Baybayin

TagalogBaybayin scriptTagalog scriptancient Filipino writing systemscriptscriptsVisayan script
Baybayin (pre-virama:, post-virama:, kudlit + pamudpod: ) is an ancient script used primarily by the Tagalog people.wikipedia
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Tagalog people

TagalogTagalogsTagalas
Baybayin (pre-virama:, post-virama:, kudlit + pamudpod: ) is an ancient script used primarily by the Tagalog people.
The Tagalog people (Baybayin: ) are the second largest ethnolingustic group in the Philippines after the Visayan people, numbering at around 30 million.

Tagalog language

TagalogTagalog-languageFilipino
The term baybayín literally means "to spell, write, and syllabize" in Tagalog.
The Doctrina was written in Spanish and two transcriptions of Tagalog; one in the ancient, then-current Baybayin script and the other in an early Spanish attempt at a Latin orthography for the language.

Ancient Philippine scripts

Basahanindigenous scriptsnative Filipino script
Baybayin (pre-virama:, post-virama:, kudlit + pamudpod: ) is an ancient script used primarily by the Tagalog people.
Isaac Taylor sought to show that the system of writing, particularly the Baybayin script, was introduced into the Philippines from the Coast of Bengal sometime before the 8th century.

Old Tagalog

Archaic TagalogClassical Tagalog
It was written in the Kawi script in a variety of Old Malay containing numerous loanwords from Sanskrit and a few non-Malay vocabulary elements whose origin is ambiguous between Old Javanese and Old Tagalog.
Old Tagalog (Baybayin:, Pre-Kudlit: ) is the earliest form of the Tagalog language and was the language of Central and Southern Luzon during the Classical period in Luzon.

Kawi script

KawiOld KawiKawi alphabet
Laguna Copperplate Inscription, a legal document inscribed on a copper plate in 900 AD, is the earliest known written document found in the Philippines, is written in Indian Sanskrit and Brahmi script based Indonesian Kawi script.
Kawi is the ancestor of traditional Indonesian scripts, such as Javanese and Balinese, as well as traditional Philippine scripts such as Luzon Kavi the ancient scripts of Laguna Copperplate Inscriptions 822 A.D. and The Baybayin 1500 AD.

Filipino styles and honorifics

FilipinoSenapatiApo
Indian honorifics also influenced the Malay, Thai, Filipino and Indonesian honorifics.
Pre-colonial native Filipino script called Baybayin, known in Visayan as badlit, as kur-itan/kurditan Ilocano and as kudlitan in Kapampangan, was itself derived from the Brahmic scripts of India and first recorded in the 16th century.

Abugida

abugidasalphasyllabaryalphasyllabaries
It is one of a number of individual writing systems used in Southeast Asia, nearly all of which are abugidas where any consonant is pronounced with the inherent vowel a following it—diacritics being used to express other vowels.

Laguna Copperplate Inscription

Laguna Copper PlateLCI900
Laguna Copperplate Inscription, a legal document inscribed on a copper plate in 900 AD, is the earliest known written document found in the Philippines, is written in Indian Sanskrit and Brahmi script based Indonesian Kawi script.
The pre-colonial native Filipino script called Baybayin, known in Visayan as badlit, as kur-itan/kurditan in Ilocano and as kudlitan in Kapampangan, was itself derived from the Brahmic scripts of India and first recorded in the 16th century.

Calatagan

Calatagan, BatangasBatangasCalatagan Peninsula
An earthenware burial jar, called the "Calatagan Pot," found in Batangas is inscribed with characters strikingly similar to Baybayin, and is claimed to have been inscribed ca.
The script is called Baybayin in Tagalog, and was derived from Javanese writing, which in turn is derived from Brahmi.

Languages of the Philippines

Philippine languagesLanguagesPhilippine language
There is only one letter for D or R as they were allophones in most languages of the Philippines, where R occurred in intervocalic positions and D occurred elsewhere.
Baybayin, though generally not understood, is one of the most well-known of the indigenous Filipino scripts and is used mainly in artistic applications such as on the Philippine banknotes, where the word "Pilipino" is inscribed using the writing system.

Suyat

writing systems
On occasion, "baybayin" refers to other indigenous writing in the Philippines that are collectively called suyat, including Buhid, Hanunó'o, Tagbanwa (Apurahuano), Kulitan, and others.
Suyat includes the kulitan script of the Kapampangan people, the badlit script of various Visayan ethnic groups, the iniskaya script of the Eskaya people, the baybayin script of the Tagalog people, the buhid/buid script of the Buhid Mangyan people, the hanunó'o/hanunoo script of the Hanuno'o Mangyan people, the apurahuano/tagbanwa script of the Tagbanwa people, the palaw'an/pala'wan script of the Palaw'an people, the kur-itan script of the Ilokano people, and many other indigenous scripts in the Philippines.

Pedro Chirino

ChirinoFr. Pedro ChirinoPedro Chirino, S.J.
Baybayin was noted by the Spanish priest Pedro Chirino in 1604 and Antonio de Morga in 1609 to be known by most Filipinos, and was generally used for personal writings, poetry, etc. However, according to William Henry Scott, there were some datus from the 1590s who could not sign affidavits or oaths, and witnesses who could not sign land deeds in the 1620s.
In the course of his missionary work, Father Chirino also recorded the transition of Filipino writing from the Baybayin script to the Latin alphabet.

