940 Winter Offensive, in which he was responsible for winning the Battle of Wuyuan.

Chinese troops marching to defend Xinkou mountain passes

Battle of Xinkou

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Chinese troops marching to defend Xinkou mountain passes
Chinese troops going into battle in Xinkou

The Battle of Xinkou was a decisive engagement of the Taiyuan Campaign, the second of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Flag of the Mongol Military Government
(1936–1939)

Inner Mongolian Army

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The Inner Mongolian Army, also sometimes called the Mengjiang National Army, referred to the Inner Mongolian military units in service of Imperial Japan and its puppet state of Mengjiang during the Second Sino-Japanese War, particularly those led by Prince Demchugdongrub.

The Inner Mongolian Army, also sometimes called the Mengjiang National Army, referred to the Inner Mongolian military units in service of Imperial Japan and its puppet state of Mengjiang during the Second Sino-Japanese War, particularly those led by Prince Demchugdongrub.

Flag of the Mongol Military Government
(1936–1939)
A unit of Prince De Wang's personal cavalry, 1935
An Inner Mongolian infantryman in full uniform, 1937

Over 20,000 Mongols advanced into the remaining provinces with Japanese support, later being involved in the Battle of Taiyuan.

Second United Front

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The alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1945.

The alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1945.

A Communist soldier waving the Nationalists' flag of the Republic of China after a victorious battle against the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War
In July 1937, the Presidium of the Central Military Commission issued an order for the Red Army to reorganize into the National Revolutionary Army and stand by for the anti-Japanese front line.

After the commencement of full-scale war between China and Japan, the Communists forces fought in alliance with the KMT forces during the Battle of Taiyuan, and the high point of their cooperation came in 1938 during the Battle of Wuhan.