Beaux-Arts architecture

Beaux-ArtsBeaux ArtsBeaux-Arts styleBeaux Arts styleBeaux Arts architectureBeaux-Arts architectural styleBeaux Arts ClassicismBeaux Arts-styleBeaux-ArtBeaux-Arts architectural
Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, particularly from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century.wikipedia
2,265 Related Articles

École des Beaux-Arts

Ecole des Beaux ArtsÉcole des Beaux ArtsEcole des Beaux-Arts
Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, particularly from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century.
It is the cradle of beaux-arts style in architecture and city planning that thrived in France and the United States during the end of the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth century.

Léon Vaudoyer

Leon Vaudoyer
The formal neoclassicism of the old regime was challenged by four teachers at the Academy, Joseph-Louis Duc, Félix Duban, Henri Labrouste and Léon Vaudoyer, who had studied at the French Academy in Rome at the end of the 1820s, They wanted to break away from the strict formality of the old style by introducing new models of architecture from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
He was one of the "romantic" Beaux-Arts architects influenced by Saint-Simon and Auguste Comte, along with his contemporaries Félix Duban, Henri Labrouste, and Louis Duc.

Daniel Burnham

Daniel H. BurnhamDaniel Hudson BurnhamBurnham
It also had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many prominent American architects who studied at the Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, and Louis Sullivan.
Often called the "White City," it popularized neoclassical architecture in a monumental, yet rational Beaux-Arts style.

Louis Sullivan

SullivanesqueLouis H. SullivanSullivan
It also had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many prominent American architects who studied at the Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, and Louis Sullivan.
Sullivan's massive Transportation Building and huge arched "Golden Door" stood out as the only building not of the current Beaux-Arts style, and with the only multicolored facade in the entire White City.

World's Columbian Exposition

Chicago World's FairColumbian ExpositionWorld Columbian Exposition
The "White City" of the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago was a triumph of the movement and a major impetus for the short-lived City Beautiful movement in the United States.
It was designed to follow Beaux Arts principles of design, namely French neoclassical architecture principles based on symmetry, balance, and splendor.

Ernest Flagg

Flagg
Numerous American university campuses were designed in the Beaux-Arts, notably: Columbia University, (commissioned in 1896), designed by McKim, Mead & White; the University of California, Berkeley (commissioned in 1898), designed by John Galen Howard; the United States Naval Academy (built 1901–1908), designed by Ernest Flagg; the campus of MIT (commissioned in 1913), designed by William W. Bosworth; Emory University and Carnegie Mellon University (commissioned in 1908 and 1904, respectively), both designed by Henry Hornbostel; and the University of Texas (commissioned in 1931), designed by Paul Philippe Cret.
Ernest Flagg (February 6, 1857 – April 10, 1947) was a noted American architect in the Beaux-Arts style.

McKim, Mead & White

McKim, Mead, and WhiteMcKim, Mead and WhiteMcKim, Meade & White
Numerous American university campuses were designed in the Beaux-Arts, notably: Columbia University, (commissioned in 1896), designed by McKim, Mead & White; the University of California, Berkeley (commissioned in 1898), designed by John Galen Howard; the United States Naval Academy (built 1901–1908), designed by Ernest Flagg; the campus of MIT (commissioned in 1913), designed by William W. Bosworth; Emory University and Carnegie Mellon University (commissioned in 1908 and 1904, respectively), both designed by Henry Hornbostel; and the University of Texas (commissioned in 1931), designed by Paul Philippe Cret.
Their work applied the principles of Beaux-Arts architecture, the adoption of the classical Greek and Roman stylistic vocabulary as filtered through the Parisian École des Beaux-Arts, and the related City Beautiful movement after 1893 or so.

Constant-Désiré Despradelle

Constant-DésiréConstant-Désiré Despradelles
The first American university to institute a Beaux-Arts curriculum is the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1893, when the French architect Constant-Désiré Despradelle was brought to MIT to teach.
Constant-Désiré Despradelle (May 20, 1862 – February 8, 1912) was a French-born architect and professor of architecture at Massachusetts Institute of Technology who, through his teaching, influenced a generation of Beaux-Arts style architects and helped to popularize this style throughout North America.

