A report on Behavior

Range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems or artificial entities in some environment.

- Behavior

8 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The human nervous system

Nervous system

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The human nervous system
Diagram showing the major divisions of the vertebrate nervous system.
Horizontal section of the head of an adult female human, showing skin, skull, and brain with gray matter (brown in this image) and underlying white matter
Nervous system of a bilaterian animal, in the form of a nerve cord with segmental enlargements, and a "brain" at the front
Area of the human body surface innervated by each spinal nerve
Earthworm nervous system. Top: side view of the front of the worm. Bottom: nervous system in isolation, viewed from above
Internal anatomy of a spider, showing the nervous system in blue
Major elements in synaptic transmission. An electrochemical wave called an action potential travels along the axon of a neuron. When the wave reaches a synapse, it provokes release of a small amount of neurotransmitter molecules, which bind to chemical receptor molecules in the membrane of the target cell.
Illustration of pain pathway, from René Descartes's Treatise of Man
Simplified schema of basic nervous system function: signals are picked up by sensory receptors and sent to the spinal cord and brain, where processing occurs that results in signals sent back to the spinal cord and then out to motor neurons
Layers protecting the brain and spinal cord.

In biology, the classical doctrine of the nervous system determines that it is a highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its actions and sensory information by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

Main glands of the endocrine system

Endocrine system

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Messenger system comprising feedback loops of the hormones released by internal glands of an organism directly into the circulatory system, regulating distant target organs.

Messenger system comprising feedback loops of the hormones released by internal glands of an organism directly into the circulatory system, regulating distant target organs.

Main glands of the endocrine system
Main glands of the endocrine system
Female endocrine system
Male endocrine system

A hormone is any of a class of signaling molecules produced by cells in glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

Open systems have input and output flows, representing exchanges of matter, energy or information with their surroundings.

System

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Group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole.

Group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole.

Open systems have input and output flows, representing exchanges of matter, energy or information with their surroundings.

Systems theory views the world as a complex system of interconnected parts. One scopes a system by defining its boundary; this means choosing which entities are inside the system and which are outside—part of the environment. One can make simplified representations (models) of the system in order to understand it and to predict or impact its future behavior. These models may define the structure and behavior of the system.

Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments. Each line here represents a genotype. Horizontal lines show that the phenotype is the same in different environments; slanted lines show that there are different phenotypes in different environments, and thus indicate plasticity.

Phenotypic plasticity

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Organism's behavior, morphology and physiology in response to a unique environment.

Organism's behavior, morphology and physiology in response to a unique environment.

Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments. Each line here represents a genotype. Horizontal lines show that the phenotype is the same in different environments; slanted lines show that there are different phenotypes in different environments, and thus indicate plasticity.
Phenotypic plasticity of sorghum flowering time evaluated from seven environments. The identified photothermal time, a performance-independent index, quantifies the relevant environmental input and enables a systematic framework for modelling, explaining, and predicting phenotypic values under natural conditions.
Hatch rates for red-eyed tree frog tadpoles depends on predation

Fundamental to the way in which organisms cope with environmental variation, phenotypic plasticity encompasses all types of environmentally induced changes (e.g. morphological, physiological, behavioural, phenological) that may or may not be permanent throughout an individual's lifespan.

Children learning in a rural school in Bangladesh

Learning

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Children learning in a rural school in Bangladesh
A depiction of the world's oldest continually operating university, the University of Bologna, Italy
Future school (1901 or 1910)

Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, attitudes, and preferences.

The theory of planned behavior.

Theory of planned behavior

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The theory of planned behavior.

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a psychological theory that links beliefs to behavior.

The Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert shopping arcade in Brussels, Belgium. Consumer behaviour, in its broadest sense, is concerned with how consumers select, decide and use goods and services.

Consumer behaviour

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Study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services.

Study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services.

The Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert shopping arcade in Brussels, Belgium. Consumer behaviour, in its broadest sense, is concerned with how consumers select, decide and use goods and services.
Shoppers inspect the quality of fresh produce at a market in Jerusalem.
In a family unit, an adult female often makes brand choices on behalf of the entire household, while children can be important influencers.
The purchasing decision model
Purchases of up-market perfumes, often bought as gifts, are high involvement decisions because the gift symbolises the relationship between the giver and the intended recipient.
The purchase of a mobile phone may trigger the desire for accessories such as this phone mount for use in a car.
Customer purchase decision, illustrating different communications touchpoints at each stage
Consumers shopping at London's Burlington Arcade engage in a variety of recreational and functional purchasing activities - from window shopping through to transporting their purchases homewards.
Happy hour, where two drinks can be purchased for the price of one, is a strong call-to-action because it encourages consumers to buy now rather than defer purchasing to a later time.
Maslow's hierarchy suggests that people seek to satisfy basic needs such as food and shelter before higher order needs become meaningful.
A decision to purchase an analgesic preparation is motivated by the desire to avoid pain (negative motivation).
A decision to buy an ice-cream sundae is motivated by the desire for sensory gratification (positive motivation).
People with shared interests, such as skaters and bladers, tend to form informal groups known as subcultures.
Harley-Davidson enthusiasts are an example of a consumption subculture.
Members of the 'Goth' subculture share a dress code.
The family, a primary reference group, exerts a strong influence on attitudes and behaviours.
Those who shop for pleasure are said to be recreational shoppers.
The purchase of an up-market sports car carries both financial risk and social risk, because it is an expensive purchase and it makes a highly visible statement about the driver.
Facilitating trial of a product may help to alleviate risk perceptions.
Prospective purchasers carefully inspect the merchandise before purchasing expensive gold jewellery.
The diffusion of innovations according to Rogers. As successive groups of consumers adopt the innovation(shown in blue), its market share (yellow) will eventually reach saturation level.
Facilitating a 'test-drive' can encourage consumers to speed up adoption rates.
The advent of "category killers", such as Australia's Officeworks, has contributed to an increase in channel switching behaviour.
Large family-sized cakes are more likely to be a planned purchase, while the individual portions are much more likely to be an unplanned purchase.
The immediate hedonic pleasure of eating candy often outweighs the longer term benefit of a healthier food choice.
Dick and Basu's Loyalty Matrix
Frequent flyer schemes are among the most well known of the reward programs.
No name sans nom chili sauce.jpg Name Brand is associated with economy and affordability. Because of yellow's associations with cheapness, this brand's logo is processed fluently and easily by consumers.
Product usage studies are used to improve packaging design.
Neuromarketing uses sophisticated biometric sensors such as EEG to study consumer responses to specific stimuli.

Purchasing behaviour is therefore influenced by a broad range of internal factors such as psychological, socio-economic, demographic and personality factors.

Behavior informatics

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Informatics of behaviors so as to obtain behavior intelligence and behavior insights.

Informatics of behaviors so as to obtain behavior intelligence and behavior insights.

From an Informatics perspective, a behavior consists of four key elements: actors (behavioral subjects and objects), operations (actions, activities) and interactions (relationships), and their properties.