Battles of Lexington and Concord

Battle of LexingtonLexington and ConcordLexingtonBattle of ConcordConcordLexington AlarmBattle of Lexington and Concordbattles at Lexington and Concordbattlebattle in Lexington
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.wikipedia
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American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican RevolutionAmerican War of Independence
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.
British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.

Lexington, Massachusetts

LexingtonLexington, MALexington MA
The battles were fought on April 19, 1775 in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge.
Settled in 1641, it is celebrated as the site of the first shots of the American Revolutionary War, in the Battle of Lexington on April 19, 1775.

Concord, Massachusetts

ConcordConcord, MATown of Concord
The battles were fought on April 19, 1775 in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge.
The ensuing conflict, the Battle of Lexington and Concord, was the incident (the shot heard round the world) that triggered the American Revolutionary War.

Arlington, Massachusetts

ArlingtonArlington HeightsMenotomy
The battles were fought on April 19, 1775 in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge.
Later on that first day of the American Revolution, more blood was shed in Menotomy than in the battles of Lexington and Concord combined.

Paul Revere

RevereMidnight RidePaul Revere's Ride
On the night before the battle, warning of the British expedition had been rapidly sent from Boston to militias in the area by several riders, including Paul Revere and Samuel Prescott, with information about British plans. The rebellion's leaders—with the exception of Paul Revere and Joseph Warren—had all left Boston by April 8.
He is best known for his midnight ride to alert the colonial militia in April 1775 to the approach of British forces before the battles of Lexington and Concord, as dramatized in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem, "Paul Revere's Ride" (1861).

Old North Church

Christ ChurchNorth Church200th anniversary
The initial mode of the Army's arrival by water was signaled from the Old North Church in Boston to Charlestown using lanterns to communicate "one if by land, two if by sea".
This phrase is related to Paul Revere's midnight ride, of April 18, 1775, which preceded the Battles of Lexington and Concord during the American Revolution.

Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland

Hugh PercyHugh, Earl PercyDuke of Northumberland
Upon returning to Lexington, Lt. Col. Smith's expedition was rescued by reinforcements under Brigadier General Hugh Percy, a future duke of Northumberland styled at this time by the courtesy title Earl Percy.
He participated in the Battles of Lexington and Concord and the Battle of Long Island during the American War of Independence, but resigned his command in 1777 due to disagreements with his superior, General William Howe.

Siege of Boston

besieged Bostonevacuation of Bostonbesieged in Boston
The accumulated militias then blockaded the narrow land accesses to Charlestown and Boston, starting the Siege of Boston.
The siege began on April 19 after the Battles of Lexington and Concord, when the militia from surrounding Massachusetts communities blocked land access to Boston.

Thomas Gage

General GageGageGeneral Thomas Gage
General Thomas Gage was the military governor of Massachusetts and commander-in-chief of the roughly 3,000 British military forces garrisoned in Boston.
His attempts to seize military stores of Patriot militias in April 1775 sparked the Battles of Lexington and Concord, beginning the American Revolutionary War.

Concord Hymn

by the rude bridge that arched the flood
Ralph Waldo Emerson describes the first shot fired by the Patriots at the North Bridge in his "Concord Hymn" as the "shot heard round the world".
"Concord Hymn" (original title was "Hymn: Sung at the Completion of the Concord Monument, April 19, 1836") is a poem by Ralph Waldo Emerson written for the 1837 dedication of the Obelisk, a monument in Concord, Massachusetts, commemorating the Battle of Concord, the second in a series of battles and skirmishes on April 19, 1775, at the outbreak of the American Revolution.

Francis Smith (British Army officer)

Francis SmithLt. Col. Francis SmithSmith
About 700 British Army regulars in Boston, under Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith, were given secret orders to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies reportedly stored by the Massachusetts militia at Concord.
Although Smith had a lengthy and varied career, he is best known as the British commander during most of the Battle of Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts on 19 April 1775.

Powder Alarm

crowd of four thousand angry citizensmassive popular reactionmutual scramble for munitions
This struggle for supplies led to one British success and several Patriot successes in a series of nearly bloodless conflicts known as the Powder Alarms.
Although it proved to be a false alarm, the Powder Alarm caused political and military leaders to proceed more carefully in the days ahead, and essentially provided a "dress rehearsal" for the Battles of Lexington and Concord seven and a half months later.

Joseph Warren

Dr. Joseph WarrenWarrenGeneral Warren
The rebellion's leaders—with the exception of Paul Revere and Joseph Warren—had all left Boston by April 8.
Warren participated in the next day's Battles of Lexington and Concord, which are commonly considered to be the opening engagements of the American Revolutionary War.

