Begging the question

begs the questionpetitio principiibeg the questioncircular reasoningcircularCircularityquestion-beggingbegged the questionquestion beggingvicious circle
In classical rhetoric and logic, begging the question is an informal fallacy that occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it.wikipedia
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Circular reasoning

circular argumentcircularcircular logic
It is a type of circular reasoning: an argument that requires that the desired conclusion be true.
Begging the question is closely related to circular reasoning, and in modern usage the two generally refer to the same thing.

Fallacy

informal fallacyfallacieslogical fallacy
In classical rhetoric and logic, begging the question is an informal fallacy that occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it.
The semi-logical group included all of Aristotle's sophisms except:ignoratio elenchi, petitio principii, and non causa pro causa, which are in the material group.

Evasion (ethics)

evadeevasiondodging
Sometimes it is confused with "dodging the question", an attempt to avoid it.

Formal fallacy

non sequiturlogical fallacylogical fallacies
Begging the question is not considered a formal fallacy (an argument that is defective because it uses an incorrect deductive step).
* The self-reliant fallacy

Hysteron proteron

hysterologiaHysteron-proteronHýsteron próteron
When the fallacy involves only a single variable, it is sometimes called a hysteron proteron (Greek for "later earlier"), a rhetorical device, as in the statement:

Fallacies of definition

If one concept is defined by another, and the other is defined by the first, this is known as a circular definition, akin to circular reasoning: neither offers enlightenment about what one wanted to know.

Presuppositional apologetics

presuppositionalismpresuppositionalistpresuppositional
Critics of presuppositional apologetics claim that it is logically invalid because it begs the question of the truth of Christianity and the non-truth of other worldviews.

Irrelevant conclusion

Ignoratio elenchired herringfallacy of irrelevance
Another related fallacy is ignoratio elenchi or irrelevant conclusion: an argument that fails to address the issue in question, but appears to do so.

Complex question

Fallacy of many questionstrick questionleading questions
Begging the question is similar to the complex question (also known as trick question or fallacy of many questions): a question that, to be valid, requires the truth of another question that has not been established.
This fallacy can be also confused with petitio principii (begging the question), which offers a premise no more plausible than, and often just a restatement of, the conclusion.

Open-question argument

open question argument
The idea that Moore begs the question (i.e. assumes the conclusion in a premise) was first raised by W. Frankena.

Regress argument

infinite regressregressregress problem
In this view, P ultimately supports P, begging the question.

Rhetoric

rhetoricianrhetorrhetorical
In classical rhetoric and logic, begging the question is an informal fallacy that occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it. When the fallacy involves only a single variable, it is sometimes called a hysteron proteron (Greek for "later earlier"), a rhetorical device, as in the statement:

Logic

logicianlogicallogics
In classical rhetoric and logic, begging the question is an informal fallacy that occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it.

Vernacular

vernacular languagevernacular languagesvernacularization
In modern vernacular usage, however, begging the question is often used to mean "raising the question" or "suggesting the question".

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
The phrase begging the question originated in the 16th century as a mistranslation of the Latin petitio principii, which actually translates to "assuming the initial point".

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
The original phrase used by Aristotle from which begging the question descends is: τὸ ἐξ ἀρχῆς (or sometimes ἐν ἀρχῇ) αἰτεῖν, "asking for the initial thing."

Dialectic

dialecticsdialecticalHegelian dialectic
Aristotle's intended meaning is closely tied to the type of dialectical argument he discusses in his Topics, book VIII: a formalized debate in which the defending party asserts a thesis that the attacking party must attempt to refute by asking yes-or-no questions and deducing some inconsistency between the responses and the original thesis.

Topics (Aristotle)

TopicsTopics'' (Aristotle)Aristotle's Topics
Aristotle's intended meaning is closely tied to the type of dialectical argument he discusses in his Topics, book VIII: a formalized debate in which the defending party asserts a thesis that the attacking party must attempt to refute by asking yes-or-no questions and deducing some inconsistency between the responses and the original thesis.

Sophistical Refutations

On Sophistical RefutationsSophistici ElenchiDe sophisticis elenchis
Aristotle discusses this in Sophistical Refutations and in Prior Analytics book II, (64b, 34–65a 9, for circular reasoning see 57b, 18–59b, 1).

Prior Analytics

Analytica PrioraSyllogismanalyticorum priorum librum 1
Aristotle discusses this in Sophistical Refutations and in Prior Analytics book II, (64b, 34–65a 9, for circular reasoning see 57b, 18–59b, 1).

Post-classical history

post-classicalPostclassicPostclassical Era
Petitio (from peto), in the post-classical context in which the phrase arose, means assuming or postulating, but in the older classical sense means petition, request or beseeching.

Genitive case

genitivegen.GEN
Principii, genitive of principium, means beginning, basis or premise (of an argument).