Battle of York

Burning of YorkYorkCapture of Yorkset fireadvancing on YorkAmerican attack on Yorkattacked YorkbattleBattle of York, Upper Canadabrief, but stubborn, defense
The Battle of York was fought on April 27, 1813, in York (present-day Toronto), the capital of the colonial province of Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), during the Anglo-American War of 1812.wikipedia
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Toronto

Toronto, OntarioToronto, CanadaToronto, ON
The Battle of York was fought on April 27, 1813, in York (present-day Toronto), the capital of the colonial province of Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), during the Anglo-American War of 1812.
During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by American troops.

Zebulon Pike

Zebulon Montgomery PikeZebulon M. Pikeexplorer
They themselves suffered heavy casualties, including force leader Brigadier General Zebulon Pike and others killed when the retreating British blew up the fort's magazine.
He later achieved the rank of brigadier general in the American Army and served during the War of 1812, until he was killed during the Battle of York, in April 1813, outside the then British colonial capital of Upper Canada (later Ontario).

Ontario

Ontario, CanadaONProvince of Ontario
The Battle of York was fought on April 27, 1813, in York (present-day Toronto), the capital of the colonial province of Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), during the Anglo-American War of 1812.
The 1813 Battle of York saw American troops defeat the garrison at the Upper Canada capital of York.

Fort York

Old Fort YorkFort York National Historic SiteFort York Armoury
York's defences included the town's blockhouse situated near the Don River, blockhouses at Fort York garrison to the west of the town, and another blockhouse at Gibraltar Point.
During the War of 1812, in the Battle of York, on 27 April 1813, U.S. army and naval forces attacked York from Lake Ontario, overrunning the garrison.

Roger Hale Sheaffe

General Sir Roger Hale SheaffeRoger SheaffeSir Roger Sheaffe
An American force supported by a naval flotilla landed on the lake shore to the west and advanced against the town, which was defended by an outnumbered force of regulars, militia and Ojibway natives under the overall command of Major General Roger Hale Sheaffe, the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada.
In the Battle of York, Sheaffe's outnumbered troops were driven back to the edge of the town.

Royal Newfoundland Regiment

Newfoundland RegimentThe Royal Newfoundland RegimentRoyal Newfoundland Fencibles
His regulars, most of whom were also passing through York en route to other posts, consisted of two companies (including the grenadier company) of the 1st battalion 8th Regiment of Foot, a company of the Glengarry Light Infantry Fencibles, a company-sized detachment of the Royal Newfoundland Fencibles, a small squad from the 49th Regiment of Foot, and thirteen soldiers from the Royal Artillery. Several Canadian Army Reserve units perpetuate the linages of Fencibles, and militia units involved in the Battle of York, including the Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders (Glengarry Light Infantry), the Queen's York Rangers (1st and 3rd regiments of the York Militia), and the Royal Newfoundland Regiment (Royal Newfoundland Fencibles).
Battles in which elements of the regiment took part included: Skirmish at Canard River July 16, 1812, Battle of Detroit Aug 16 1812, Battle of the River Raisin or Frenchtown, Michigan January 22, 1813, the British raid on Ogdensburg, New York February 22, 1813, the Battle of York (Toronto) April 27, 1813 and operations in northwest Ohio, including the siege of Fort Meigs in the spring of 1813 and the Battle of Fort George (Niagara-on-the-Lake) May 25–27, 1813.

Upper Canada

UpperProvince of Upper CanadaUpper Canadian
The Battle of York was fought on April 27, 1813, in York (present-day Toronto), the capital of the colonial province of Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), during the Anglo-American War of 1812.

Isaac Brock

Sir Isaac BrockGeneral Isaac BrockBrock
This made it possible because of Major General Isaac Brock, who led British forces in Upper Canada to several important victories in 1812 by shifting his small force rapidly between threatened points to defeat disjointed American attacks individually.
He was criticised by many, including John Strachan, for his retreat at the Battle of York, and was shortly after recalled to England, where he continued a successful, if not brilliant, military career.

Henry Dearborn

General Henry DearbornDearbornGen. Dearborn
Armstrong conferred with Major General Henry Dearborn, commander of the American Army of the North, at Albany, New York during February.
On April 27, American forces on Lake Ontario under Dearborn and Commodore Isaac Chauncey gained success at the Battle of York, occupying the town for several days and capturing many guns and stores.

Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada

Legislative AssemblyHouse of Assemblyassembly
Some of them set fire to the buildings of the Legislative Assembly, and Government House, home to the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada.
During the War of 1812, American troops set fire to the buildings of the Assembly.

Benjamin Forsyth

Early on April 27, the first American wave of boats, carrying 300 soldiers of Major Benjamin Forsyth's company of the U.S. 1st Rifle Regiment, landed about 6.4 km west of the town, supported by some of Chauncey's schooners firing grapeshot.
He led raids into Upper Canada along the Saint Lawrence River in 1812–13 before transferring south and taking part in the battles of York and Fort George.

Glengarry Light Infantry

Glengarry Light Infantry FenciblesGlengarry Fencibles
His regulars, most of whom were also passing through York en route to other posts, consisted of two companies (including the grenadier company) of the 1st battalion 8th Regiment of Foot, a company of the Glengarry Light Infantry Fencibles, a company-sized detachment of the Royal Newfoundland Fencibles, a small squad from the 49th Regiment of Foot, and thirteen soldiers from the Royal Artillery.
A company was present at the Battle of York but was able to play little part, as they were misdirected by the commander of the Upper Canadian militia.

