Battles of Lexington and Concord

Battle of LexingtonLexington and ConcordLexingtonBattle of ConcordConcordLexington AlarmBattle of Lexington and Concordbattles at Lexington and Concordbattlebattle in Lexington
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.wikipedia
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Lexington, Massachusetts

LexingtonLexington, MALexington MA
The battles were fought on April 19, 1775 in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge.
Settled in 1641, it is celebrated as the site of the first shots of the American Revolutionary War, in the Battle of Lexington on April 19, 1775.

American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican RevolutionAmerican War of Independence
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.
British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.

Concord, Massachusetts

ConcordConcord, MATown of Concord
The battles were fought on April 19, 1775 in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge.
The ensuing conflict, the Battle of Lexington and Concord, was the incident (the shot heard round the world) that triggered the American Revolutionary War.

Paul Revere

RevereMidnight RidePaul Revere's Ride
On the night before the battle, warning of the British expedition had been rapidly sent from Boston to militias in the area by several riders, including Paul Revere and Samuel Prescott, with information about British plans. The rebellion's leaders—with the exception of Paul Revere and Joseph Warren—had all left Boston by April 8.
He is best known for his midnight ride to alert the colonial militia in April 1775 to the approach of British forces before the battles of Lexington and Concord, as dramatized in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem, "Paul Revere's Ride" (1861).

Old North Church

Christ ChurchNorth Church200th anniversary
The initial mode of the Army's arrival by water was signaled from the Old North Church in Boston to Charlestown using lanterns to communicate "one if by land, two if by sea".
This phrase is related to Paul Revere's midnight ride, of April 18, 1775, which preceded the Battles of Lexington and Concord during the American Revolution.

Arlington, Massachusetts

ArlingtonArlington HeightsMenotomy
The battles were fought on April 19, 1775 in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge.
Later on that first day of the American Revolution, more blood was shed in Menotomy than in the battles of Lexington and Concord combined.

Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland

Hugh PercyHugh, Earl PercyDuke of Northumberland
Upon returning to Lexington, Lt. Col. Smith's expedition was rescued by reinforcements under Brigadier General Hugh Percy, a future duke of Northumberland styled at this time by the courtesy title Earl Percy.
He participated in the Battles of Lexington and Concord and the Battle of Long Island during the American War of Independence, but resigned his command in 1777 due to disagreements with his superior, General William Howe.

Siege of Boston

besieged Bostonevacuation of Bostonbesieged in Boston
The accumulated militias then blockaded the narrow land accesses to Charlestown and Boston, starting the Siege of Boston.
The siege began on April 19 after the Battles of Lexington and Concord, when the militia from surrounding Massachusetts communities blocked land access to Boston.

Thomas Gage

General GageGageGeneral Thomas Gage
General Thomas Gage was the military governor of Massachusetts and commander-in-chief of the roughly 3,000 British military forces garrisoned in Boston.
His attempts to seize military stores of Patriot militias in April 1775 sparked the Battles of Lexington and Concord, beginning the American Revolutionary War.

Francis Smith (British Army officer)

Francis SmithLt. Col. Francis SmithSmith
About 700 British Army regulars in Boston, under Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith, were given secret orders to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies reportedly stored by the Massachusetts militia at Concord.
Although Smith had a lengthy and varied career, he is best known as the British commander during most of the Battle of Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts on 19 April 1775.

William Dawes

Lieut. Dawes
Between 9 and 10 pm on the night of April 18, 1775, Joseph Warren told Revere and William Dawes that the British troops were about to embark in boats from Boston bound for Cambridge and the road to Lexington and Concord.
William Dawes Jr. (April 6, 1745 – February 25, 1799) was one of several men and a woman in April 1775 who alerted colonial minutemen in Massachusetts of the approach of British army troops prior to the Battles of Lexington and Concord at the outset of the American Revolution.

Joseph Warren

Dr. Joseph WarrenWarrenGeneral Warren
The rebellion's leaders—with the exception of Paul Revere and Joseph Warren—had all left Boston by April 8.
Warren participated in the next day's Battles of Lexington and Concord, which are commonly considered to be the opening engagements of the American Revolutionary War.

Powder Alarm

crowd of four thousand angry citizensmassive popular reactionmutual scramble for munitions
This struggle for supplies led to one British success and several Patriot successes in a series of nearly bloodless conflicts known as the Powder Alarms.
Although it proved to be a false alarm, the Powder Alarm caused political and military leaders to proceed more carefully in the days ahead, and essentially provided a "dress rehearsal" for the Battles of Lexington and Concord seven and a half months later.

Concord Hymn

by the rude bridge that arched the flood
Ralph Waldo Emerson describes the first shot fired by the Patriots at the North Bridge in his "Concord Hymn" as the "shot heard round the world".
"Concord Hymn" (original title was "Hymn: Sung at the Completion of the Concord Monument, April 19, 1836") is a poem by Ralph Waldo Emerson written for the 1837 dedication of the Obelisk, a monument in Concord, Massachusetts, commemorating the Battle of Concord, the second in a series of battles and skirmishes on April 19, 1775, at the outbreak of the American Revolution.

