Battle of Tours

Battle of PoitiersPoitiersToursBattle of Tours-Poitiersstopped the Muslim invasion732 invasion of Francea watershed battleBattlebattle at ToursBattle of Poitiers (732)
The Battle of Tours (10 October 732), also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Highway of the Martyrs, was an important victory of the Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel over the raiding parties of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.wikipedia
300 Related Articles

Poitiers

Poitiers, FrancePoitevinLimonum
It was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in Aquitaine in west-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about 20 km northeast of Poitiers.
Two major battles took place near the city: in 732, the Battle of Tours (known by this name, though the locale was closer to Poitiers than Tours, to avoid confusion with the famous 1356 Battle of Poitiers in the Hundred Years War), in which the Franks commanded by Charles Martel halted the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate, and in 1356, the Battle of Poitiers, a key victory for the English forces during the Hundred Years' War.

Charles Martel

Karl MartellCharles the HammerFrankish Civil War
The Battle of Tours (10 October 732), also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Highway of the Martyrs, was an important victory of the Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel over the raiding parties of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.
Much attention has been paid to his success in defeating an Arab invasion in Aquitaine at the Battle of Tours.

Tours

Tours, FranceCaesarodunumTourangeau
It was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in Aquitaine in west-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about 20 km northeast of Poitiers.
The surrounding district, the traditional province of Touraine, is known for its wines, for the alleged perfection (as perceived by some speakers and for historical reasons) of its local spoken French, and for the Battle of Tours (732).

Abd al-Rahman ibn Abd Allah al-Ghafiqi

Abdul Rahman Al GhafiqiAbd al-Rahman al-GhafiqiAbd al-Rahman
The Battle of Tours (10 October 732), also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Highway of the Martyrs, was an important victory of the Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel over the raiding parties of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.
He unsuccessfully led into battle against the forces of Charles Martel in the Battle of Tours on October 10, 732 AD.

Bordeaux

Bordeaux, FranceBurdigalaBordelais
Umayyad military campaigns reached northward into Aquitaine and Burgundy, including a major engagement at Bordeaux and a raid on Autun.
The battle had a high death toll, and although Eudes was defeated he had enough troops to engage in the Battle of Poitiers and so retain his grip on Aquitaine.

Al-Andalus

AndalusianIslamic SpainAl Andalus
The Battle of Tours (10 October 732), also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Highway of the Martyrs, was an important victory of the Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel over the raiding parties of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.
At the Battle of Poitiers in 732, the al-Andalus raiding army was defeated by Charles Martel.

Carolingian Empire

CarolingianCarolingian eraFrankish Empire
The battle helped lay the foundations of the Carolingian Empire and Frankish domination of western Europe for the next century.
Further, Martel cemented his place in history with his defense of Christian Europe against a Muslim army at the Battle of Tours in 732.

Aquitaine

AquitanianAquitainianAquitania
It was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in Aquitaine in west-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about 20 km northeast of Poitiers.
In 721, the Aquitanian duke fended Umayyad troops (Sarracens) off at Toulouse, but in 732 (or 733, according to Roger Collins), an Umayyad expedition commanded by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi defeated Odo next to Bordeaux, and went on to loot its way up to Poitiers.

Umayyad Caliphate

UmayyadUmmayadUmayyads
The Battle of Tours (10 October 732), also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Highway of the Martyrs, was an important victory of the Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel over the raiding parties of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.
Hisham's reign witnessed the end of expansion in the west, following the defeat of the Arab army by the Franks at the Battle of Tours in 732.

Chronicle of 754

Mozarabic ChronicleMozarabic Chronicle of 754Mozarab Chronicle
The Mozarabic Chronicle of 754, a Latin contemporary source which describes the battle in greater detail than any other Latin or Arabic source, states that "the people of Austrasia [the Frankish forces], greater in number of soldiers and formidably armed, killed the king, Abd ar-Rahman", which agrees with many Arab and Muslim historians. During the following Battle of the River Garonne, the Chronicle of 754 commented that "God alone knows the number of the slain".
The Chronicle contains the earliest reference in Latin to "Europeans" (europenses), whom it describes as having defeated the Saracens at the battle of Tours in 732.

Toulouse

Toulouse, FranceTolosaToulousain
Duke Odo the Great broke the siege of Toulouse, taking Al-Samh ibn Malik's forces by surprise.
Charles Martel, a decade later, won the Battle of Tours, also called the Battle of Poitiers.

Duchy of Gascony

Duke of GasconyGasconyDuchy of Vasconia
However, it continued to struggle against external forces such as the Saxons, Frisians, and other opponents such as the Basque-Aquitanians led by Odo the Great (Old French: Eudes), Duke over Aquitaine and Vasconia.
Only by submitting to the suzerainty of his Frankish archrival, the mayor Charles Martel, could they decisively defeat the Umayyad invaders at the Battle of Tours.