Henry Hobson Richardson

H. H. RichardsonH.H. RichardsonRichardson
It also had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many prominent American architects who studied at the Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, and Louis Sullivan.

City Beautiful movement

City BeautifulThe City BeautifulChicago Beautiful
The "White City" of the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago was a triumph of the movement and a major impetus for the short-lived City Beautiful movement in the United States.
The particular architectural style of the movement borrowed mainly from the contemporary Beaux-Arts and neoclassical architectures, which emphasized the necessity of order, dignity, and harmony.

Carolands

Carolands ChateauCarolands MansionChateau Carolands
The 1914–1916 construction of the Carolands Chateau south of San Francisco was built to withstand earthquakes, following the devastating 1906 San Francisco earthquake).
An example of American Renaissance and Beaux-Arts design, the building is a California Historical Landmark and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Carnegie Mellon University

Carnegie Institute of TechnologyCarnegie MellonCarnegie-Mellon University
Numerous American university campuses were designed in the Beaux-Arts, notably: Columbia University, (commissioned in 1896), designed by McKim, Mead & White; the University of California, Berkeley (commissioned in 1898), designed by John Galen Howard; the United States Naval Academy (built 1901–1908), designed by Ernest Flagg; the campus of MIT (commissioned in 1913), designed by William W. Bosworth; Emory University and Carnegie Mellon University (commissioned in 1908 and 1904, respectively), both designed by Henry Hornbostel; and the University of Texas (commissioned in 1931), designed by Paul Philippe Cret.
The campus began to take shape in the Beaux-Arts architecture style of Henry Hornbostel, a winner of the 1904 competition to design the original institution and later the founder of what is now the Carnegie Mellon School of Architecture.

Michigan Central Station

Detroit, MichiganDetroitDetroit station
(Chicago's Union Station, Detroit's Michigan Central Station, Jacksonville's Union Terminal and Washington, DC's Union Station are famous American examples of this style.) Cincinnati has a number of notable Beaux-Arts style buildings, including the Hamilton County Memorial Building in the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood, and the former East End Carnegie library in the Columbia-Tusculum neighborhood.
The Beaux-Arts style architecture was designed by architects who had previously worked together on Grand Central Terminal in New York, and it was the tallest rail station in the world at the time of its construction.

Richardsonian Romanesque

Richardson RomanesqueRichardsonianRichardsonian Romanesque architecture
Richardson evolved a highly personal style (Richardsonian Romanesque) freed of historicism that was influential in early Modernism.
The style includes work by the generation of architects practicing in the 1880s before the influence of the Beaux-Arts styles.

Columbia University

ColumbiaColumbia CollegeUniversity of Columbia
Numerous American university campuses were designed in the Beaux-Arts, notably: Columbia University, (commissioned in 1896), designed by McKim, Mead & White; the University of California, Berkeley (commissioned in 1898), designed by John Galen Howard; the United States Naval Academy (built 1901–1908), designed by Ernest Flagg; the campus of MIT (commissioned in 1913), designed by William W. Bosworth; Emory University and Carnegie Mellon University (commissioned in 1908 and 1904, respectively), both designed by Henry Hornbostel; and the University of Texas (commissioned in 1931), designed by Paul Philippe Cret. The Beaux-Arts curriculum was subsequently begun at Columbia University, the University of Pennsylvania, and elsewhere.
The campus was designed along Beaux-Arts planning principles by the architects McKim, Mead & White.

Emmanuel Louis Masqueray

Emmanuel MasquerayAtelier MasquerayE. L. Masqueray
An ecclesiastical variant on the Beaux-Arts style is Minneapolis' Basilica of St. Mary, the first basilica in the United States, which was designed by Franco-American architect Emmanuel Louis Masqueray (1861–1917) and opened in 1914.
Emmanuel Louis Masqueray (1861–1917) was a Franco-American preeminent figure in the history of American architecture, both as a gifted designer of landmark buildings and as an influential teacher of the profession of architecture dedicated to the principals of Beaux-Arts architecture.

