Bedwetting alarm

moisture alarms
A bedwetting alarm is a behavioral treatment for nocturnal enuresis.wikipedia
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Nocturnal enuresis

bedwettingbed wettingbed-wetting
A bedwetting alarm is a behavioral treatment for nocturnal enuresis.
Treatments range from behavioral therapy, such as bedwetting alarms, to medication, such as hormone replacement, and even surgery such as urethral dilatation.

Orval Hobart Mowrer

MowrerOrval MowrerO. Hobart Mowrer
Despite early success, the treatment was not developed until the 1930s by two independent groups of psychologists: Orval Mowrer and Willie Mae Mowrer (1938) and John Morgan and Frances Witmer (1939).
He and his wife developed the first bedwetting alarm while working there.

Meinhard von Pfaundler

Meinhard von Pfaundler, a German pediatrician made the discovery accidentally, with the original intention to create an alarm device that would notify nursing staff when a child had bed wetting and needed to be changed, showing the device to have a significant therapeutic advantages after a certain time of use.

Classical conditioning

conditioningconditionedconditioned response
The classical conditioning paradigm components for the bell and pad method are the following: The unconditioned stimulus (US) is the awakening stimulus or the alarm sound, the unconditioned response (UR) is the awakening response and sphincter contraction, the neutral stimulus (NS) is the feeling produced by bladder distention (feeling of having a full bladder), the conditioned stimulus (CS) is the feeling produced by bladder distention, and the conditioned response (CR) is the awakening response and sphincter contraction.

Operant conditioning

operantconditioningavoidance learning
In the operant conditioning paradigm the alarm sound serves as a noxious stimuli added to the environment, effectively implementing a positive punishment procedure whenever the individual activates the alarm by urinating.

Punishment (psychology)

punishmentpositive punishmentnegative punishment
In the operant conditioning paradigm the alarm sound serves as a noxious stimuli added to the environment, effectively implementing a positive punishment procedure whenever the individual activates the alarm by urinating.

Urinary meatus

meatusurethral meatusurinary opening
For wired alarms, the sensor's wire (or cable) runs from the sensor (located at the point of urination) underneath the user's pajama shirt to wherever the alarm is located on the body (frequently on the collar of the pajama shirt, so that it is close to the ear).

Undergarment

underwearundergarmentsintimate apparel
The transmitter, which senses the moisture, is directly attached to the child's underwear.

Enuresis

bed wettingbed-wettingbed-wetting problem
At night, moisture alarms, also known as bedwetting alarms, can awaken a person when he or she begins to urinate.