Begging the question

begs the questionbeg the questioncircular reasoningcircularquestion-beggingpetitio principiiCircularityvicious circlebegged the questionassuming the conclusion
Begging the question is a logical fallacy that occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it.wikipedia
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Circular reasoning

circular argumentcircularcircular logic
Begging the question is a logical fallacy that occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it. It is a type of circular reasoning and an informal fallacy: an argument that requires that the desired conclusion be true.
Begging the question is closely related to circular reasoning, and in modern usage the two generally refer to the same thing.

Formal fallacy

logical fallacynon sequiturlogical fallacies
Begging the question is a logical fallacy that occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it. It is a type of circular reasoning and an informal fallacy: an argument that requires that the desired conclusion be true.
* The self-reliant fallacy

Fallacies of definition

Fallacies of definition
If one concept is defined by another, and the other is defined by the first, this is known as a circular definition, akin to circular reasoning: neither offers enlightenment about what one wanted to know.

Presuppositional apologetics

presuppositionalismpresuppositionalistpresuppositional
Presuppositional apologetics
Critics of presuppositional apologetics claim that it is logically invalid because it begs the question of the truth of Christianity and the non-truth of other worldviews.

Evasion (ethics)

evadeevasiondodging the question
In modern vernacular usage, "begging the question" is frequently used to mean "raising the question" or "dodging the question".
Begging the question

Hysteron proteron

husteron proteronhysterologiaHýsteron próteron
When the fallacy involves only a single variable, it is sometimes called a hysteron proteron, as in the statement:
Begging the question, a subtype of which is sometimes called "hysteron proteron" as well

Catch-22 (logic)

Catch-22Catch 22Catch-22s
Catch-22 (logic)
Begging the question

Fallacy

informal fallacyfallacieslogical fallacy
Begging the question is a logical fallacy that occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it. It is a type of circular reasoning and an informal fallacy: an argument that requires that the desired conclusion be true.
3) Assume the conclusion of an argument, a kind of circular reasoning, also called "begging the question" (petitio principi)

Irrelevant conclusion

red herringignoratio elenchifallacy of relevance
Another related fallacy is ignoratio elenchi or irrelevant conclusion: an argument that fails to address the issue in question, but appears to do so. An example might be a situation where A and B are debating whether the law permits A to do something.
Begging the question

Open-question argument

open question argument
Open-question argument
The idea that Moore begs the question (i.e. assumes the conclusion in a premise) was first raised by W. Frankena.

Regress argument

infinite regressregressregress problem
Regress argument (diallelus)
In this view, P ultimately supports P, begging the question.

Circular definition

circularitycircularcircular reasoning
Circular definition
Begging the question

Complex question

trick questionfallacy of many questionsleading questions
Begging the question is similar to the complex question (also known as trick question or fallacy of many questions): a question that, to be valid, requires the truth of another question that has not been established.
This fallacy can be also confused with petitio principii, begging the question, which offers a premise no more plausible than, and often just a restatement of, the conclusion.

Spin (propaganda)

spinspin doctorspinning
Spin (public relations)
Phrasing in a way that assumes unproven claims, or avoiding the question

Appeal to nature

naturalunnaturalappeals to nature
An appeal to nature would thus beg the question, because the conclusion is entailed by the premise.

Pleistocene Park

The climate (both temperatures and humidity) in today's northern Siberia is in fact similar to that of the mammoth steppe. The radiation aridity index for northern Siberia on Mikhail Budyko's scale is 2 (= steppe bordering on semi-desert). Budyko's scale compares the ratio of the energy received by the earth's surface to the energy required for the evaporation of the total annual precipitation. The 'humid climate' argument was based on other scales, which compare precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Moss has a very low transpiration rate and thus causes humidity without necessarily needing humidity for its establishment. Using these other scales as a proof for humidity being the cause of the disappearance of the grasslands therefore constitutes a circular argument, which is not scientifically viable.

Miracles (book)

MiraclesMiracles: A Preliminary StudyMiracles'' (book)
He accuses modern historians and scientific thinkers, particularly secular biblical scholars, of begging the question against miracles, insisting that modern disbelief in miracles is a cultural bias thrust upon the historical record and is not derivable from it.

Relativist fallacy

On this formulation, the very name "relativist fallacy" begs the question against anyone who earnestly (however mistakenly or not) holds that there are no "objective facts."

Vish (game)

VishVish'' (game)
In the game of Vish (short for vicious circle), players compete to find circularity in dictionary definitions.

Abortion debate

abortionmorality of abortionabortion rights
Such appeals can generate confusion if the type of rights is not specified (whether civil, natural, or otherwise) or if it is simply assumed that the right appealed to takes precedence over all other competing rights (an example of begging the question).

Criticism of science

critic of science
In other words, science is begging the question when it presupposes that there is a universal truth with no proof thereof.

Causality

causalcausationcause and effect
First, theorists complain that these accounts are circular.