Royal Lincolnshire Regiment

Lincolnshire Regiment10th Regiment of Foot10th Foot
Of the troops assigned to the expedition, 350 were from grenadier companies drawn from the 4th (King's Own), 5th, 10th, 18th (Royal Irish), 23rd, 38th, 43rd, 47th, 52nd and 59th Regiments of Foot, and the 1st Battalion of His Majesty's Marine Forces.
The regiment would next see action in the American Revolutionary War, fighting at the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775, the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775, the New York Campaign in winter 1776, the Battle of Germantown in October 1777, the Battle of Monmouth in June 1778 and the Battle of Rhode Island in August 1778.

Old North Bridge

North BridgeConcord BridgeMinute Man
At the North Bridge in Concord, approximately 400 militiamen engaged 100 regulars from three companies of the King's troops at about 11:00am, resulting in casualties on both sides.
The North Bridge, often colloquially called the Old North Bridge, is a historical site in the Battle of Concord, the first day of battle in the American War of Independence.

Hancock–Clarke House

Hancock's childhood homehome of one of Hancock's relatives in Lexington
Adams and Hancock had fled Boston to the home of one of Hancock's relatives in Lexington, where they thought they would be safe from the immediate threat of arrest.
It played a prominent role in the Battle of Lexington and Concord as both Hancock and Samuel Adams, leaders of the colonials, were staying in the house before the battle.

William Munroe (American soldier)

William Munroe
Of the militiamen who lined up, nine had the surname Harrington, seven Munroe (including the company's orderly sergeant, William Munroe), four Parker, three Tidd, three Locke, and three Reed; fully one quarter of them were related to Captain Parker in some way.
He was the orderly sergeant of the Lexington militia at the Battle of Lexington and Concord and as a lieutenant at the Battle of Saratoga.

Watertown, Massachusetts

WatertownTown of WatertownWatertown Arsenal
After a large contingent of regulars alarmed the countryside by an expedition from Boston to Watertown on March 30, The Pennsylvania Journal, a newspaper in Philadelphia, reported, "It was supposed they were going to Concord, where the Provincial Congress is now sitting. A quantity of provisions and warlike stores are lodged there .... It is ... said they are intending to go out again soon. "
Then later (April 1775), some 134 Watertown minutemen responded to the alarm from Lexington to rout the British redcoats from their march to Concord.

Royal Northumberland Fusiliers

Northumberland Fusiliers5th Regiment of Foot5th Foot
Of the troops assigned to the expedition, 350 were from grenadier companies drawn from the 4th (King's Own), 5th, 10th, 18th (Royal Irish), 23rd, 38th, 43rd, 47th, 52nd and 59th Regiments of Foot, and the 1st Battalion of His Majesty's Marine Forces. On the morning of April 18, Gage ordered a mounted patrol of about 20 men under the command of Major Mitchell of the 5th Regiment of Foot into the surrounding country to intercept messengers who might be out on horseback.
On 19 April 1775, the Light Infantry and Grenadier Companies participated in the march to Concord, and the resulting fighting at Lexington, Concord, and the march back to Boston.

Royal Irish Regiment (1684–1922)

Royal Irish Regiment18th Regiment of FootThe Royal Irish Regiment
Of the troops assigned to the expedition, 350 were from grenadier companies drawn from the 4th (King's Own), 5th, 10th, 18th (Royal Irish), 23rd, 38th, 43rd, 47th, 52nd and 59th Regiments of Foot, and the 1st Battalion of His Majesty's Marine Forces.
The rest of the regiment was present in Boston, where the grenadier company participated in the Battle of Lexington and Battle of Concord in April 1775 during the American Revolutionary War as well as the Bunker Hill in June 1775, its first formal combat in more than 50 years.

Concord River

Concord
The Minutemen and militia from Concord, Acton and a handful of Westford Minutemen, advanced in column formation, two by two, led by Major Buttrick, Lt. Col. Robinson, then Capt. Davis, on the light infantry, keeping to the road, since it was surrounded by the spring floodwaters of the Concord River.
One of the most famous small rivers in U.S. history, it was the scene of an important early battle of the American Revolutionary War and was the subject of a famous 19th-century book by Henry David Thoreau.

Buckman Tavern

As the regulars' advance guard under Pitcairn entered Lexington at sunrise on April 19, 1775, about 80 Lexington militiamen emerged from Buckman Tavern and stood in ranks on the village common watching them, and between 40 and 100 spectators watched from along the side of the road.
Buckman Tavern is a historic American Revolutionary War site associated with the revolution's very first battle, the 1775 Battle of Lexington and Concord.

John Pitcairn

PitcairnMajor John Pitcairn
He also told them that the senior colonel of his regiments, Lieutenant Colonel Smith, would command, with Major John Pitcairn as his executive officer.
He was in command of the advance party that marched on Lexington and Concord on 19 April 1775, which began the American War of Independence.

United States Declaration of Independence

Declaration of IndependenceindependenceAmerican Declaration of Independence
(The Declaration of Independence was a year in the future.) He also knew the British had gone on such expeditions before in Massachusetts, found nothing, and marched back to Boston.
Most colonists still hoped for reconciliation with Great Britain, even after fighting began in the American Revolutionary War at Lexington and Concord in April 1775.