A report on Beat Generation

Lawrence Ferlinghetti
A section devoted to the beat generation at a bookstore in Stockholm, Sweden

Literary movement started by a group of authors whose work explored and influenced American culture and politics in the post-war era.

- Beat Generation
Lawrence Ferlinghetti

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Young people near the Woodstock music festival in August 1969

Hippie

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Someone associated with the counterculture of the 1960s, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to different countries around the world.

Someone associated with the counterculture of the 1960s, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to different countries around the world.

Young people near the Woodstock music festival in August 1969
Contemporary hippie at the Rainbow Gathering in Russia, 2005
A hippie-painted Volkswagen Beetle
American tourists in Thailand, the early 1970s
– Grateful Dead, lyrics from "That's It for the Other One"
Junction of Haight and Ashbury Streets, San Francisco, celebrated as the central location of the Summer of Love
Swami Satchidananda giving the opening talk at the Woodstock Festival of 1969
A group of hippies in Tallinn, 1989
Couple attending Snoqualmie Moondance Festival, August 1993
Tie-dyed clothes, associated with hippie culture
A 1967 VW Kombi bus decorated with hand-painting
Monument to the hippie era. Tamil Nadu, India
Oz number 28, also known as the "Schoolkids issue of Oz", which was the main cause of a 1971 high-profile obscenity case in the United Kingdom. Oz was a UK underground publication with a general hippie / counter-cultural point of view.
Hand-crafted Hippie Truck, 1968
Hippie Truck interior
Timothy Leary, family and band on a lecture tour at State University of New York at Buffalo in 1969
An anti-war demonstrator offers a flower to a Military Police officer during the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam's 1967 March on the Pentagon
Tahquitz Canyon, Palm Springs, California, 1969, sharing a joint
As a hippie, Ken Westerfield helped to popularize the alternative sport of Frisbee in the 1960s–70s, that has become today's disc sports
Hippies at the Nambassa 1981 Festival in New Zealand
Goa Gil, original 1960s hippie who later became a pioneering electronic dance music DJ and party organizer, here appearing in the 2001 film Last Hippie Standing

The Beats adopted the term hip, and early hippies inherited the language and countercultural values of the Beat Generation.

First season title card

The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis

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American sitcom starring Dwayne Hickman that aired on CBS from September 29, 1959, to June 5, 1963.

American sitcom starring Dwayne Hickman that aired on CBS from September 29, 1959, to June 5, 1963.

First season title card
Dobie Gillis (Dwayne Hickman, left), Maynard G. Krebs (Bob Denver, right), and one of Dobie's "many loves", Yvette LeBlanc (Danielle De Metz), in a still from the Dobie Gillis episode "Parlez-Vous English", originally aired December 27, 1960
Maynard was not prepared to give up his beard after entering the army. Bob Denver and Kaye Elhardt are featured in this still from the Dobie Gillis episode "The Ballad of Maynard's Beard", originally aired April 18, 1961.
Auguste Rodin's statue of The Thinker

Dobie Gillis broke ground by depicting elements of the current counterculture, particularly the Beat Generation, primarily embodied in a stereotypical version of the "beatnik".

Ron Padgett

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American poet, essayist, fiction writer, translator, and a member of the New York School.

American poet, essayist, fiction writer, translator, and a member of the New York School.

Padgett and Gallup solicited work for The White Dove from Black Mountain and Beat Movement writers such as Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, LeRoi Jones, Paul Blackburn, Gilbert Sorrentino, and Robert Creeley.

Chumley's on Bedford Street, closed for renovations in 2013

Chumley's

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Historic pub and former speakeasy at 86 Bedford Street, between Grove and Barrow Streets, in the West Village neighborhood of Greenwich Village, Manhattan, New York City.

Historic pub and former speakeasy at 86 Bedford Street, between Grove and Barrow Streets, in the West Village neighborhood of Greenwich Village, Manhattan, New York City.

Chumley's on Bedford Street, closed for renovations in 2013
The Bedford Street door in 2015

The speakeasy became a favorite spot for influential writers, poets, playwrights, journalists, and activists, including members of the Lost Generation and the Beat Generation movements.

Waits c. undefined 1974–75

Tom Waits

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American musician, composer, songwriter and actor.

American musician, composer, songwriter and actor.

