Beeswax

waxbees waxbee wax
Beeswax (cera alba) is a natural wax produced by honey bees of the genus Apis.wikipedia
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Honey bee

honeybeehoneybeeshoney bees
Beeswax (cera alba) is a natural wax produced by honey bees of the genus Apis. Honey bees use the beeswax to build honeycomb cells in which their young are raised with honey and pollen cells being capped for storage.
They are known for construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax, for the large size of their colonies, and for their surplus production and storage of honey, distinguishing their hives as a prized foraging target of many animals, including honey badgers, bears and human hunter-gatherers.

Beehive

beehiveshivebee hive
The hive workers collect and use it to form cells for honey storage and larval and pupal protection within the beehive.
The nest's internal structure is a densely packed group of hexagonal prismatic cells made of beeswax, called a honeycomb.

Wax

waxeswax candlebeeswax
Beeswax (cera alba) is a natural wax produced by honey bees of the genus Apis.
The best known animal wax is beeswax used in constructing the honeycombs of honeybees, but other insects secrete waxes.

Encaustic painting

encausticencaustic methodEncaustic paint
Beeswax has been used since prehistory as man's first plastic, as a lubricant and waterproofing agent, in lost wax casting of metals and glass, as a polish for wood and leather and for making candles, as an ingredient in cosmetics and as an artistic medium in encaustic painting. Refined beeswax plays a prominent role in art materials both as a binder in encaustic paint and as a stabilizer in oil paint to add body.
Encaustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added.

Propolis

bee propolispropolizeresin
The new wax is initially glass-clear and colorless, becoming opaque after mastication and adulteration with pollen by the hive worker bees, becoming progressively more yellow or brown by incorporation of pollen oils and propolis.
Propolis or bee glue is a resinous mixture that honey bees produce by mixing saliva and beeswax with exudate gathered from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources.

Honeycomb

combshoney combcomb
Honey bees use the beeswax to build honeycomb cells in which their young are raised with honey and pollen cells being capped for storage.
A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal prismatic wax cells built by honey bees in their nests to contain their larvae and stores of honey and pollen.

Worker bee

workersworkerworker bees
The wax is formed into scales by eight wax-producing glands in the abdominal segments of worker bees, which discard it in or at the hive.
The most urgent task will be the creation of new beeswax for comb.

Brood comb

combbrood framebrood nest
Wax from the brood comb of the honey bee hive tends to be darker than wax from the honeycomb.
The brood comb is the beeswax structure of cells where the queen bee lays eggs.

Fatty alcohol

fatty alcoholslong-chain alcoholalcohols
Chemically, beeswax consists mainly of esters of fatty acids and various long-chain alcohols.
Very long-chain fatty alcohols (VLCFA), obtained from plant waxes and beeswax have been reported to lower plasma cholesterol in humans.

Candle

candlestapercandlemaker
Beeswax has been used since prehistory as man's first plastic, as a lubricant and waterproofing agent, in lost wax casting of metals and glass, as a polish for wood and leather and for making candles, as an ingredient in cosmetics and as an artistic medium in encaustic painting.
For most of recorded history candles were made from tallow (rendered from beef or mutton-fat) or beeswax.

Slumgum

The leftovers are called slumgum.
Slumgum in beekeeping is the residue of the beeswax rendering process.

Bone wax

Beeswax is an ingredient in surgical bone wax, which is used during surgery to control bleeding from bone surfaces; shoe polish and furniture polish can both use beeswax as a component, dissolved in turpentine or sometimes blended with linseed oil or tung oil; modeling waxes can also use beeswax as a component; pure beeswax can also be used as an organic surfboard wax.
It is generally made of beeswax with a softening agent such as paraffin or petroleum jelly and is smeared across the bleeding edge of the bone, blocking the holes and causing immediate bone hemostasis through a tamponade effect.

Shoe polish

boot polishshoe shineBlacking
Beeswax is an ingredient in surgical bone wax, which is used during surgery to control bleeding from bone surfaces; shoe polish and furniture polish can both use beeswax as a component, dissolved in turpentine or sometimes blended with linseed oil or tung oil; modeling waxes can also use beeswax as a component; pure beeswax can also be used as an organic surfboard wax.
The waxes are often some mixture of carnauba wax, beeswax, montan wax and its oxidized derivatives, and paraffin waxes.