Rafael Guastavino

GuastavinoGuastavino Fireproof Construction Company,R. Guastavino
The noted Spanish structural engineer Rafael Guastavino (1842–1908), famous for his vaultings, known as Guastavino tile work, designed vaults in dozens of Beaux-Arts buildings in the Boston, New York, and elsewhere.
Guastavino tile is found in some of New York's most prominent Beaux-Arts landmarks and in major buildings across the United States.

Chicago Union Station

Union StationChicagoChicago, Illinois
(Chicago's Union Station, Detroit's Michigan Central Station, Jacksonville's Union Terminal and Washington, DC's Union Station are famous American examples of this style.) Cincinnati has a number of notable Beaux-Arts style buildings, including the Hamilton County Memorial Building in the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood, and the former East End Carnegie library in the Columbia-Tusculum neighborhood.
It has Bedford limestone Beaux-Arts facades, massive Corinthian columns, marble floors, and a Great Hall, all highlighted by brass lamps.

University of Pennsylvania

PennThe University of PennsylvaniaPennsylvania
The Beaux-Arts curriculum was subsequently begun at Columbia University, the University of Pennsylvania, and elsewhere.
Features of the Beaux-Arts building include a rotunda and gardens that include Egyptian papyrus.

Architecture parlante

revolutionary
Beaux-Arts training made great use of agrafes, clasps that link one architectural detail to another; to interpenetration of forms, a Baroque habit; to "speaking architecture" (architecture parlante) in which supposed appropriateness of symbolism could be taken to literal-minded extremes.
The same concept, in the somewhat more restrained form of allegorical sculpture and inscriptions, became one of the hallmarks of Beaux-Arts structures, and thereby filtered through to American civic architecture.

Paul Philippe Cret

Paul CretPaul P. CretCret
Numerous American university campuses were designed in the Beaux-Arts, notably: Columbia University, (commissioned in 1896), designed by McKim, Mead & White; the University of California, Berkeley (commissioned in 1898), designed by John Galen Howard; the United States Naval Academy (built 1901–1908), designed by Ernest Flagg; the campus of MIT (commissioned in 1913), designed by William W. Bosworth; Emory University and Carnegie Mellon University (commissioned in 1908 and 1904, respectively), both designed by Henry Hornbostel; and the University of Texas (commissioned in 1931), designed by Paul Philippe Cret.
His work through the 1920s was firmly in the Beaux-Arts tradition, but with the radically simplified classical form of the Folger Shakespeare Library (1929–32), he flexibly adopted and applied monumental classical traditions to modernist innovations.

Grand Central Terminal

Grand Central StationGrand CentralTerminal City
Two of the best American examples of the Beaux-Arts tradition stand within a few blocks of each other: Grand Central Terminal and the New York Public Library.
Its Beaux-Arts design incorporates numerous works of art.

New York Public Library Main Branch

New York Public LibraryMain BranchBerg Collection
Two of the best American examples of the Beaux-Arts tradition stand within a few blocks of each other: Grand Central Terminal and the New York Public Library.
The architectural firm Carrère and Hastings constructed the structure in the Beaux-Arts style, and the structure opened on May 23, 1911.

Carrère and Hastings

Carrere and HastingsCarrere & HastingsCarrère & Hastings
Carrère and Hastings, the firm of John Merven Carrère (November 9, 1858 – March 1, 1911) and Thomas Hastings (March 11, 1860 – October 22, 1929), was one of the outstanding Beaux-Arts architecture firms in the United States.

University of Texas at Austin

University of TexasTexasThe University of Texas at Austin
Numerous American university campuses were designed in the Beaux-Arts, notably: Columbia University, (commissioned in 1896), designed by McKim, Mead & White; the University of California, Berkeley (commissioned in 1898), designed by John Galen Howard; the United States Naval Academy (built 1901–1908), designed by Ernest Flagg; the campus of MIT (commissioned in 1913), designed by William W. Bosworth; Emory University and Carnegie Mellon University (commissioned in 1908 and 1904, respectively), both designed by Henry Hornbostel; and the University of Texas (commissioned in 1931), designed by Paul Philippe Cret.
One of the University's most visible features is the Beaux-Arts Main Building, including a 307 ft tower designed by Paul Philippe Cret.