Waits c. undefined 1974–75
Greenleaf Street in Waits's childhood town of Whittier, California
Waits as a high-school senior at Hilltop High School, 1968. Though he reached his senior year, he ultimately dropped out at the age of 18.
Waits in an early publicity photo for Asylum Records, 1973
The Troubadour in West Hollywood, where Waits's performances brought him to the attention of Herb Cohen and David Geffen
Waits met and had an intermittent romantic relationship with Bette Midler (pictured here in 1981) and collaborated with her on the song "I Never Talk to Strangers"
In 1977, Waits began a relationship with singer-songwriter Rickie Lee Jones (pictured here in 2008); their work and styles influenced each other
Publicity photo of Waits taken by Greg Gorman, c. undefined 1979–80
Francis Ford Coppola (pictured in 1976) convinced Waits to leave New York and return to Los Angeles to score his film One from the Heart
In New York City, Waits shared a workspace with jazz musician John Lurie (pictured in 2013)
Waits appeared in several films by Jim Jarmusch (pictured in 2013)
The Thalia in Hamburg, where The Black Rider and Alice were first performed
In 1999, Waits performed at the Paramount Theater in Austin, Texas
Tom Waits performing in Prague in 2008 as part of his Glitter and Doom tour
Waits next to Lily Cole at the premiere for The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus at the 2009 Toronto International Film Festival
Waits performing in 2008
Waits, c. undefined 1974–75

Inspired by the work of Bob Dylan and the Beat Generation, he began singing on the San Diego folk music circuit as a young boy.

An interpretation of digital rain, similar to the images used in Ghost in the Shell and later in The Matrix.

Cyberpunk

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Subgenre of science fiction in a dystopian futuristic setting that tends to focus on a "combination of lowlife and high tech", featuring futuristic technological and scientific achievements, such as artificial intelligence and cybernetics, juxtaposed with societal collapse, dystopia or decay.

Subgenre of science fiction in a dystopian futuristic setting that tends to focus on a "combination of lowlife and high tech", featuring futuristic technological and scientific achievements, such as artificial intelligence and cybernetics, juxtaposed with societal collapse, dystopia or decay.

An interpretation of digital rain, similar to the images used in Ghost in the Shell and later in The Matrix.
Berlin's Sony Center, opened in 2000, has been described as having a cyberpunk aesthetic

Writers like Roger Zelazny, J. G. Ballard, Philip Jose Farmer, Samuel R. Delany, and Harlan Ellison often examined the impact of drug culture, technology, and the sexual revolution with an avant-garde style influenced by the Beat Generation (especially William S. Burroughs' own SF), Dadaism, and their own ideas.

Off the Road

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Autobiographical book by Carolyn Cassady.

Autobiographical book by Carolyn Cassady.

As Neal's wife and Kerouac's intermittent lover, Carolyn Cassady was well situated to record the inception of the Beat Generation and its influence on American culture.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, The Bohemian (or Lise the Bohemian), 1868, oil on canvas, Berlin, Germany: Alte Nationalgalerie

Bohemianism

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Practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties.

Practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, The Bohemian (or Lise the Bohemian), 1868, oil on canvas, Berlin, Germany: Alte Nationalgalerie
Bohemian Grove during the summer Hi-Jinks, circa 1911–1916
Gelett Burgess drew this fanciful "Map of Bohemia" for The Lark, March 1, 1896 (see also )
An illustration from Henri Murger's 1899 book Bohemian Life.
Former brewery turned artist center in Prenzlauer Berg

In the 20th-century United States, the bohemian impulse was famously seen in the 1940s hipsters, the 1950s Beat generation (exemplified by writers such as William S. Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, and Lawrence Ferlinghetti), the much more widespread 1960s counterculture, and 1960s and 1970s hippies.

American author and publisher Dave Eggers is one of several contemporary authors who represent the latest movement in post-modern literature which some have deemed post-postmodernism or post-irony.

Postmodern literature

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Form of literature that is characterized by the use of metafiction, unreliable narration, self-reflexivity, intertextuality, and which often thematizes both historical and political issues.

Form of literature that is characterized by the use of metafiction, unreliable narration, self-reflexivity, intertextuality, and which often thematizes both historical and political issues.

American author and publisher Dave Eggers is one of several contemporary authors who represent the latest movement in post-modern literature which some have deemed post-postmodernism or post-irony.

Though postmodernist literature does not include everything written in the postmodern period, several post-war developments in literature (such as the Theatre of the Absurd, the Beat Generation, and magic realism) have significant similarities.

Allen Ginsberg in 1978

A Supermarket in California

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Poem by American poet Allen Ginsberg first published in Howl and Other Poems in 1956.

Poem by American poet Allen Ginsberg first published in Howl and Other Poems in 1956.

Allen Ginsberg in 1978

For its critique of mainstream American culture, the poem is considered to be one of the major works of the Beat Generation, which included other authors of the era such as Jack Kerouac, William Seward Burroughs, and Lawrence Ferlinghetti.