Butuan Ivory Seal

The seal, now known as the Butuan Ivory Seal, has been declared as a National Cultural Treasure.
The script has a similarity to the Tagalog script.

Buhid script

BuhidBuhid alphabetBuhid/Buid
On occasion, "baybayin" refers to other indigenous writing in the Philippines that are collectively called suyat, including Buhid, Hanunó'o, Tagbanwa (Apurahuano), Kulitan, and others.
Buhid is a Brahmic suyat script of the Philippines, closely related to Baybayin and Hanunó'o, and is used today by the Mangyans, found mainly on island of Mindoro, to write their language, Buhid.

Bisayan languages

VisayanVisayan languagesVisayan language
Among the earliest literature on the orthography of Visayan languages were those of Jesuit priest Ezguerra with his Arte de la lengua bisaya in 1747 and of Mentrida with his Arte de la lengua bisaya: Iliguaina de la isla de Panay in 1818 which primarily discussed grammatical structure.
Prior to colonization, the script and calligraphy of most of the Visayan peoples was the badlit, distinct from the Tagalog baybayin.

Brahmi script

BrahmiBrāhmīBrāhmī script
Laguna Copperplate Inscription, a legal document inscribed on a copper plate in 900 AD, is the earliest known written document found in the Philippines, is written in Indian Sanskrit and Brahmi script based Indonesian Kawi script.
Southern Brahmi gave rise to the Grantha alphabet (6th century), the Vatteluttu alphabet (8th century), and due to the contact of Hinduism with Southeast Asia during the early centuries CE, also gave rise to the Baybayin in the Philippines, the Javanese script in Indonesia, the Khmer alphabet in Cambodia, and the Old Mon script in Burma.

Ilocano language

IlocanoIlokanoIloko
Its use spread to Ilokanos when the Spanish promoted its use with the printing of Bibles.
Precolonial Ilocano people of all classes wrote in a syllabic system known as Baybayin prior to European arrival.

Unicode

Unicode StandardUnicode Transformation FormatThe Unicode Standard
Baybayin was added to the Unicode Standard in March, 2002 with the release of version 3.2.

Hanunuo script

Hanunó'oHanunooHanunó'o script
On occasion, "baybayin" refers to other indigenous writing in the Philippines that are collectively called suyat, including Buhid, Hanunó'o, Tagbanwa (Apurahuano), Kulitan, and others.
It is an abugida descended from the Brahmic scripts, closely related to Baybayin, and is famous for being written vertical but written upward, rather than downward as nearly all other scripts (however, it's read horizontally left to right).

Pallava script

PallavaPallava alphabetnew script
Indian script Grantha and Southeast Asian scripts such as Balinese, Javanese, Kawi, Baybayin, Mon, Burmese, Khmer, Lanna, Thai, Lao and the New Tai Lue alphabet as well as the Sri Lankan Sinhala script are either direct or indirect derivations from the Kadamba-Pallava alphabet.

Ticao Island

Ticaoisland of TicaoTicao Island Campus
Found by pupils of Rizal Elementary School on Ticao Island in Monreal town, Masbate, which had scraped the mud off their shoes and slippers on two irregular shaped limestone tablets before entering their classroom, they are now housed at a section of the National Museum of the Philippines, which weighs 30 kilos, is 11 centimeters thick, 54 cm long and 44 cm wide while the other is 6 cm thick, 20 cm long and 18 cm wide.
Ticao island is known as an archaeological landscape, possessing thousands of pre-colonial artifacts such as the Baybayin-inscribed Rizal Stone, Ticao gold spike teeth, Burial jars of varying designs and sizes, jade beads, human face rock statues, and the Ticao petrographs.

Filipino orthography

Abecedarioorthographytransliterated into roman letters
Examples of this ancient Philippine writing system which descended from the Brāhmī script are the Kawi, Baybayin, Buhid, Hanunó'o, Tagbanwa, Butuan, Kapampangan and other Brahmic family of scripts known to antiquity.

Kulitan alphabet

KulitanKapampanganKulitan script
On occasion, "baybayin" refers to other indigenous writing in the Philippines that are collectively called suyat, including Buhid, Hanunó'o, Tagbanwa (Apurahuano), Kulitan, and others.
Historic catalogues of precolonial Filipino scripts point to a right-to-left and top-to-bottom writing direction, as with sister scripts of Tagalog and Tagbanwa.

Tagbanwa script

TagbanwaTagbanwa alphabetTagbanua
On occasion, "baybayin" refers to other indigenous writing in the Philippines that are collectively called suyat, including Buhid, Hanunó'o, Tagbanwa (Apurahuano), Kulitan, and others.
Closely related to Baybayin, it is believed to have come from the Kawi script of Java, Bali and Sumatra, which in turn, descended from the Pallava script, one of the southern Indian scripts derived from Brahmi.

Philippine passport

passportFilipinopassports
It is also used in Philippine passports, specifically the latest e-passport edition issued 11 August 2009 onwards.
The odd pages of pages 3–43 have a Baybayin text that says "Ang katuwiran ay nagpapadakila sa isang bayan" ("Righteousness exalts a nation") in reference to Proverbs 14:34.