Bay of Pigs Invasion

Bay of Pigsinvasioninvasion of Cuba1961 Bay of Pigs attack on Cuba1961 Bay of Pigs fiasco1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion1961 invasion of Cubaadversities with the United States Governmentanother U.S. invasion of Cubaassault on the Bay of Pigs
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.wikipedia
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Fidel Castro

CastroFidelCastro government
A counter-revolutionary military group (made up of mostly Cuban exiles who traveled to the United States after Castro's takeover, but also some US military personnel ), trained and funded by the CIA, Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front (DRF) and intended to overthrow the increasingly communist government of Fidel Castro.
The United States came to oppose Castro's government and unsuccessfully attempted to remove him by assassination, economic blockade and counter-revolution, including the Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961.

John F. Kennedy

KennedyPresident KennedyJFK
Eisenhower's successor, John F. Kennedy, approved the final invasion plan on 4 April 1961.
In April 1961, he authorized a failed joint-CIA attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro in the Bay of Pigs Invasion.

Brigade 2506

2506 Brigade1,179 surviving attackersCuban rebels
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.
It carried out the abortive Bay of Pigs Invasion landings in Cuba on 17 April 1961.

Cuban Missile Crisis

missile crisisCuban Quarantine1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
This eventually led to the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.
In response to the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961 and the presence of American Jupiter ballistic missiles in Italy and Turkey, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev agreed to Cuba's request to place nuclear missiles on the island to deter a future invasion.

Bay of Pigs

Bahia de CochinosBay of Pigs, CubaPlaya Giron
Two days later, on 15 April, eight CIA-supplied B-26 bombers attacked Cuban airfields and then returned to the US. On the night of 16 April, the main invasion landed at a beach named Playa Girón in the Bay of Pigs.
The bay is historically important for the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

EisenhowerDwight EisenhowerPresident Eisenhower
US President Dwight D. Eisenhower was very concerned at the direction Castro's government was taking, and in March 1960 he allocated $13.1 million to the CIA to plan Castro's overthrow.
He approved the Bay of Pigs invasion, which was left to his successor, John F. Kennedy, to carry out.

Central Intelligence Agency

CIAC.I.A.Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on April 17, 1961.

José Ramón Fernández

Fernandez, Jose Ramon
The Cuban Army's counter-offensive was led by José Ramón Fernández, before Castro decided to take personal control of the operation.
At the time of the Bay of Pigs Invasion on 17 April 1961, he was director of militia training and based at Managua near Havana.

Guatemala

🇬🇹GuatemalanRepublic of Guatemala
Launched from Guatemala and Nicaragua, the invading force was defeated within three days by the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces, under the direct command of Castro.
He also provided airstrips in the region of Petén for what later became the US-sponsored, failed Bay of Pigs Invasion in 1961.

Playa Girón

Girón
Two days later, on 15 April, eight CIA-supplied B-26 bombers attacked Cuban airfields and then returned to the US. On the night of 16 April, the main invasion landed at a beach named Playa Girón in the Bay of Pigs.
In April 1961, Playa Girón was one of two landing sites for seaborne forces of about 1,500 armed Cuban exiles in the Bay of Pigs Invasion, an American CIA-sponsored attempt to overthrow the new government of Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro.

Cuba

communismCUindependent republic
The invasion (known as the Bay of Pigs Invasion) took place on 14 April 1961, during the term of President John F. Kennedy.

Richard M. Bissell Jr.

Richard BissellDick BissellBissell
The man overseeing plans for the Bay of Pigs Invasion was Richard M. Bissell Jr., the CIA's Deputy Director for Plans (DDP).
Richard Mervin Bissell Jr. (September 18, 1909 – February 7, 1994) was a Central Intelligence Agency officer responsible for major projects such as the U-2 spy plane and the Bay of Pigs Invasion.

Cuban Democratic Revolutionary Front

CDRFDemocratic Revolutionary Front
A counter-revolutionary military group (made up of mostly Cuban exiles who traveled to the United States after Castro's takeover, but also some US military personnel ), trained and funded by the CIA, Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front (DRF) and intended to overthrow the increasingly communist government of Fidel Castro.
The FRD's military wing was called Brigade 2506, which fought in the Bay of Pigs Invasion Cuban exile Sergio Arcacha Smith was the head the New Orleans chapter of the FRD.

United States embargo against Cuba

embargoembargo against CubaCuban embargo
On 13 October 1960, the US government then prohibited the majority of exports to Cuba – the exceptions being medicines and certain foodstuffs – marking the start of an economic embargo.
After the Bay of Pigs Invasion in April 1961, which had been largely planned under the Eisenhower administration, but which Kennedy had been informed of and approved during the months preceding his presidency and in his first few months as president, the Cuban government declared that it now considered itself Marxist and socialist, and aligned with the Soviet Union.