John Strachan

Bishop StrachanStrachanRt. Rev. John Strachan
When he eventually did, Reverend John Strachan (who held no official position other than Rector of York at the time) first brusquely tried to force him to sign the articles for capitulation on the spot, then accused Chauncey to his face of delaying the capitulation to allow the American troops licence to commit outrages.
During the Battle of York in 1813, along with senior militia officers, Strachan negotiated the surrender of the city with American general Henry Dearborn.

York Militia

3rd York Militia3rd York Militia RegimentYork
The Militia was ordered to assemble, but only 300 of the 1st and 3rd Regiments of the York Militia, and the Incorporated Militia, could be mustered at short notice.
The 1st Regiment of the York Militia was involved at the Siege of Fort Mackinac, the Siege of Detroit, the Battle of Queenston Heights, and the Battle of York.

Regiment of Riflemen

1st Rifle1st U.S. Rifle RegimentRifle Regiment
Early on April 27, the first American wave of boats, carrying 300 soldiers of Major Benjamin Forsyth's company of the U.S. 1st Rifle Regiment, landed about 6.4 km west of the town, supported by some of Chauncey's schooners firing grapeshot.
The riflemen under Forsyth later made an amphibious landing under a heavy fire from Indians and other troops near York, Upper Canada on April 27, 1813.

Naval Shipyards, York (Upper Canada)

York Naval ShipyardsdockyardYork Naval Shipyard
To match Chauncey's shipbuilding efforts, the British laid down the sloop of war, at Kingston; and, at York Naval Shipyards.

Second Battle of Sacket's Harbor

Battle of Sackett's HarborSackett's HarborSecond Battle of Sackett's Harbor
However, most of the naval supplies captured were not used by Americans, who abandoned a portion of the captured goods before they departed from York, while the remaining supplies were set on fire during the Second Battle of Sacket's Harbor in May 1813.
On 27 April, the Americans won the Battle of York, temporarily occupying and looting the town.

8th (The King's) Regiment of Foot

8th Regiment of Foot8th Foot8th (King's) Regiment
His regulars, most of whom were also passing through York en route to other posts, consisted of two companies (including the grenadier company) of the 1st battalion 8th Regiment of Foot, a company of the Glengarry Light Infantry Fencibles, a company-sized detachment of the Royal Newfoundland Fencibles, a small squad from the 49th Regiment of Foot, and thirteen soldiers from the Royal Artillery.
In April 1813, two companies of the 8th, elements of the Canadian militia, and Native American allies attempted to repulse an American attack on York (present-day Toronto).

Ceremonial mace

macemacesparliamentary mace
The Parliamentary mace of Upper Canada was taken back to Washington and was only returned in 1934 as a goodwill gesture by President Franklin Roosevelt.
It was stolen by American troops as a prize of war during the Battle of York of the War of 1812 in 1813.

James Givins

Forsyth's riflemen were opposed only by Native warriors, led by Indian Agent James Givins, as well as the grenadier company of the 8th Regiment of Foot, who were dispatched to the area by Sheaffe.
He commanded a band of Mississaugas during the Battle of York.

Active regular United States Army units with campaign credit for the War of 1812

campaign credit for the War of 1812Three active battalions of the Regular ArmyTwo active battalions of the Regular Army
Five active regular battalions of the United States Army (2-1 ADA, 1-2 Inf, 2-2 Inf, 1-5 Inf and 2-5 Inf) perpetuate the lineages of several American units engaged during the Battle of York (including Crane's Company, 3rd Regiment of Artillery, and the old 6th, 16th, and 21st Infantry Regiments).
These companies, fighting as infantry, participated in the capture of York (west of present-day Toronto) and Fort George (located in Canada at the mouth of the Niagara River).

Battle of Fort George

Fort GeorgeFort George, Upper Canadaan attack
Chauncey and Dearborn subsequently won the Battle of Fort George on the Niagara peninsula, but they had left Sacket's Harbor defended only by a few troops, mainly militia.
On April 27, the Americans on Lake Ontario under Dearborn and Commodore Isaac Chauncey gained success at the Battle of York, occupying the town for several days and capturing many guns and stores, although Brigadier General Zebulon Pike and several dozen soldiers were killed by an exploding magazine.

Battle of Lake Erie

Lake ErieBattle of Put-in-BayBattle of Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie
The effects of the capture of York were probably most significant on Lake Erie, since the capture of the ordnance and supplies destined for the British squadron there contributed to the defeat of British Lake Erie squadron at the Battle of Lake Erie.
The American victory earlier in the year at the Battle of York resulted in the guns (24-pounder carronades) intended for Detroit falling into American hands.

Canadian units of the War of 1812

Glengarry Light InfantryIndian DepartmentCanadian Fencibles
Several Canadian Army Reserve units perpetuate the linages of Fencibles, and militia units involved in the Battle of York, including the Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders (Glengarry Light Infantry), the Queen's York Rangers (1st and 3rd regiments of the York Militia), and the Royal Newfoundland Regiment (Royal Newfoundland Fencibles).
They fought as such throughout the war, serving at the siege of Detroit, the battle of York, the siege of Fort Meigs and other engagements.