Begging the question

begs the questionbeg the questioncircular reasoningcircularCircularitypetitio principiiquestion-beggingbegged the questionvicious circleassumes unproven claims
Begging the question is an informal fallacy that occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it.wikipedia
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Circular reasoning

circular argumentcircularcircular logic
Begging the question is an informal fallacy that occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it. It is a type of circular reasoning: an argument that requires that the desired conclusion be true.
Begging the question is closely related to circular reasoning, and in modern usage the two generally refer to the same thing.

Evasion (ethics)

evadeevasiondodging
In modern vernacular usage, "begging the question" is often used to mean "raising the question" or "dodging the question".
Begging the question

Formal fallacy

logical fallacynon sequiturlogical fallacies
Begging the question is not considered a formal fallacy (an argument that is defective because it uses an incorrect deductive step).
* The self-reliant fallacy

Hysteron proteron

husteron proteronhysterologiaHýsteron próteron
When the fallacy involves only a single variable, it is sometimes called a hysteron proteron, as in the statement:
Begging the question, a subtype of which is sometimes called "hysteron proteron" as well

Fallacy

informal fallacyfallaciesSophists
Begging the question is an informal fallacy that occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it. It is a type of circular reasoning: an argument that requires that the desired conclusion be true.
3) Assume the conclusion of an argument, a kind of circular reasoning, also called "begging the question" (petitio principi)

Fallacies of definition

Fallacies of definition
If one concept is defined by another, and the other is defined by the first, this is known as a circular definition, akin to circular reasoning: neither offers enlightenment about what one wanted to know.

Presuppositional apologetics

presuppositionalismpresuppositionalistpresuppositional
Presuppositional apologetics
Critics of presuppositional apologetics claim that it is logically invalid because it begs the question of the truth of Christianity and the non-truth of other worldviews.

Catch-22 (logic)

Catch-22catch 22Catch-22s
Catch-22 (logic)
Begging the question

Irrelevant conclusion

ignoratio elenchired herringfallacy of irrelevance
Another related fallacy is ignoratio elenchi or irrelevant conclusion: an argument that fails to address the issue in question, but appears to do so. An example might be a situation where A and B are debating whether the law permits A to do something.
Begging the question

Circular definition

circularitycircularcircular reasoning
Circular definition
Begging the question

Complex question

trick questionfallacy of many questionsleading questions
Begging the question is similar to the complex question (also known as trick question or fallacy of many questions): a question that, to be valid, requires the truth of another question that has not been established.
This fallacy can be also confused with petitio principii, begging the question, which offers a premise no more plausible than, and often just a restatement of, the conclusion.

Open-question argument

open question argument
Open-question argument
The idea that Moore begs the question (i.e. assumes the conclusion in a premise) was first raised by W. Frankena.

Regress argument

infinite regressregresscriterion argument
Regress argument (diallelus)
In this view, P ultimately supports P, begging the question.

Spin (propaganda)

spinspin doctorspin doctors
Spin (public relations)
Phrasing in a way that assumes unproven claims, or avoiding the question

Latin

Lat.Latin languagelat
The phrase begging the question originated in the 16th century as a mistranslation of the Latin petitio principii, which actually translates to "assuming the initial point".

Vernacular

vernacular languagevernacular languagesvernacularization
In modern vernacular usage, "begging the question" is often used to mean "raising the question" or "dodging the question".

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelianismAristote
The original phrase used by Aristotle from which begging the question descends is: τὸ ἐξ ἀρχῆς (or sometimes ἐν ἀρχῇ) αἰτεῖν, "asking for the initial thing."

Dialectic

dialecticsdialecticaldialectical method
Aristotle's intended meaning is closely tied to the type of dialectical argument he discusses in his Topics, book VIII: a formalized debate in which the defending party asserts a thesis that the attacking party must attempt to refute by asking yes-or-no questions and deducing some inconsistency between the responses and the original thesis.

Topics (Aristotle)

TopicsTopics'' (Aristotle)The Topics
Aristotle's intended meaning is closely tied to the type of dialectical argument he discusses in his Topics, book VIII: a formalized debate in which the defending party asserts a thesis that the attacking party must attempt to refute by asking yes-or-no questions and deducing some inconsistency between the responses and the original thesis.

Sophistical Refutations

Sophistici ElenchiDe sophisticis elenchisSophismata
Aristotle discusses this in Sophistical Refutations and in Prior Analytics book II, (64b, 34–65a 9, for circular reasoning see 57b, 18–59b, 1).

Prior Analytics

SyllogismAnalytica Prioraanalyticorum priorum librum 1
Aristotle discusses this in Sophistical Refutations and in Prior Analytics book II, (64b, 34–65a 9, for circular reasoning see 57b, 18–59b, 1).

Post-classical history

post-classical erapost-classicalPost-classical period
Petitio (from peto), in the post-classical context in which the phrase arose, means assuming or postulating, but in the older classical sense means petition, request or beseeching.

Genitive case

genitivegen.GEN
Principii, genitive of principium, means beginning, basis or premise (of an argument).

Apodicticity

apodicticapodeicticapodictically true
Aristotle's distinction between apodictic science and other forms of non-demonstrative knowledge rests on an epistemology and metaphysics wherein appropriate first principles become apparent to the trained dialectician:

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
Aristotle's distinction between apodictic science and other forms of non-demonstrative knowledge rests on an epistemology and metaphysics wherein appropriate first principles become apparent to the trained dialectician: