A report on Beijing and Inner Mongolia

The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.
One of the corner towers of the Forbidden City, built by the Yongle Emperor during the early Ming dynasty
Persian miniature depicting Genghis Khan entering Beijing
Overlapping layout of Beijing during the Liao, Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent
Summer Palace is one of the several palatial gardens built by Qing emperors in the northwest suburb area.
Mongolia plateau during early 17th century
Chongwenmen, a gate to the inner walled city, c. 1906
Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia within the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
A large portrait of Chiang Kai-shek was displayed above Tiananmen after WWII.
Mongols stand in front of a yurt, 1912
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949
Delegates of Inner Mongolia People's Congress shouting slogans
A scene from the opening ceremonies of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games.
Inner Mongolian steppes
Landsat 7 Satellite image of Beijing Municipality with the surrounding mountains in dark brown
Topography of Inner Mongolia in China
1940s Nationalist Beijing with predominantly traditional architecture
Winter in Ulanbutan Grassland, Hexigten Banner
The sign of Doujiao Hutong, one of the many traditional alleyways in the inner city
Theater in Hohhot
Beijing average annual temperatures from 1970 to 2019 during summer (June, July, and August) and winter (December, January, and February). Weather station data from ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/noaa/. For comparison the Global Surface Temperature Anomaly rose by approximately one degree over the same time period.
Inner Mongolia Gymnasium
Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog. These photographs, taken in August 2005, show the variations in Beijing's air quality.
Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot
Houhai Lake and Drum Tower at Shichahai, in the Xicheng District
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian
Xidan is one of the oldest and busiest shopping areas in Beijing.
Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870
Beijing products treemap, 2020
Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.
The Taikoo Li Sanlitun shopping arcade is a destination for locals and visitors.
Sign of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
The skyline of Beijing CBD
Jade dragon of the Hongshan culture (4700 BC – 2900 BC) found in Ongniud, Chifeng
Zhongguancun is a technology hub in Haidian District
Ulaanbutan grassland
The Beijing Ancient Observatory
Inner Mongolian grassland
Qianmen Avenue, a traditional commercial street outside Qianmen Gate along the southern Central Axis
Honorary tomb of Wang Zhaojun (born c. 50BC) in Hohhot
Inside the Forbidden City
Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Baoshan, Ar Horqin
Beijing Acrobatic Performance (10553642935)
Khitan people cooking. Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Aohan
A Temple of the Goddess in Gubeikou
Remains of the city Khara-Khoto built in 1032. Located in Ejin Khoshuu, Alxa Aimag
Fire God Temple in Di'anmen
Maidari Juu temple fortress ({{zh|labels=no |c=美岱召 |p=měidài zhào}}) built by Altan Khan in 1575 near Baotou
The tomb pagodas at Tanzhe Temple
Newly built arch in front of the Maidari Juu temple fortress (1575)
Yonghe Temple of Tibetan Buddhism
Da Zhao temple (also called Ikh Zuu) built by Altan Khan in 1579
Niujie Mosque
Badekar Monastery (1749) near Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Called Badgar Zuu in Mongolian
Church of the Saviour, also known as the Xishiku Church, built in 1703
Five Pagoda temple (1727) in Hohhot
The China Central Television Headquarters building in CBD
Badain Jaran temple (1868) in western Inner Mongolia
Fireworks above Olympic venues during the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Tai chi (Taijiquan) practitioners at the Fragrant Hills Park
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Beijing Workers' Stadium at night as viewed from Sanlitun
Alshaa mountain scenery
Beijing railway station, one of several rail stations in the city
Alxa Western Monastery (Alshaa Baruun Hiid) built in 1756
Badaling Expressway overpass near the Great Wall
Typical Beijing traffic signage found at intersections
Traffic jam in the Beijing CBD
Terminal 3 of the Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Daxing International Airport
Two Line 1 trains on the Beijing Subway, which is among the longest and busiest rapid transit systems in the world
An articulated Beijing bus
Bicyclists during rush hour at the Chang'an Avenue, 2009
KJ-2000 and J-10s started the flypast formation on the 70th anniversary of the People's Republic of China.

In 938, after the fall of the Tang, the Later Jin ceded the frontier territory including what is now Beijing to the Khitan Liao dynasty, which treated the city as Nanjing, or the "Southern Capital", one of four secondary capitals to complement its "Supreme Capital" Shangjing (modern Baarin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia).

- Beijing

Bashang Grasslands, on the border close to Beijing, is a popular retreat for urban residents wanting to get a taste of grasslands life.