Pysanka

pysankykrashankypisanka
It is used in Eastern Europe in egg decoration; it is used for writing, via resist dyeing, on batik eggs (as in pysanky) and for making beaded eggs.
The word pysanka comes from the verb pysaty, "to write" or "to in scribe", as the designs are not painted on, but written (inscribed) with beeswax.

Cerotic acid

hexacosanoic acid
Its main constituents are palmitate, palmitoleate, and oleate esters of long-chain (30–32 carbons) aliphatic alcohols, with the ratio of triacontanyl palmitate CH 3 (CH 2 ) 29 O-CO-(CH 2 ) 14 CH 3 to cerotic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 24 COOH, the two principal constituents, being 6:1.
It is most commonly found in beeswax and carnauba wax, and is a white crystalline solid.

Batik

Batik shirtBatik factoryBatik painting technique
It is used in Eastern Europe in egg decoration; it is used for writing, via resist dyeing, on batik eggs (as in pysanky) and for making beaded eggs.
These African version however, uses cassava starch or rice paste, or mud as a resist instead of beeswax.

E number

EE numbersE223
Beeswax is edible, having similar negligible toxicity to plant waxes, and is approved for food use in most countries and in the European Union under the E number E901. Beeswax may also be used as a food additive E901, in small quantities acting as a glazing agent, which serves to prevent water loss, or used to provide surface protection for some fruits.

Rosin

colophonycolophoniumwood rosin
Beeswax blended with pine rosin is used for waxing, and can serve as an adhesive to attach reed plates to the structure inside a squeezebox.
Players of bowed string instruments rub cakes or blocks of rosin on their bow hair so it can grip the strings and make them speak, or vibrate clearly. Extra substances such as beeswax, gold, silver, tin, or meteoric iron are sometimes added to the rosin to modify its stiction/friction properties and the tone it produces. Powdered rosin can be applied to new hair, for example with a felt pad or cloth, to reduce the time taken in getting sufficient rosin onto the hair. Rosin is often applied to the bow before playing the instrument. Lighter rosin is generally preferred for violins and violas, and in high-humidity climates, while darker rosins are preferred for cellos, and for players in cool, dry areas. There are also specific, distinguishing types for basses—for more see Bow (music).

Glazing agent

glazeedible wax glazesglazes
Beeswax may also be used as a food additive E901, in small quantities acting as a glazing agent, which serves to prevent water loss, or used to provide surface protection for some fruits.
Beeswax (E901)

Oil paint

oiloilsoil paints
Refined beeswax plays a prominent role in art materials both as a binder in encaustic paint and as a stabilizer in oil paint to add body.
Leonardo da Vinci later improved these techniques by cooking the mixture at a very low temperature and adding 5 to 10% beeswax, which prevented darkening of the paint.

Honeyguide

Indicatoridaehoneyguideslyre-tailed honey guide
Some birds, such as honeyguides, can digest beeswax.
Honeyguides are noted and named for one or two species that will deliberately lead humans (but, contrary to popular claims, not honey badgers) directly to bee colonies, so that they can feast on the grubs and beeswax that are left behind.

Cutler's resin

It can also be used to make Cutler's resin, an adhesive used to glue handles onto cutlery knives.
Cutler's resin is a synthetic resin made of pine pitch, beeswax, and sawdust or carnauba wax used for centuries (to today) to attach knife handles.

Pomade

hair pomadepomadesgrease
Beeswax is also an important ingredient in moustache wax and hair pomades, which make hair look sleek and shiny.
Lanolin, beeswax, and petroleum jelly have been used extensively in the manufacture of modern pomades.

Lip balm

lip balmslip pomade
Beeswax is used in lip balm, lip gloss, hand creams, salves, and moisturizers; and in cosmetics such as eye shadow, blush, and eye liner.
Lip balm often contains beeswax or carnauba wax, camphor, cetyl alcohol, lanolin, paraffin, and petrolatum, among other ingredients.

Saponification value

unsaponifiableunsaponifiable matterunsaponifiables
The saponification value is lower (3–5) for European beeswax, and higher (8–9) for Oriental types.
very high percentage (≥50%): beeswax