William Dawes

Lieut. Dawes
Between 9 and 10 pm on the night of April 18, 1775, Joseph Warren told Revere and William Dawes that the British troops were about to embark in boats from Boston bound for Cambridge and the road to Lexington and Concord.
William Dawes Jr. (April 6, 1745 – February 25, 1799) was one of several men and a woman in April 1775 who alerted colonial minutemen in Massachusetts of the approach of British army troops prior to the Battles of Lexington and Concord at the outset of the American Revolution.

Massachusetts Provincial Congress

Provincial CongressMassachusettsprovisional government of Massachusetts
The colonial assembly responded by forming a Patriot provisional government known as the Massachusetts Provincial Congress and calling for local militias to train for possible hostilities.
After the war began, the provincial congress established a number of committees to manage the rebel activity in the province, starting with the need to supply and arm the nascent Continental Army that besieged Boston after the April 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord.

British Army during the American Revolutionary War

British ArmyBritish forcesBritish
About 700 British Army regulars in Boston, under Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith, were given secret orders to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies reportedly stored by the Massachusetts militia at Concord.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were fought.

Hancock–Clarke House

Hancock's childhood homehome of one of Hancock's relatives in Lexington
Adams and Hancock had fled Boston to the home of one of Hancock's relatives in Lexington, where they thought they would be safe from the immediate threat of arrest.
It played a prominent role in the Battle of Lexington and Concord as both Hancock and Samuel Adams, leaders of the colonials, were staying in the house before the battle.

Province of Massachusetts Bay

MassachusettsMassachusetts Baycolonial Massachusetts
The battles were fought on April 19, 1775 in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge.
Hostilities broke out in April 1775 at Lexington and Concord, which started the American Revolutionary War, and continued with the Siege of Boston.

Shot heard round the world

shot heard 'round the worldthe shot heard 'round the worldthe shot heard round the world
Ralph Waldo Emerson describes the first shot fired by the Patriots at the North Bridge in his "Concord Hymn" as the "shot heard round the world".
The phrase comes from the opening stanza of Ralph Waldo Emerson's "Concord Hymn" (1837) and refers to the first shot of the American Revolution at the Old North Bridge in Concord, Massachusetts, where the first British soldiers fell in the battles of Lexington and Concord.

Watertown, Massachusetts

WatertownTown of WatertownWatertown Arsenal
After a large contingent of regulars alarmed the countryside by an expedition from Boston to Watertown on March 30, The Pennsylvania Journal, a newspaper in Philadelphia, reported, "It was supposed they were going to Concord, where the Provincial Congress is now sitting. A quantity of provisions and warlike stores are lodged there .... It is ... said they are intending to go out again soon. "
Then later (April 1775), some 134 Watertown minutemen responded to the alarm from Lexington to rout the British redcoats from their march to Concord.

Royal Lincolnshire Regiment

Lincolnshire Regiment10th Regiment of Foot10th Foot
Of the troops assigned to the expedition, 350 were from grenadier companies drawn from the 4th (King's Own), 5th, 10th, 18th (Royal Irish), 23rd, 38th, 43rd, 47th, 52nd and 59th Regiments of Foot, and the 1st Battalion of His Majesty's Marine Forces.
The regiment would next see action in the American Revolutionary War, fighting at the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775, the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775, the New York Campaign in winter 1776, the Battle of Germantown in October 1777, the Battle of Monmouth in June 1778 and the Battle of Rhode Island in August 1778.

Thirteen Colonies

American coloniescoloniescolonial
They marked the outbreak of armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies in America.
The Patriots repulsed the British force at the April 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord, then lay siege to Boston.

King's Own Royal Regiment (Lancaster)

4th Regiment of Foot4th FootKing's Own Royal Regiment
Of the troops assigned to the expedition, 350 were from grenadier companies drawn from the 4th (King's Own), 5th, 10th, 18th (Royal Irish), 23rd, 38th, 43rd, 47th, 52nd and 59th Regiments of Foot, and the 1st Battalion of His Majesty's Marine Forces.
It fought at the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775, the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775 and the Battle of Long Island in August 1776.

John Parker (captain)

John ParkerMinuteman, Capt. John ParkerCaptain John Parker
Their leader was Captain John Parker, a veteran of the French and Indian War, who was suffering from tuberculosis and was at times difficult to hear.
John Parker (July 13, 1729 – September 17, 1775) was an American colonial farmer, mechanic, soldier, and colonial militia officer who commanded the Lexington, Patriot, colonial militia at the Battle of Lexington on April 19, 1775.

George III of the United Kingdom

George IIIKing George IIIKing George
A February 1775 address to King George III, by both houses of Parliament, declared that a state of rebellion existed:
Armed conflict between British regulars and colonial militiamen broke out at the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775.