- Inner Mongolia
The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.

14 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state

Yuan dynasty

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Successor state to the Mongol Empire after its division and a conquest dynasty of imperial China established by Kublai (Emperor Shizu), leader of the Mongol Borjigin clan, lasting from 1271 to 1368.

Successor state to the Mongol Empire after its division and a conquest dynasty of imperial China established by Kublai (Emperor Shizu), leader of the Mongol Borjigin clan, lasting from 1271 to 1368.

Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state
Mongol successor khanates
Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state
Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty
Guan Daosheng "the most famous and talented female painter and calligrapher in Chinese history" flourished in the Yuan dynasty
The Bailin Temple Pagoda of Zhaoxian County, Hebei Province, built in 1330 during the Yuan dynasty
A Yuan dynasty jade swan
A Yuan dynasty blue-and-white porcelain dish with fish and flowing water design, mid-14th century, Freer Gallery of Art
Yuan porcelain jar
Yuan underglaze blue Jingdezhen porcelain plate
A plate made of lacquer, wood, and paper from the Yuan dynasty. The Chinese were able to perfect a method of making lacquer. Decorating this plate are parrots and peonies. The parrot was a symbol of fidelity; because of its ability to mimic human speech, it was believed to be a suitable companion to a woman whose husband was away from home. The bird would be able to inform each person of the other's activities. The peony was a symbol of female virtue. When shown in full bloom, it is a token of love, affection, and feminine beauty. Birmingham Museum of Art.
The Yuan dynasty arched bridges of Taicang were built to show the prosperity the city enjoyed under the Yuan.
Yuan dynasty coinage
Map of the Northwest territory
A diagram of Pascal's triangle in Zhu Shijie's Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns, written in 1303
Yang Hui's Magic Circle
Yuan dynasty banknote with its printing plate, 1287
A revolving typecase with individual movable type characters from Wang Zhen's Nong Shu, published in 1313
Blue-and-white Covered Jar with Fretwork Floral Design in Red and Blue Glaze, excavated in Baoding
Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280
Wine jar with fish and aquatic plants, 14th century. Porcelain with underglaze cobalt blue decoration. Brooklyn Museum.
Manichaean Diagram of the Universe, a painting describing Yuan period Manichaean cosmology
A Yuan Qingbai porcelain statue of Guanyin, a bodhisattva of Mahayana Buddhism
Box with pavilion and figures, Yuan dynasty.
Covered box with lunar palace, 14th century. Yuan dynasty.
Jinan Great Southern Mosque was completed during the reign of Temür Khan (the Emperor Chengzong of Yuan).
Administrative divisions of the Yuan dynasty.
Mongol Empire's Ayimaq in North China
Magic square in Arabic numerals (Yuan dynasty)
smelting machines (Yuan dynasty)
Water wheel (Yuan dynasty)
Water hammer (Yuan dynasty)
Weaving machine (Yuan dynasty)
water mill gear (Yuan dynasty)
loom (Yuan dynasty)
Yuan painting (Zhao Mengfu)
Chuangzi Nu (Yuan dynasty)<ref name="bm">{{cite web |url = http://www.grandhistorian.com/chinesesiegewarfare/index-english12122007.html |title=Archived copy |access-date=November 11, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20091202081843/http://www.grandhistorian.com/chinesesiegewarfare/index-english12122007.html |archive-date=December 2, 2009 }}</ref>
Military costume.
Yuan painting of a legendary figure riding on a dragon.
Yuan cavalry
Yuan Mongol soldier
Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan during his youth
Mongol rider (Yuan dynasty)
Chinese stone inscription of a Nestorian Christian Cross from a monastery of Fangshan District in Beijing (then called Dadu, or Khanbaliq), dated to the Yuan Dynasty

He adopted as his capital city Kaiping in Inner Mongolia, later renamed Shangdu.

Kublai readied the move of the Mongol capital from Karakorum in Mongolia to Khanbaliq in 1264, constructing a new city near the former Jurchen capital Zhongdu, now modern Beijing, in 1266.

Hebei

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Northern province of China.

Northern province of China.

Nearly 1100-year-old Iron Lion of Cangzhou
Tricolor Duck-Shaped Cup, Tang Dynasty, unearthed from Anxin County
The Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, Hebei, built in 1771 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
Hebei in 1936
Langyashan (Wolf Tooth Mountain), in Yi County
Section of the Great Wall of China at Jinshanling
Bashang Meadows in Fengning County
Downtown Shijiazhuang.
A building in downtown Zhangjiakou.
The Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei Province, built in AD 1045 during the Song dynasty
Hejian-styled donkey burger
A Ding ware bowl
The Xumi Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei province, built in 636 AD during the Tang dynasty
View of the Chengde Mountain Resort

Hebei borders the provinces of Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, Shandong to the southeast and Liaoning to the northeast, as well as the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to the north.

