Behaviorism

behavioristbehaviourismbehavior analysisbehavioral psychologybehavioralbehavioral psychologistbehaviouristbehavioristsbehavioral analysisbehavioural psychology
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.wikipedia
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Reinforcement

positive reinforcementnegative reinforcementreinforcing
The earliest derivatives of behavioral learning theory can be traced back to the late 19th century where Edward Thorndike pioneered the law of effect, a process that involved strengthening or weakening behavior through the use of reinforcement and punishment.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence applied that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.

John B. Watson

WatsonJohn Broadus WatsonJohn Watson
During the first half of the twentieth century, John B. Watson devised methodological behaviorism, which rejected introspective methods and sought to understand behavior by only measuring observable behaviors and events.
John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism.

Radical behaviorism

Radical behaviourismradical behavioristRadical behaviorists
It was not until the 1930s that B. F. Skinner suggested that private events—including thoughts and feelings—should be subjected to the same controlling variables as observable behavior, which became the basis for his philosophy called "radical behaviorism."
It refers to the philosophy behind behavior analysis, and is to be distinguished from methodological behaviorism—which has an intense emphasis on observable behaviors—by its inclusion of thinking, feeling, and other private events in the analysis of human and animal psychology.

Stimulus control

antecedents (or discriminative stimuli) that emits behaviorenvironmental stimuli also affect behaviormatching-to-sample
While Watson and Ivan Pavlov investigated the stimulus-response procedures of classical conditioning, Skinner assessed the controlling nature of consequences and also its potential effect on the antecedents (or discriminative stimuli) that emits behavior; the technique became known as operant conditioning.
In behavioral psychology, stimulus control is a phenomenon that occurs when an organism behaves in one way in the presence of a given stimulus and another way in its absence.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

cognitive behavioural therapycognitive-behavioral therapyCBT
In addition, while behaviorism and cognitive schools of psychological thought may not agree theoretically, they have complemented each other in the cognitive-behavior therapies, which have demonstrated utility in treating certain pathologies, including simple phobias, PTSD, and mood disorders.
CBT is based on the combination of the basic principles from behavioral and cognitive psychology.

Cognitive psychology

cognitive psychologistcognitivecognitive psychologists
In addition, while behaviorism and cognitive schools of psychological thought may not agree theoretically, they have complemented each other in the cognitive-behavior therapies, which have demonstrated utility in treating certain pathologies, including simple phobias, PTSD, and mood disorders.
From the 1920s to the 1950s, the main approach to psychology was behaviorism.

Psychological behaviorism

Behavioral repertoirebehavioristpsychological
Psychological behaviorism is a form of behaviorism — a major theory within psychology which holds that generally human behaviors are learned — proposed by Arthur W. Staats.

Law of effect

of effectThorndike's law of disuse
The earliest derivatives of behavioral learning theory can be traced back to the late 19th century where Edward Thorndike pioneered the law of effect, a process that involved strengthening or weakening behavior through the use of reinforcement and punishment.
The law of effect is a psychology principle advanced by Edward Thorndike in 1898 on the matter of behavioral conditioning (not then formulated as such) which states that "responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in thatsituation."

Noam Chomsky

ChomskyChomsky, NoamChomskyan
As Skinner turned from experimental work to concentrate on the philosophical underpinnings of a science of behavior, his attention turned to human language with his 1957 book Verbal Behavior and other language-related publications; Verbal Behavior laid out a vocabulary and theory for functional analysis of verbal behavior, and was strongly criticized in a review by Noam Chomsky.
Chomsky also played a pivotal role in the decline of behaviorism, and was particularly critical of the work of B. F. Skinner.

B. F. Skinner

B.F. SkinnerSkinnerSkinnerian
It was not until the 1930s that B. F. Skinner suggested that private events—including thoughts and feelings—should be subjected to the same controlling variables as observable behavior, which became the basis for his philosophy called "radical behaviorism."
F. Skinner''', was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.

Classical conditioning

conditioningPavlovian conditioningPavlovian
While Watson and Ivan Pavlov investigated the stimulus-response procedures of classical conditioning, Skinner assessed the controlling nature of consequences and also its potential effect on the antecedents (or discriminative stimuli) that emits behavior; the technique became known as operant conditioning.
Together with operant conditioning, classical conditioning became the foundation of behaviorism, a school of psychology which was dominant in the mid-20th century and is still an important influence on the practice of psychological therapy and the study of animal behavior.