Battle of Toulouse (721)

Battle of ToulouseToulouseSiege of Toulouse
However, these same casualty figures were recorded in the Liber Pontificalis for Duke Odo the Great's victory at the Battle of Toulouse (721).
According to Meadows, it would be still remembered in memorials by Al-Andalus Muslims for the following 450 years, as opposed to the Battle of Poitiers, held as a battle smaller in scale.

Umayyad conquest of Hispania

Muslim conquestMuslim invasionMuslim conquest of Spain
The Battle of Tours followed two decades of Umayyad conquests in Europe which had begun with the invasion of the Visigothic Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula in 711.

Odo the Great

Odo of AquitaineEudesEudes of Aquitaine
However, it continued to struggle against external forces such as the Saxons, Frisians, and other opponents such as the Basque-Aquitanians led by Odo the Great (Old French: Eudes), Duke over Aquitaine and Vasconia. However, these same casualty figures were recorded in the Liber Pontificalis for Duke Odo the Great's victory at the Battle of Toulouse (721). The location of the battle was close to the border between the Frankish realm and the then-independent Duchy of Aquitaine under Odo the Great.
The duke, aged almost 80, joined Charles Martel's troops and was to form the Frankish army's left flank, while the Umayyads and the multinational army commanded by Charles built up their forces somewhere between Vienne and Clain to the north of Poitiers in preparation for the so-called Battle of Tours (732, or possibly 733).

Antonio Santosuosso

Santosuosso, Antonio
Antonio Santosuosso and other historians detail how the new governor of Al-Andalus, Uqba ibn Al-Hajjaj, again moved into France to avenge the defeat at Poitiers and to spread Islam.
In Barbarians, Marauders, and Infidels, Santosuosso, considered an expert historian of the Carolingian era, makes a case that the defeats of invading Muslim armies by Charles Martel, including the famous defeat at Tours, were important as in their defense of Western Christianity and the preservation of those Christian monasteries and centres of learning which ultimately led Europe out of the Dark Ages.

Charlemagne

Charles the GreatEmperor CharlemagneCharles
(The Barbarian Invasions, p. 441.) Had Charles Martel failed, Henry Hallam argued, there would have been no Charlemagne, no Holy Roman Empire or Papal States; all these depended upon Charles's containment of Islam from expanding into Europe while the Caliphate was unified and able to mount such a conquest.
In one of the first of the lightning marches for which the Carolingian kings became famous, Charles and his army appeared in the path of the Saracens between Tours and Poitiers, and in the Battle of Tours decisively defeated and killed al-Ghafiqi.

Reconquista

ReconquestChristian reconquestreconquered
The Reconquista, of course, was completed in 1492, only months before Columbus received official backing for his fateful voyage across the Atlantic Ocean.
A desperate Odo turned to his archrival Charles Martel for help, who led the Frankish and remaining Aquitanian armies against the Umayyad armies and defeated them at the Battle of Tours in 732, killing Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi.

Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula

Timeline of the Muslim Occupation of the Iberian peninsulaMuslim rule in Iberia1492 invasion of Granada

Battle of the River Garonne

BordeauxBattle of Bordeaux (732)defeated by the Umayyads near Bordeaux
During the following Battle of the River Garonne, the Chronicle of 754 commented that "God alone knows the number of the slain".
The Umayyad armies were finally defeated by forces (size of the two armies is debated by modern historians) led by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours that took place somewhere between Poitiers and Tours on 10 October, 732 (or 733 according to latest research).

Merovingian dynasty

MerovingianMerovingiansMerovingian period
Had Charles Martel suffered at Tours-Poitiers the fate of King Roderic at the Rio Barbate, it is doubtful that a "do-nothing" sovereign of the Merovingian realm could have later succeeded where his talented major domus had failed.
Under Charles Martel's leadership, the Franks defeated the Moors at the Battle of Tours in 732.

The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World

Fifteen Decisive Battles of the Worldexpanded list of most decisive battlesThe'' ''Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World
For example, several of the battles that Edward Shepherd Creasy listed in his famous 1851 book The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World rate hardly a mention here, and the confrontation between Muslims and Christians at Poitiers-Tours in 732, once considered a watershed event, has been downgraded to a raid in force.

Siege of Avignon

Battle of AvignonAvignon
He conquered Umayyad fortresses and destroyed their garrisons at the Siege of Avignon and the Siege of Nîmes.
Anthony Santosuosso, an expert in the Dark Ages and Medieval Europe, has argued that these events were as important macrohistorically as Martel's victory at the Battle of Tours.

Umayyad invasion of Gaul

Islamic invasion of GaulUmayyad conquest of Gaulcombined Arab-Berber force had crossed the Pyrenees
A major Umayyad raid directed at Tours was defeated in the Battle of Tours in 732.

Uqba ibn al-Hajjaj

Uqba ibn al-HayyayUqbaUqba ibn al-Hajjaj al-Saluli
According to Santosuosso, Uqba ibn al-Hajjaj converted about 2,000 Christians he captured over his career.
In 739 (or 740) the governor imposed a garrison and direct central rule in Pamplona, an outpost that may have been held up to that point by the Franks (or probably Basque-Aquitanians) since the aftermath of the Battle of Poitiers (732).