In 1421, when the Yongle Emperor moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, the province started to be called as "North Zhili" or just "Zhili", which means "Directly Ruled (by the Imperial Court)".

Mongolia

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Landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

Landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

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7th-century artifacts found 180 km from Ulaanbaatar.
Mongol Empire expansion (1206 till 1294)
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols. The red area shows where the majority of Mongolian speakers reside today.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent.
Genghis Khan the first Mongol Emperor
Altan Khan (1507–1582) founded the city of Hohhot, helped introduce Buddhism and originated the title of Dalai Lama
The eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, Bogd Khaan
Map of unified Mongolia in 1917
Khorloogiin Choibalsan led Mongolia during the Stalinist era and presided over an environment of intense political persecution
Mongolian troops fight against the Japanese counterattack at Khalkhin Gol, 1939
Mongolian Premier Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was the longest-serving leader in the Soviet Bloc, with over 44 years in office
The southern portion of Mongolia is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous.
Mongolia map of Köppen climate classification zones.
The Khentii Mountains in Terelj, close to the birthplace of Genghis Khan.
Bactrian camels by sand dunes in Gobi Desert.
Mongolian steppe
Ulaanbaatar is the capital and largest city of Mongolia
In settlements, many families live in ger districts
Amarbayasgalant Monastery
State Great Khural chamber in session
Mongolia's President Tsakhia Elbegdorj with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, June 2016
Mongolia's President Khaltmaagiin Battulga and Vladimir Putin in Vladivostok, September 2017
Mongolian, Chinese and Russian national flags set on armored vehicles during the large-scale military exercise Vostok 2018 in Eastern Siberia
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mongolia
A proportional representation of Mongolia exports, 2019
View of Ulaanbaatar with the Blue Sky Tower
Oyu Tolgoi employs 18,000 workers and expects to be producing 450,000 tonnes of copper a year by 2020
Train in Zamyn-Üüd station in Dornogovi aimag
While the Mongolian horse continues to be revered as the national symbol, they are rapidly being replaced by motorized vehicles.
Mongolian ferry Sukhbaatar on Lake Khovsgol in Khovsgol Province
A ger in front of the Gurvan Saikhan Mountains
Musician playing the traditional Mongolian musical instrument morin khuur
Mongolian media interviewing the opposition Mongolian Green Party in 2008. The media has gained significant freedoms since democratic reforms initiated in the 1990s.
Naadam is the largest summer celebration.
Riders during Naadam festival
Kazakh hunters in Mongolia with eagles
1236-1242 Mongol invasions of Europe

He set up his capital in present-day Beijing.

By 1636 most Inner Mongolian tribes had submitted to the Manchus, who founded the Qing dynasty.

Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )

Mongols

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Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )
Asia in 500, showing the Rouran Khaganate and its neighbors, including the Northern Wei and the Tuyuhun Khanate, all of them were established by Proto-Mongols
Mongol man with a hat, Yuan dynasty
Mongol wearing a hat, 14th c.
Yuan dynasty Mongol rider
A portrait of Kublai Khan by Araniko (1245–1306)
Mongol huntsmen, Ming dynasty
The Northern Yuan dynasty and Turco-Mongol residual states and domains by the 15th century
Map showing wars between Qing Dynasty and Dzungar Khanate
A Dzungar soldier called Ayusi from the high Qing era, by Giuseppe Castiglione, 1755
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1755 between the Qing (that ruled China at the time) and Mongol Dzungar armies. The fall of the Dzungar Khanate
Khorloogiin Choibalsan, leader of the Mongolian People's Republic (left), and Georgy Zhukov consult during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol against Japanese troops, 1939
World War II Zaisan Memorial, Ulaan Baatar, from the People's Republic of Mongolia era.
Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (right)
A Mongolic Ger
Chronological tree of the Mongolic languages
Buddhist temple in Buryatia, Russia
Timur of Mongolic origin himself had converted almost all the Borjigin leaders to Islam.
Mongols grazing livestock, by Roy Chapman Andrews photographs in 1921
Mural of a Mongol family, Yuan dynasty
The Mughal Emperor Babur and his heir Humayun. The word Mughal is derived from the Persian word for Mongol.
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire and location of today's Mongols in modern Mongolia, Russia and China.
Mongol women in traditional dress
Strong Mongol men at August games. Photo by Wm. Purdom, 1909
Mongol Empress Zayaat (Jiyatu), wife of Kulug Khan (1281–1311)
Genghis' son Tolui with Queen Sorgaqtani
Hulegu Khan, ruler of the Ilkhanate
13th century Ilkhanid Mongol archer
Mongol soldiers by Rashid al-Din, BnF. MS. Supplément Persan 1113. 1430-1434 AD.
Kalmyk Mongol girl Annushka (painted in 1767)
A 20th-century Mongol Khan, Navaanneren
The 4th Dalai Lama Yonten Gyatso
Dolgorsürengiin Dagvadorj became the first Mongol to reach sumo's highest rank.
Mongol women archers during Naadam festival
A Mongol musician
A Mongol Wrangler
Buryat Mongol shaman
Kalmyks, 19th century
Mongol girl performing Bayad dance
Buryat Mongols (painted in 1840)
Daur Mongol Empress Wanrong (1906–1946), also had Borjigin blood on maternal side.
Buryat Mongol boy during shamanic rite
Concubine Wenxiu was Puyi's consort
A Mongolian Buddhist monk, 1913

