Beamforming

beam formingbeamformerAntenna beamformingbeam-formingbeams or nullsspatial beamforming
Beamforming or spatial filtering is a signal processing technique used in sensor arrays for directional signal transmission or reception.wikipedia
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Sensor array

uniform linear array
Beamforming or spatial filtering is a signal processing technique used in sensor arrays for directional signal transmission or reception.
The process of multiplying a well selected set of weights to the signals received by the sensor array so that the signal is added constructively while suppressing the noise is called beamforming.There are a variety of beamforming algorithms for sensor arrays, such as the delay-and-sum approach, spectral based (non-parametric) approaches and parametric approaches.

Window function

window functionswindowingwindowed
Different weighting patterns (e.g., Dolph-Chebyshev) can be used to achieve the desired sensitivity patterns.
Window functions are used in spectral analysis/modification/resynthesis, the design of finite impulse response filters, as well as beamforming and antenna design.

Sonar

asdicvariable depth sonaractive sonar
It has found numerous applications in radar, sonar, seismology, wireless communications, radio astronomy, acoustics and biomedicine.
To measure the bearing, several hydrophones are used, and the set measures the relative arrival time to each, or with an array of hydrophones, by measuring the relative amplitude in beams formed through a process called beamforming.

Hydrophone

hydrophoneshydroacoustichydroacoustics
In passive sonar, and in reception in active sonar, the beamforming technique involves combining delayed signals from each hydrophone at slightly different times (the hydrophone closest to the target will be combined after the longest delay), so that every signal reaches the output at exactly the same time, making one loud signal, as if the signal came from a single, very sensitive hydrophone.
The array may be steered using a beamformer.

Precoding

limited feedback precodinglinear precoding
3G evolution — LTE/UMB: Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) precoding based beamforming with partial Space-Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
Precoding is a generalization of beamforming to support multi-stream (or multi-layer) transmission in multi-antenna wireless communications.

IEEE 802.11ac

802.11acac11ac
An increasing number of consumer 802.11ac Wi-Fi devices with MIMO capability can support beamforming to boost data communication rates.
Beamforming with standardized sounding and feedback for compatibility between vendors (non-standard in 802.11n made it hard for beamforming to work effectively between different vendor products)

Adaptive beamformer

Adaptive antenna systemadaptive beamforming
As the name indicates, an adaptive beamformer is able to automatically adapt its response to different situations.
See Constructive interference, and Beamforming.

MIMO

multiple-input multiple-outputmultiple-input and multiple-outputmultiple-input multiple-output communications
3G evolution — LTE/UMB: Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) precoding based beamforming with partial Space-Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
MIMO is fundamentally different from smart antenna techniques developed to enhance the performance of a single data signal, such as beamforming and diversity.

Direction of arrival

direction-of-arrival
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) supports direction of arrival (DOA) based beamforming
Often there is the associated technique of beamforming which is estimating the signal from a given direction.

Synthetic-aperture radar

synthetic aperture radarSARsynthetic aperture
Synthetic aperture radar
The pulses are transmitted and the echoes received using a single beam-forming antenna, with wavelengths of a meter down to several millimeters.

Phased array

phased array radarphased-arrayphased-array radar
With narrow-band systems the time delay is equivalent to a "phase shift", so in this case the array of antennas, each one shifted a slightly different amount, is called a phased array.
Beamforming

Three-dimensional beamforming

Three-dimensional beamforming
Three-dimensional beamforming (3DBF), full dimension MIMO or tilt angle adaptation is an interference coordination method in cellular networks which brings significant improvements in comparison with conventional 2D beamforming techniques.

Multibeam echosounder

multibeam sonarmultibeammultibeam sonar bathymetry
Multibeam echosounder
Unlike other sonars, multibeam systems use beamforming to extract directional information from the returning soundwaves, producing a swath of depth readings from a single ping.

UMTS

WCDMA3GUniversal Mobile Telecommunications System
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) supports direction of arrival (DOA) based beamforming
Using the same carrier frequency for uplink and downlink also means that the channel condition is the same on both directions, and the base station can deduce the downlink channel information from uplink channel estimates, which is helpful to the application of beamforming techniques.

Multi-user MIMO

MU-MIMOmulti-userMulti-user MIMO (MU-MIMO)
3G evolution — LTE/UMB: Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) precoding based beamforming with partial Space-Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
CO-MIMO improves the performance of a wireless network by introducing multiple antenna advantages, such as diversity, multiplexing and beamforming.

Side-scan sonar

sidescan sonarside-scanside scan sonar
1-dimensional "line" arrays are usually in multi-element passive systems towed behind ships and in single- or multi-element side-scan sonar.
Beamforming

Beam steering

steerablesteerable radio beams
Many sonar systems, such as on torpedoes, are made up of arrays of up to 100 elements that must accomplish beam steering over a 100 degree field of view and work in both active and passive modes.
Beamforming

Smart antenna

smart antennasantennaantenna array
Smart antenna
Smart antennas (also known as adaptive array antennas, digital antenna arrays, multiple antennas and, recently, MIMO) are antenna arrays with smart signal processing algorithms used to identify spatial signal signatures such as the direction of arrival (DOA) of the signal, and use them to calculate beamforming vectors which are used to track and locate the antenna beam on the mobile/target.

WSDMA

Wideband Space Division Multiple Access
WSDMA (Wideband Space Division Multiple Access)
WSDMA is a beamforming technique suitable for overlay on the latest air-interface protocols including WCDMA and OFDM.

Pencil (optics)

pencil beamnarrow beampencil
Pencil (optics)
See Beamforming for further details.

Zero-forcing precoding

zero-forcing
Null-steering beamformer
In particular, null-steering is a method of beamforming for narrowband signals where we want to have a simple way of compensating delays of receiving signals from a specific source at different elements of the antenna array.

Synthetic-aperture magnetometry

Synthetic aperture magnetometry
Synthetic-aperture magnetometry (SAM)
SAM is a nonlinear beamforming approach which can be thought of as a spatial filter.

Synthetic aperture sonar

SASDUBM-21Bsonar
Synthetic aperture sonar
beamforming

Reconfigurable antenna

pattern-reconfigurablesoftware defined antenna
Reconfigurable antenna
Reconfigurable antennas differ from smart antennas because the reconfiguration mechanism lies inside the antenna, rather than in an external beamforming network.

Aperture synthesis

aperture synthesis imagingsynthetic apertureinterferometric imaging
Aperture synthesis
Beamforming