Introspection

introspectivereflectionself-reflection
During the first half of the twentieth century, John B. Watson devised methodological behaviorism, which rejected introspective methods and sought to understand behavior by only measuring observable behaviors and events.
Later psychological movements, such as functionalism and behaviorism, rejected introspection for its lack of scientific reliability among other factors.

Audio-lingual method

audiolingual methodaudibleaudio-lingual
In the field of language learning, this type of teaching was called the audio-lingual method, characterised by the whole class using choral chanting of key phrases, dialogues and immediate correction.
It is based on behaviorist theory, which postulates that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement.

Clark L. Hull

Clark HullClark Leonard HullHull
Due to the lack of popularity of behaviorism in modern contexts it is little referenced today or bracketed as obsolete.

Pragmatism

pragmatistpragmaticpractical
Radical behaviorism overlaps considerably with other western philosophical positions such as American pragmatism.
Behaviorism and functionalism in psychology and sociology also have ties to pragmatism, which is not surprising considering that James and Dewey were both scholars of psychology and that Mead became a sociologist.

Philosophy of mind

mindmental philosophyphilosophy of the mind
Behaviorism is a psychological movement that can be contrasted with philosophy of mind.
The most common monisms in the 20th and 21st centuries have all been variations of physicalism; these positions include behaviorism, the type identity theory, anomalous monism and functionalism.

Language acquisition

language learningfirst language acquisitionacquisition
What was important for a behaviorist's analysis of human behavior was not language acquisition so much as the interaction between language and overt behavior.
Proponents of behaviorism argued that language may be learned through a form of operant conditioning.

Ivan Pavlov

PavlovIvan Petrovich PavlovPavlovian
While Watson and Ivan Pavlov investigated the stimulus-response procedures of classical conditioning, Skinner assessed the controlling nature of consequences and also its potential effect on the antecedents (or discriminative stimuli) that emits behavior; the technique became known as operant conditioning.
As Pavlov's work became known in the West, particularly through the writings of John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner, the idea of "conditioning" as an automatic form of learning became a key concept in the developing specialism of comparative psychology, and the general approach to psychology that underlay it, behaviorism.

Edward Thorndike

Edward L. ThorndikeEdward Lee ThorndikeE. L. Thorndike
The earliest derivatives of behavioral learning theory can be traced back to the late 19th century where Edward Thorndike pioneered the law of effect, a process that involved strengthening or weakening behavior through the use of reinforcement and punishment.
Thorndike's law of effect and puzzle box methodology were subjected to detailed criticism by behaviorists and many other psychologists.

Willard Van Orman Quine

QuineW. V. O. QuineW. V. Quine
W. V. O. Quine made use of a type of behaviorism, influenced by some of Skinner's ideas, in his own work on language.
His major writings include "Two Dogmas of Empiricism" (1951), which attacked the traditional analytic-synthetic distinction between propositions and advocated a form of semantic holism, and Word and Object (1960), which further developed these positions and introduced Quine's famous indeterminacy of translation thesis, advocating a behaviorist theory of meaning.

Operant conditioning

operantconditioningavoidance learning
While Watson and Ivan Pavlov investigated the stimulus-response procedures of classical conditioning, Skinner assessed the controlling nature of consequences and also its potential effect on the antecedents (or discriminative stimuli) that emits behavior; the technique became known as operant conditioning.
Modern military training conditions mid-brain response to combat pressure by closely simulating actual combat, using mainly Pavlovian classical conditioning and Skinnerian operant conditioning (both forms of behaviorism).

Relational frame theory

associative theories
Recently, a new line of behavioral research on language was started under the name of relational frame theory.
RFT is a behavioral account of language and higher cognition.

Edward C. Tolman

Edward TolmanEdward Chace TolmanTolman
Although Tolman was firmly behaviorist in his methodology, he was not a radical behaviorist like B. F. Skinner.

Substance abuse

drug abusedrug useabuse
The application of radical behaviorism—known as applied behavior analysis—is used in a variety of contexts, including, for example, organizational behavior management and pediatric feeding therapy, to the treatment of mental disorders, such as autism and substance abuse.
From the applied behavior analysis literature, behavioral psychology, and from randomized clinical trials, several evidenced based interventions have emerged: behavioral marital therapy, motivational Interviewing, community reinforcement approach, exposure therapy, contingency management They help suppress cravings and mental anxiety, improve focus on treatment and new learning behavioral skills, ease withdrawal symptoms and reduce the chances of relapse.