The Mongols (Монголчууд,, Moŋğolçuud, ; ; Монголы) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia, Inner Mongolia in China and the Buryatia Republic of the Russian Federation.

In 1550, Altan Khan led a Khalkha Mongol raid on Beijing.

Portrait by artist Araniko, sling drawn shortly after Kublai's death in 1294. His white robes reflect his desired symbolic role as a religious Mongol shaman.

Kublai Khan

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The founder of the Yuan dynasty of China and the fifth khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire from 1260 to 1294, although after the division of the empire this was a nominal position.

The founder of the Yuan dynasty of China and the fifth khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire from 1260 to 1294, although after the division of the empire this was a nominal position.

Portrait by artist Araniko, sling drawn shortly after Kublai's death in 1294. His white robes reflect his desired symbolic role as a religious Mongol shaman.
Portrait of young Kublai by Araniko, a Nepali artist in Kublai's court
“The Emperor Kublai Khan in a tower carried by four elephants on the day of the battle“ French Engraving, 18th century.
Kublai Khan was chosen by his many supporters to become the next Great Khan at the Grand Kurultai in the year 1260. 
Kublai Khan and His Empress Enthroned, from a Jami al-Twarikh (or Chingiznama). Mughal dynasty, Reign of Akbar, 1596. Mughal Court. Opaque watercolor, ink, and gold on paper. India. Freer Gallery of Art. F1954.31
Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Han Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280.
Extract of the letter of Arghun to Philip IV of France, in the Mongolian script, dated 1289. French National Archives.
The Yuan Dynasty of China, c. 1294
Chinese opera flourished during Yuan China.
The "Muslim trebuchet" (or Huihui Pao) used to breach the walls of Fancheng and Xiangyang.
A Yuan dynasty hand cannon
Two dragons chasing a flaming pearl was a symbol associated with Goryeo.
The Gangnido reflects the Chinese geographical knowledge during the Mongol Empire about countries in the West.
The Japanese samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
Japanese samurai boarding Yuan ships in 1281.
Kublai gives financial support to the Polo family.
Rabban Bar Sauma, ambassador of Great Khan Kublai and Ilkhan Arghun, travelled from Dadu to Rome, Tuscany, Genoa, Paris, and Bordeaux to meet with European rulers in 1287–88.
The White Stupa of Dadu (or Khanbaliq; now Beijing).
A Yuan dynasty jade belt plaque featuring carved designs of the Azure Dragon, highly regarded as a symbol of Yuan China's maritime strength.
In Ilkhanate Persia, Ghazan converted to Islam and recognized Kublai Khan as his suzerain.
Chabi, Khatun of Kublai and Empress of the Mongol Empire
Longevity Hill in Beijing, where Kublai Khan wrote his poem.
Laborers transporting construction materials to Khanbaliq
Statue of Kublai Khan in Sükhbaatar Square, Ulaanbaatar. Together with Ögedei Khan's, and the much larger Genghis Khan's statues, it forms a statue complex dedicated to the Mongol Empire.
The Japanese samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.

Liu was a painter, calligrapher, poet, and mathematician, and he became Kublai's advisor when Haiyun returned to his temple in modern Beijing.

Kublai received the viceroyalty over northern China and moved his ordo to central Inner Mongolia.