Gerry Droller

He assembled a number of other agents to aid him in the plot, many of whom had worked on the 1954 Guatemalan coup six years before; these included David Philips, Gerry Droller and E. Howard Hunt.
- 1992) was a German CIA officer involved in the covert 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état and the recruitment of Cuban exiles in the preparation of the Bay of Pigs Invasion in April 1961.

Cuban Revolutionary Council

The Cuban Revolutionary Council
In March 1961, the CIA helped Cuban exiles in Miami to create the Cuban Revolutionary Council (CRC), chaired by José Miró Cardona, former Prime Minister of Cuba in January 1959.
The Cuban Revolutionary Council (CRC) was a group formed, with CIA assistance, three weeks before the April 17, 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion to "coordinate and direct" the activities of another group known as the Cuban Democratic Revolutionary Front.

Cold War

the Cold Warcold-warCold War era
It was after the Cuban Revolution of 1959, that Castro forged strong economic links with the Soviet Union, with which, at the time, the United States was engaged in the Cold War.
In April 1961, the administration of newly elected American President John F. Kennedy mounted an unsuccessful CIA-organized ship-borne invasion of the island at Playa Girón and Playa Larga in Santa Clara Province—a failure that publicly humiliated the United States.

E. Howard Hunt

Howard HuntE. Howard Hunt, Jr.Everette Howard Hunt
He assembled a number of other agents to aid him in the plot, many of whom had worked on the 1954 Guatemalan coup six years before; these included David Philips, Gerry Droller and E. Howard Hunt.
Hunt was subsequently given the assignment of forging Cuban exile leaders in the United States into a broadly representative government-in-exile that would, after the Bay of Pigs Invasion, form a pro-American Puppet state to take over Cuba.

Manuel Artime

Manuel Francisco Artime
The overall leader was Dr. Manuel Artime while the military leader was José "Pepe" Peréz San Román, a former Cuban Army officer imprisoned under both Batista and Castro.
Manuel Francisco Artime Buesa, M.D. (29 January 1932 – 18 November 1977) was a Cuban-American who at one time was a member of the rebel army of Fidel Castro but later was the political leader of Brigade 2506 land forces in the abortive Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in April 1961.

Pepe San Román

José "Pepe" Peréz San RománJosé Alfredo 'Pepe' Pérez San RománPepe San Roman
The overall leader was Dr. Manuel Artime while the military leader was José "Pepe" Peréz San Román, a former Cuban Army officer imprisoned under both Batista and Castro.
José Alfredo Pérez San Román (1930 – 10 September 1989), known as Pepe San Román, was the commander of Brigade 2506 ground troops in the Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba in April 1961.

Director of Central Intelligence

C.I.A. DirectorCIA DirectorDCI
The CIA's Director at the time, Allen Dulles, was responsible for overseeing covert operations across the world, and although widely considered an ineffectual administrator, he was immensely popular among his employees, whom he had protected from the accusations of McCarthyism.
After the armed landing of Cuban exiles in the Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba in 1961, President Kennedy discharged and replaced Dulles.

Hawker Sea Fury

Sea FuryHawker Sea FuriesSea Furies
The Cuban air force armed inventory included Douglas B-26 Invader light bombers, Hawker Sea Fury fighters, and Lockheed T-33 jets, all remaining from the Fuerza Aérea del Ejército de Cuba (FAEC), the Cuban air force of the Batista government.
It proved to be a popular aircraft with a number of overseas militaries, and was used during the Korean War in the early 1950s, as well as against the 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba.

Félix Rodríguez (soldier)

Félix RodríguezFelix RodriguezFélix Rodriguez
Detailed planning, training and military operations were conducted by Jacob Esterline, Colonel Jack Hawkins, Félix Rodríguez and Colonel Stanley W. Beerli under the direction of Richard Bissell and his deputy Tracy Barnes.
Félix Ismael Rodríguez Mendigutia (born 31 May 1941) is a former Central Intelligence Agency Paramilitary Operations Officer in the famed Special Activities Division, known for his involvement in the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the execution of communist revolutionary Che Guevara as well as his ties to George H. W. Bush during the Iran–Contra affair.

Che Guevara

Ernesto "Che" GuevaraCheGuevara
Anticipating an invasion, Che Guevara stressed the importance of an armed civilian populace, stating: "all of the Cuban people must become a guerrilla army; each and every Cuban must learn to handle and if necessary use firearms in defense of the nation".
Such positions also allowed him to play a central role in training the militia forces who repelled the Bay of Pigs Invasion, and bringing Soviet nuclear-armed ballistic missiles to Cuba, which precipitated the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.

Jacob Esterline

Detailed planning, training and military operations were conducted by Jacob Esterline, Colonel Jack Hawkins, Félix Rodríguez and Colonel Stanley W. Beerli under the direction of Richard Bissell and his deputy Tracy Barnes.
Jacob Donald 'Jake' Esterline (April 26, 1920 in Lewistown, Pennsylvania – October 16, 1999) was the CIA project director for the Bay of Pigs Invasion.