Battle of Varna

Varnabattle10 November 1444defeatPolish-Lithuanian (1444)severely defeatedVarna, BulgariaWarna 10 XI 1444
The Battle of Varna took place on 10 November 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria.wikipedia
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Władysław III of Poland

Władysław IIIWładysław III of VarnaVladislaus I
The Ottoman Army under Sultan Murad II defeated the Hungarian–Polish and Wallachian armies commanded by Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary), John Hunyadi (acting as commander of the combined Christian forces) and Mircea II of Wallachia.
Władysław III (31 October 1424 – 10 November 1444), also known as Władysław of Varna, was King of Poland from 1434, and King of Hungary and Croatia from 1440, until his death at the Battle of Varna.

John Hunyadi

János HunyadiJanos HunyadiIancu de Hunedoara
The Ottoman Army under Sultan Murad II defeated the Hungarian–Polish and Wallachian armies commanded by Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary), John Hunyadi (acting as commander of the combined Christian forces) and Mircea II of Wallachia.
Although defeated in the battle of Varna in 1444 and in the second battle of Kosovo in 1448, his successful "Long Campaign" across the Balkan Mountains in 1443–44 and defence of Belgrade/Nándorfehérvár in 1456, against troops led personally by the Sultan established his reputation as a great general.

Military of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman ArmyOttoman militaryOttoman
The Ottoman Army under Sultan Murad II defeated the Hungarian–Polish and Wallachian armies commanded by Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary), John Hunyadi (acting as commander of the combined Christian forces) and Mircea II of Wallachia.
The combination of artillery and Janissary firepower proved decisive at Varna in 1444 against a force of Crusaders, and later Başkent in 1473 against the Aq Qoyunlu.

Elizabeth of Luxembourg

Elisabeth of BohemiaElisabeth of LuxembourgElisabeth
His son-in-law and successor, King Albert, ruled for only two years and died in 1439, leaving his widow Elizabeth with an unborn child, Ladislaus the Posthumous.
Vladislaus himself died in battle in 1444, opening the path for Elizabeth's son to be recognized as king of Hungary.

Crusade of Varna

long campaignVarna1443 crusade
It was the final battle of the Crusade of Varna. After failed expeditions in 1440–42 against Belgrade and Transylvania, and the defeats of the "long campaign" of Hunyadi in 1442–43, the Ottoman sultan Murad II signed a ten-year truce with Hungary.
The Crusade of Varna culminated in a decisive Ottoman victory over the crusader alliance at the Battle of Varna on 10 November 1444, during which Władysław and the expedition's Papal legate Julian Cesarini were killed.

Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed IIMehmet IISultan Mehmed II
After he had made peace with the Karaman Emirate in Anatolia in August 1444, he resigned the throne to his twelve-year-old son Mehmed II.
It was only after receiving this letter that Murad II led the Ottoman army and won the Battle of Varna in 1444.

Peace of Szeged

Edirne-Segedin (Szeged)Szeged and Edirneten-year truce
After failed expeditions in 1440–42 against Belgrade and Transylvania, and the defeats of the "long campaign" of Hunyadi in 1442–43, the Ottoman sultan Murad II signed a ten-year truce with Hungary.
On November 10, 1444 it ended in disaster at the Battle of Varna where the crusaders were wiped out and Vladislaus killed.

Murad II

Murat IISultan Murad IISultan Murad
The Ottoman Army under Sultan Murad II defeated the Hungarian–Polish and Wallachian armies commanded by Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary), John Hunyadi (acting as commander of the combined Christian forces) and Mircea II of Wallachia. After failed expeditions in 1440–42 against Belgrade and Transylvania, and the defeats of the "long campaign" of Hunyadi in 1442–43, the Ottoman sultan Murad II signed a ten-year truce with Hungary.
Murad II won the Battle of Varna in 1444 against John Hunyadi.

Varna

Varna, BulgariaOdessosOdessus
The Battle of Varna took place on 10 November 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria.
City landmarks include the Varna Archaeological Museum, exhibiting the Gold of Varna, the Roman Baths, the Battle of Varna Park Museum, the Naval Museum in the Italianate Villa Assareto displaying the museum ship Drazki torpedo boat, the Museum of Ethnography in an Ottoman-period compound featuring the life of local urban dwellers, fisherfolk, and peasants in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
Armenian refugees in the Kingdom of Hungary also took part in the wars of their new country against the Ottomans as early as the battle of Varna in 1444, when some Armenians were seen amongst the Christian forces.
On 10 November 1444, Murad repelled the Crusade of Varna by defeating the Hungarian, Polish, and Wallachian armies under Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary) and John Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna, although Albanians under Skanderbeg continued to resist.

Julian Cesarini

Giuliano CesariniCardinal CesariniCesarini
At a supreme military council called by Hunyadi during the night, the Papal legate, cardinal Julian Cesarini, insisted on a quick withdrawal.
Julian Cesarini the Elder (It.: Giuliano Cesarini, seniore) (1398 in Rome – November 10, 1444 in Varna, Bulgaria) was one of the group of brilliant cardinals created by Pope Martin V on the conclusion of the Western Schism.

