Battle of the Ten Kings

Battle of Ten KingsDasarajnaDasharajnathe battle of the ten kings
The Battle of the Ten Kings is a battle alluded to in the Rigveda (Book 7, hymns 18, 33 and 83.4–8), the ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.wikipedia
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Ravi River

RaviRiver RaviParusni
The battle took place during the middle or main Rigvedic period, near the Ravi River in Punjab.
Part of the battle of the ten kings was fought on a river, which according to Yaska (Nirukta 9.26) refers to the Iravati River (Ravi River) in the Punjab.

Vedic period

VedicVedic civilizationVedic age
The battle took place during the middle or main Rigvedic period, near the Ravi River in Punjab.
Most notable of such conflicts was the Battle of Ten Kings, which took place on the banks of the river Parushni (modern day Ravi).

Puru (Vedic tribe)

PuruPurusPaurava
It was a battle between the Puru Vedic Aryan tribal kingdoms of the Bharatas, allied with other tribes of the north west India, and the Trtsu-Bharata (Puru) king Sudas, who defeats other Vedic tribes.
Purus rallied many other groups against King Sudas of the Bharata, but were defeated in the Battle of the Ten Kings (RV 7.18, etc.).

Sudas

It was a battle between the Puru Vedic Aryan tribal kingdoms of the Bharatas, allied with other tribes of the north west India, and the Trtsu-Bharata (Puru) king Sudas, who defeats other Vedic tribes. The Trtsu are the tribe led by king Sudas.
He led his tribe to victory in the Battle of the Ten Kings near the Paruṣṇī (modern Ravi River) in Punjab, defeating an alliance of the powerful Puru tribe with other tribes, for which he was eulogised by his purohita Vashistha in a hymn of the Rigveda.

Mandala 7

RV 7Book 7
The Battle of the Ten Kings is a battle alluded to in the Rigveda (Book 7, hymns 18, 33 and 83.4–8), the ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.
The Battle of the Ten Kings () is a battle alluded to in the Rigveda (Book 7, hymns 18, 33 and 83.4-8), the ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.

List of Rigvedic tribes

DruhyuRigvedic tribesDruhyus
It was a battle between the Puru Vedic Aryan tribal kingdoms of the Bharatas, allied with other tribes of the north west India, and the Trtsu-Bharata (Puru) king Sudas, who defeats other Vedic tribes. The situation leading up to the battle is described in 7.18.6: The Turvasas and Yaksus (Yadu), together with the Matsya tribe (punned upon by the rishi by comparing them to hungry fish (matsya) flocking together) appear and ally themselves with the Bhrigus and the Druhyus.

Indian people

IndianIndiansIndia
The Bhāratas were a vedic tribe mentioned in the Rigveda, notably participating in the Battle of the Ten Kings.

Tritsu

Trtsu
The Trtsu are the tribe led by king Sudas.
Under king Sudas they defeated the Puru confederation at the Battle of the Ten Kings.

Kuru Kingdom

KuruKurusKuru dynasty
The Kuru tribe was formed in the Middle Vedic period as a result of the alliance and merger between the Bharata and Puru tribes, in the aftermath of the Battle of the Ten Kings.

Anu (tribe)

AnuAnusānu
Ānava, the vrddhi derivation of Anu appears as the name of a ruler in the Rigvedic account of the Battle of the Ten Kings (7.18.13) and at 8.4.1 with the Turvaśa (tribe).

Bharatas (tribe)

BharataBhāratasBharatas
It was a battle between the Puru Vedic Aryan tribal kingdoms of the Bharatas, allied with other tribes of the north west India, and the Trtsu-Bharata (Puru) king Sudas, who defeats other Vedic tribes.
Mandala 7 (7.18 etc.) mentions the Bharatas as taking part in the Battle of the Ten Kings, where they are on the winning side.

Rigveda

Rig VedaRigvedicRig-Veda
The Battle of the Ten Kings is a battle alluded to in the Rigveda (Book 7, hymns 18, 33 and 83.4–8), the ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.

Vedic Sanskrit

VedicSanskritRigvedic Sanskrit
The Battle of the Ten Kings is a battle alluded to in the Rigveda (Book 7, hymns 18, 33 and 83.4–8), the ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.

Punjab

Punjab regionPanjabPunjabi
The battle took place during the middle or main Rigvedic period, near the Ravi River in Punjab.

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
It was a battle between the Puru Vedic Aryan tribal kingdoms of the Bharatas, allied with other tribes of the north west India, and the Trtsu-Bharata (Puru) king Sudas, who defeats other Vedic tribes.

Karl Friedrich Geldner

GeldnerKarl GeldnerK. F. Geldner
K. F. Geldner in his 1951 translation of the Rigveda considers the hymns as "obviously based on an historical event", even though all details save for what is preserved in the hymns have been lost.

Anava

But it is not made explicit how this number is supposed to be broken down: if of the tribes mentioned in 7.18, the Turvasas, Yaksuss (pun for Yadu), Matsyas, Bhrgus, Druhyus, Pakthas, Bhalanas, Alinas, Shivas and Visanins are counted, the full number is reached, leaving the Anavas (7.18.14), the Ajas and Sigrus (7.18.19) and the "21 men of both Vaikarna tribes" (7.18.11) without a king, and implying that Bheda (7.18.19, also mentioned 7.33.3 and 7.83.4, the main leader slain by Sudas), Shimyu (7.18.5), and Kavasa (7.18.12) are the names of individual kings.

Aja people

AjaAdjaPopo
But it is not made explicit how this number is supposed to be broken down: if of the tribes mentioned in 7.18, the Turvasas, Yaksuss (pun for Yadu), Matsyas, Bhrgus, Druhyus, Pakthas, Bhalanas, Alinas, Shivas and Visanins are counted, the full number is reached, leaving the Anavas (7.18.14), the Ajas and Sigrus (7.18.19) and the "21 men of both Vaikarna tribes" (7.18.11) without a king, and implying that Bheda (7.18.19, also mentioned 7.33.3 and 7.83.4, the main leader slain by Sudas), Shimyu (7.18.5), and Kavasa (7.18.12) are the names of individual kings.

Bhrigu

BhrguBhrigusBrighu
The situation leading up to the battle is described in 7.18.6: The Turvasas and Yaksus (Yadu), together with the Matsya tribe (punned upon by the rishi by comparing them to hungry fish (matsya) flocking together) appear and ally themselves with the Bhrigus and the Druhyus.

Bolan Pass

Matsya Kingdom

MatsyaMatsyasMachcha
The situation leading up to the battle is described in 7.18.6: The Turvasas and Yaksus (Yadu), together with the Matsya tribe (punned upon by the rishi by comparing them to hungry fish (matsya) flocking together) appear and ally themselves with the Bhrigus and the Druhyus.