Bead

beadsperler beadsSeed beads
A bead is a small, decorative object that is formed in a variety of shapes and sizes of a material such as stone, bone, shell, glass, plastic, wood or pearl and with a small hole for threading or stringing.wikipedia
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Beadwork

beadingbeadedbead work
Beadwork is the art or craft of making things with beads.
Beadwork is the art or craft of attaching beads to one another by stringing them with a sewing needle or beading needle and thread or thin wire, or sewing them to cloth.

Jewellery

jewelryjewelledjeweler
A pair of beads made from Nassarius sea snail shells, approximately 100,000 years old, are thought to be the earliest known examples of jewellery.
Gemstones and similar materials such as amber and coral, precious metals, beads, and shells have been widely used, and enamel has often been important.

Glass

glassmakersilicate glassvitreous
In modern manufacturing, the most common bead materials are wood, plastic, glass, metal, and stone.
In its most solid forms it has also been used for paperweights, marbles, and beads.

Millefiori

In some cases, such as millefiori and cloisonné beads, multiple categories may overlap in an interdependent fashion. There are also several ways to fuse many small glass canes together into a multicolored pattern, resulting in millefiori beads or chevron beads (sometimes called "trade beads").
The manufacture of mosaic beads can be traced to Ancient Roman, Phoenician and Alexandrian times.

Precious coral

coralred coralCorallium
The natural organics include bone, coral, horn, ivory, seeds (such as tagua nuts), animal shell, and wood.
Due to its softness and opacity, coral is usually cut en cabochon, or used to make beads.

Chevron bead

chevronchevron patternglass beads
There are also several ways to fuse many small glass canes together into a multicolored pattern, resulting in millefiori beads or chevron beads (sometimes called "trade beads").
Chevron beads are special glass beads; the first specimens of this type were created by glass bead makers in Venice and Murano, Italy, toward the end of the 14th century.

Goldstone (glass)

goldstoneAventurine glassaventurine glass or goldstone
Most of these glass subtypes are some form of fused glass, although goldstone is created by controlling the reductive atmosphere and cooling conditions of the glass batch rather than by fusing separate components together.
The finished product can take a smooth polish and be carved into beads, figurines, or other artifacts suitable for semiprecious stone, and in fact goldstone is often mistaken for or misrepresented as a natural material.

Hair pipe

Elk rib bones were the original material for the long, tubular hair pipe beads.
A Hair Pipe is a term for a elongated bead, more than 1.5 inches long, which are popular with American Indians, particularly from the Great Plains and Northwest Plateau.

Trade beads

slave beadstrade beadglass beads
African trade beads or slave beads may be antique beads that were manufactured in Europe and used for trade during the colonial period, such as chevron beads; or they may have been made in West Africa by and for Africans, such as Mauritanian Kiffa beads, Ghanaian and Nigerian powder glass beads, or African-made brass beads.
Trade beads (sometimes called aggry and slave beads) were otherwise decorative glass beads used between the 16th and 20th century as a token money to exchange for goods, services and slaves (hence the name).

Dzi bead

Tibetan Dzi beads and Rudraksha beads are used to make Buddhist and Hindu rosaries (malas).
གཟི།; pronounced "zee"; alternative spelling: gzi) is a type of stone bead of uncertain origin worn as part of a necklace and sometimes as a bracelet.

Indian bead

Known as Indian beads, they were originally sewn together to form ribbons.
The fossils, generally a centimeter or less in diameter, tend to be cylindrical with a small hole (either open or filled) along the axis and can resemble unstrung beads.

Magatama

Yasakani no Magatamajewelcomma-shaped stone beads
Magatama are traditional Japanese beads, and cinnabar was often used for making beads in China.
Magatama are curved, comma-shaped beads that appeared in prehistoric Japan from the Final Jōmon period through the Kofun period, approximately ca.

Kiffa beads

African trade beads or slave beads may be antique beads that were manufactured in Europe and used for trade during the colonial period, such as chevron beads; or they may have been made in West Africa by and for Africans, such as Mauritanian Kiffa beads, Ghanaian and Nigerian powder glass beads, or African-made brass beads.
Kiffa beads represent one of the highest levels of artistic skill and ingenuity in beadmaking, being manufactured with the simplest materials and tools available: pulverized European glass beads or fragments of them, bottle glass, pottery shards, tin cans, twigs, steel needles, some gum arabic, and open fires.

Bone

cortical bonebone tissuecancellous bone
The natural organics include bone, coral, horn, ivory, seeds (such as tagua nuts), animal shell, and wood.
They have further been used in bone carving, already important in prehistoric art, and also in modern time as crafting materials for buttons, beads, handles, bobbins, calculation aids, head nuts, dice, poker chips, pick-up sticks, ornaments, etc. A special genre is scrimshaw.

Seed

seedsseed coatkernel
The natural organics include bone, coral, horn, ivory, seeds (such as tagua nuts), animal shell, and wood.
Many seeds have been used as beads in necklaces and rosaries including Job's tears, Chinaberry, rosary pea, and castor bean.

Bead weaving

loombead loomOff-loom
Usually rounded in shape, seed beads are most commonly used for loom and off-loom bead weaving.

Japamala

Hindu prayer beadsakshamalamala
The rosary is usually made from 108 beads, though other numbers are also used.

Aggry beads

Aggrey beads
Aggry beads (also spelled aggri beads or aggrey beads) are a type of decorated glass bead from Ghana, used by West Africans as ornaments in necklaces, bracelets and other jewelry.

Misbaha

prayer beadstasbihmisbaḥah
A misbaḥah (Arabic, Kurdish and Hindi-Urdu), (Iran, Tajikistan & Afghanistan), or tespih (Turkish, Bosnian & Albanian), is a string of beads which is often used by Muslims to keep track of counting in tasbih.

Glass fusing

fused glassfusingfused
Most of these glass subtypes are some form of fused glass, although goldstone is created by controlling the reductive atmosphere and cooling conditions of the glass batch rather than by fusing separate components together.
Since the 1970s, more hobbyists have focused on using kiln-fused glass to make beads and components for jewellery.

Blombos Cave

BlombosOchre Processing Workshop
The oldest beads found to date were at Blombos Cave, about 72,000 years old, and at Ksar Akil in Lebanon, about 40,000 years old.
The most informative archaeological material from Blombos Cave includes engraved ochre, engraved bone ochre processing kits, marine shell beads, refined bone and stone tools and a broad range of terrestrial and marine faunal remains, including shellfish, birds, tortoise and ostrich egg shell and mammals of various sizes.

Glass beadmaking

glass beadglass beadsbeads
Glass beads have been dated back to at least Roman times.

Ultraviolet-sensitive bead

Ultraviolet-sensitive beads (UV beads) are beads that are colorful in the presence of ultraviolet radiation.

Pressed glass

pressedglass pressesPattern glass
Most glass beads are pressed glass, mass-produced by preparing a molten batch of glass of the desired color and pouring it into molds to form the desired shape.
The method is also used to make beads.

Murano beads

lampwork glassMurano glass beadsVenetian beads
Murano beads are intricate glass beads influenced by Venetian glass artists.