Croats

CroatianCroatCroatians
The mixed Papal army was composed mainly of Hungarian, Polish, Bohemian (whose combined armies numbered 16,000) and Wallachian (7,000) forces, with smaller detachments of Czechs, Papal knights, Teutonic Knights, Bosnians, Croatians, Bulgarians, Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
Croatian military troops fought in many battles under command of Italian Franciscan priest fra John Capistrano, the Hungarian Generalissimo John Hunyadi, and Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus, like in the Hunyadi's long campaign (1443–1444), battle of Varna (1444), second battle of Kosovo (1448), and contributed to the Christian victories over the Ottomans in the siege of Belgrade (1456) and Siege of Jajce (1463).

Pope Eugene IV

Eugene IVPope Eugenius IVEugenius IV
Anticipating an Ottoman invasion encouraged by the young and inexperienced new Ottoman sultan, Hungary co-operated with Venice and Pope Eugene IV to organize a new crusader army led by Hunyadi and Władysław III.
He did his best to stem the Turkish advance, pledging one-fifth of the papal income to a crusade which set out in 1443, but which met with overwhelming defeat at the Battle of Varna.

Oryahovo

RahovaRakhovoRjahovo
The Hungarian advance was rapid, Ottoman fortresses were bypassed, while local Bulgarians from Vidin, Oryahovo, and Nicopolis joined the army (Fruzhin, son of Ivan Shishman, also participated in the campaign with his own guard).
The troops of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund and Polish King Władysław III of Varna passed through the fortress during their unsuccessful crusades (the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396 and the Battle of Varna in 1444, respectively) against the Ottoman Empire.

Alvise Loredan

Papal, Venetian and Genoese ships under Alvise Loredan had blockaded the Dardanelles as the Hungarian army was to advance on Varna, where it would meet the Papal fleet and sail down the coast to Constantinople, pushing the Ottomans out of Europe.
As a result, on 11 November, at the Battle of Varna, the Ottomans inflicted a crushing defeat on the Crusader army.

Mircea II of Wallachia

Mircea IIMirceaMircea II ''the Younger
The Ottoman Army under Sultan Murad II defeated the Hungarian–Polish and Wallachian armies commanded by Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary), John Hunyadi (acting as commander of the combined Christian forces) and Mircea II of Wallachia. On October 10 near Nicopolis, some 7,000 Wallachian cavalrymen under Mircea II, one of Vlad Dracul's sons, also joined.
The unit participated in the Battle of Varna on 10 November 1444 and after the defeat, Mircea led the remainder of his unit and the Christian forces across the Danube.

Battle of Kosovo (1448)

Second Battle of KosovoBattle of KosovoKosovo
Nevertheless, the Ottoman victory in Varna, followed by the Ottoman victory in the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448, deterred the European states from sending any substantial military assistance to the Byzantines during the Ottoman siege of Constantinople in 1453.
It was the culmination of a Hungarian offensive to avenge the defeat at Varna four years earlier.

Vlad II Dracul

Vlad DraculDraculVlad II
On October 10 near Nicopolis, some 7,000 Wallachian cavalrymen under Mircea II, one of Vlad Dracul's sons, also joined.
The crusade ended with the catastrophic defeat of the crusaders in the Battle of Varna on 10 November 1444.

Ladislaus the Posthumous

Ladislaus VLadislausLadislaus V of Hungary
His son-in-law and successor, King Albert, ruled for only two years and died in 1439, leaving his widow Elizabeth with an unborn child, Ladislaus the Posthumous.
Ladislaus' rival in Hungary, Vladislaus, fell in the Battle of Varna in November 1444.

Ottoman wars in Europe

Ottoman raidsOttoman warsOttoman attacks
Constantinople fell in 1453 after the Battle of Varna (1444) and the Second Battle of Kosovo (1448).

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Warsaw)

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, WarsawTomb of the Unknown SoldierTomb of the Unknown Soldier in Warsaw
The Battle of Varna is commemorated on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Warsaw, with the inscription "WARNA 10 XI 1444".

Fruzhin

The Hungarian advance was rapid, Ottoman fortresses were bypassed, while local Bulgarians from Vidin, Oryahovo, and Nicopolis joined the army (Fruzhin, son of Ivan Shishman, also participated in the campaign with his own guard).
The campaign ended in disaster, as Władysław III died in the Battle of Varna at the Black Sea, and Fruzhin is not mentioned in any later historical sources.

Wagon fort

laagerWagenburgtabor
Cesarini then proposed a defense using the Wagenburg of the Hussites until the arrival of the Christian fleet.
At the Battle of Varna in 1444, it is said that 600 Bohemian handgunners (men armed with early shoulder arms) defended a wagon fortification.

Casimir IV Jagiellon

Casimir IVCasimir IV of PolandKazimierz Jagiellończyk
He was succeeded in Poland by Casimir IV Jagiellon after a three-year interregnum.
Casimir succeeded his brother Władysław III (killed at the Battle of Varna in 1444) as King of Poland after a three-year interregnum on 25 June 1447.

Fall of Constantinople

conquest of Constantinoplesiege of ConstantinopleConstantinople
Nevertheless, the Ottoman victory in Varna, followed by the Ottoman victory in the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448, deterred the European states from sending any substantial military assistance to the Byzantines during the Ottoman siege of Constantinople in 1453.
Although he was eager for an advantage, Pope Nicholas V did not have the influence the Byzantines thought he had over the Western kings and princes, some of whom were wary of increasing papal control, and these had not the wherewithal to contribute to the effort, especially in light of the weakened state of France and England from the Hundred Years' War, Spain, being in the final part of the Reconquista, the internecine fighting in the Holy Roman Empire, and Hungary and Poland's defeat at the Battle of Varna of 1444.