Battle of the Milvian Bridge

Milvian Bridgebattle of Milvian BridgeBattle of Ponte MilvioVision of the Crossat the Milvian Bridgebattlebattle at the Milvian bridgebattle by the Milvian Bridgedefeats Maxentiusvision of Constantine
The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312.wikipedia
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Maxentius

Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentius AugustusMarcus Aurelius Valerius ''Maxentius'' AugustusMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius
The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312.
The latter defeated him at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312, where Maxentius, with his army in flight, purportedly perished by drowning in the Tiber river.

Arch of Constantine

Arco di Constantinotriumphal archtriumphal arch in Rome
The Arch of Constantine, erected in celebration of the victory, certainly attributes Constantine's success to divine intervention; however, the monument does not display any overtly Christian symbolism.
It was erected by the Roman Senate to commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312.

Constantine the Great and Christianity

ConstantineConstantine the GreatConstantine I
According to chroniclers such as Eusebius of Caesarea and Lactantius, the battle marked the beginning of Constantine's conversion to Christianity.
Eusebius of Caesarea and other Christian sources record that Constantine experienced a dramatic event in 312 at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, after which Constantine claimed the emperorship in the West.

Battle of Turin (312)

Battle of TurinTurinbattle
He easily overran northern Italy, winning two major battles: the first near Turin, the second at Verona, where the praetorian prefect Ruricius Pompeianus, Maxentius' most senior general, was killed.
The campaign ended with his more famous victory at the Milvian Bridge immediately outside Rome.

Tetrarchy

tetrarchtetrarchicTetrarchs
Constantine won the battle and started on the path that led him to end the Tetrarchy and become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. The underlying causes of the battle were the rivalries inherent in Diocletian's Tetrarchy.
Maxentius was defeated by Constantine at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 and subsequently killed.

In hoc signo vinces

by this sign conquerhe will conquer under that signif he used the cross as his standard
According to this version, Constantine with his army was marching (Eusebius does not specify the actual location of the event, but it clearly is not in the camp at Rome), when he looked up to the sun and saw a cross of light above it, and with it the Greek words "Εν Τούτῳ Νίκα", En toutō níka, usually translated into Latin as "in hoc signo vinces". The literal meaning of the phrase in Greek is "in this (sign), conquer" while in Latin it's "in this sign, you shall conquer"; a more free translation would be "Through this sign [you shall] conquer".
The accounts by Lactantius and Eusebius, though not entirely consistent, have been connected to the Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312 AD), having merged into a popular notion of Constantine seeing the Chi-Rho sign on the evening before the battle.

Labarum

Chi-RhoChi RhoChi Ro
Eusebius then continues to describe the labarum, the military standard used by Constantine in his later wars against Licinius, showing the Chi-Rho sign.
On the evening of October 27, 312 AD, with his army preparing for the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, the emperor Constantine I claimed to have had a vision which led him to believe he was fighting under the protection of the Christian God.

Chi Rho

chi-rhochrismon
This was interpreted as a promise of victory if the sign of the Chi-Rho, the first two letters of Christ's name in Greek, was painted on the soldiers' shields.
That very day Constantine's army fought the forces of Maxentius and won the Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312), outside Rome.

Maximian

Maximianus HerculiusEmperor MaximianMaximian Herculeus
In Rome, the favorite was Maxentius, the son of Constantius' imperial colleague Maximian, who seized the title of emperor on 28 October 306.
Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312.

Battle of Verona (312)

VeronaBattle of Veronaencounter
He easily overran northern Italy, winning two major battles: the first near Turin, the second at Verona, where the praetorian prefect Ruricius Pompeianus, Maxentius' most senior general, was killed.
At the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, immediately outside Rome, Constantine defeated Maxentius for the final time.

Prima Porta

He camped at the location of Malborghetto near Prima Porta, where remains of a Constantinian monument, the Arch of Malborghetto, in honour of the occasion are still extant.
Prima Porta was one of the scenes of Constantine's victory over the army of Maxentius in 312 which ended with the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.

Basilica of Maxentius

Basilica of ConstantineBasilica of Maxentius and ConstantineBasilica
Maxentius was condemned to damnatio memoriae, all his legislation was invalidated and Constantine usurped all of Maxentius' considerable building projects within Rome, including the Temple of Romulus and the Basilica of Maxentius.
Construction began on the northern side of the forum under the emperor Maxentius in 308 AD, and was completed in 312 by Constantine I after his defeat of Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.

Scholae Palatinae

ScholaiScholaeScholarioi
Constantine is thought to have replaced the former imperial guards with a number of cavalry units termed the Scholae Palatinae.
When Constantine the Great (r. 306–337), launching an invasion of Italy in 312, forced a final confrontation at the Milvian Bridge, the Praetorian cohorts made up the most prominent element of Maxentius' army.

Ponte Milvio

Milvian BridgePons Mulviuscross the bridge
It takes its name from the Milvian Bridge, an important route over the Tiber.
It was an economically and strategically important bridge in the era of the Roman Empire and was the site of the famous Battle of the Milvian Bridge.

Arch of Malborghetto

He camped at the location of Malborghetto near Prima Porta, where remains of a Constantinian monument, the Arch of Malborghetto, in honour of the occasion are still extant.
He was the first to suggest that the monument had been erected in the place where the troops of Constantine I had camped before the attack on Maxentius, because if he had wanted to commemorate the victory, he would have placed a monument at the location of the battle's beginning (i.e. Saxa Rubra) or at the location of its successful conclusion (i.e. the Milvian Bridge).

Praetorian Guard

praetorianPraetoriansPraetorian cohorts
Maxentius' Praetorian Guard, who had originally acclaimed him emperor, seem to have made a stubborn stand on the northern bank of the river; "in despair of pardon they covered with their bodies the place which they had chosen for combat."
By 312, however, Constantine the Great marched on Rome with an army in order to eliminate Maxentius and gain control of the Western Roman Empire, resulting in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.

Roman emperor

EmperoremperorsEmperor of the Roman Empire
The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312.

Constantine the Great

ConstantineConstantine IEmperor Constantine
The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312.

Tiber

Tiber Riverriver TiberUpper Tiber Valley
It takes its name from the Milvian Bridge, an important route over the Tiber.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
Constantine won the battle and started on the path that led him to end the Tetrarchy and become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire.

Eusebius

Eusebius of CaesareaOnomasticonEusebian
According to chroniclers such as Eusebius of Caesarea and Lactantius, the battle marked the beginning of Constantine's conversion to Christianity.

Lactantius

Lucius Caecilius Firmianus LactantiusFirmianus (Lactantius)
According to chroniclers such as Eusebius of Caesarea and Lactantius, the battle marked the beginning of Constantine's conversion to Christianity.

Diocletian

Emperor DiocletianDiocletian Reformsreforms
The underlying causes of the battle were the rivalries inherent in Diocletian's Tetrarchy.

Constantius Chlorus

ConstantiusConstantius IEmperor Constantius
Although Constantine was the son of the Western Emperor Constantius, the Tetrarchic ideology did not necessarily provide for hereditary succession.

Augustus (title)

AugustusAugustiAugusta
When Constantius died on 25 July 306, his father's troops proclaimed Constantine as Augustus in Eboracum (York).