Qing dynasty

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Manchu-led conquest dynasty and the last imperial dynasty of China.

Manchu-led conquest dynasty and the last imperial dynasty of China.

The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
Italian 1682 map showing the "Kingdom of the Nüzhen" or the "Jin Tartars"
Manchu cavalry charging Ming infantry battle of Sarhu in 1619
Sura han ni chiha (Coins of Tiancong Khan) in Manchu alphabet
Dorgon (1612–1650)
Qing Empire in 1636
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662–1722)
Emperor with Manchu army in Khalkha 1688
Putuo Zongcheng Temple, Chengde, Qianlong reign; built on the model of Potala Palace, Lhasa
Campaign against the Dzungars in the Qing conquest of Xinjiang 1755–1758
Lord Macartney saluting the Qianlong Emperor
Commerce on the water, Prosperous Suzhou by Xu Yang, 1759
British Steamship destroying Chinese war junks (E. Duncan) (1843)
View of the Canton River, showing the Thirteen Factories in the background, 1850–1855
Government forces defeating Taiping armies
Yixin, Prince Gong
Empress Dowager Cixi (Oil painting by Hubert Vos c. 1905))
Britain, Germany, Russia, France, and Japan dividing China
Foreign armies in the Forbidden City 1900
Yuan Shikai
Qing China in 1911
Zaifeng, Prince Chun
A pitched battle between the imperial and revolutionary armies in 1911
A postage stamp from Yantai (Chefoo) in the Qing dynasty
A Qing dynasty mandarin
The emperor of China from The Universal Traveller
2000–cash Da-Qing Baochao banknote from 1859
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875
Qing China in 1832
The Qing dynasty in ca. 1820, with provinces in yellow, military governorates and protectorates in light yellow, tributary states in orange
Brush container symbol of elegant gentry culture
Chen Clan Ancestral Hall (陈家祠) built in 1894
Patriarchal family
Placard (right to left) in Manchu, Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian Yonghe Lamasery, Beijing
Silver coin: 1 yuan/dollar Xuantong 3rd year - 1911 Chopmark
Xián Fēng Tōng Bǎo (咸豐通寶) 1850–1861 Qing dynasty copper (brass) cash coin
Puankhequa (1714–1788). Chinese merchant and member of a Cohong family.
Pine, Plum and Cranes, 1759, by Shen Quan (1682–1760).
A Daoguang period Peking glass vase. Colored in "Imperial Yellow", due to its association with the Qing.
Jade book of the Qianlong period on display at the British Museum
Landscape by Wang Gai, 1694
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875

The Qing dynasty established control over Beijing in 1644, then later expanded its rule over the whole of China proper, and finally expanded into Inner Asia.

Qing China reached its largest extent during the 18th century, when it ruled China proper (eighteen provinces) as well as the areas of present-day Northeast China, Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet, at approximately 13 million km2 in size.

Aguda, Emperor Taizu of Jurchen Jin

Manchu people

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Officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

Officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

Aguda, Emperor Taizu of Jurchen Jin
An imperial portrait of Nurgaci
The Qing Empire ca. 1820
Prince Zaitao dresses in modern reformed uniform of late Qing dynasty
Noblewoman Wanyan Litongji, 1900s
"Banjin Inenggi" and Manchu linguistic activity by the government and students in Changchun, 2011
the cover of the Eight Manchu Banners' Surname-Clans' Book
A musketeer wearing a queue and formal hat
Han and Manchu clothing coexisted during Qing dynasty
Han Chinese clothing in early Qing
Han Chinese general Zhang Zhiyuan wearing Qing military outfit.
Painting of the Qianlong Emperor hunting
Manchu wrestlers competed in front of the Qianlong Emperor
The performance of Manchu palace skaters on holiday
Octagonal drum performance on stage
Akšan, Manchu singer and ulabun artist
Manchu autonomous area in Liaoning.{{#tag:ref|Autonomous counties are shown in bright green. Counties with autonomous townships are in dark green, with the number of Manchu townshipin each county shown in red (or yellow). So are another 2 pictures|group=note}}
Manchu autonomous area in Jilin.
Manchu autonomous area in Hebei.
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party

Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing have over 100,000 Manchu residents.

The Ming dynasty Great Wall at Jinshanling

Great Wall of China

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Series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Steppe.

Series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Steppe.

The Ming dynasty Great Wall at Jinshanling
The Ming dynasty Great Wall at Jinshanling
Huayi tu, a 1136 map of China with the Great Wall depicted on the northern edge of the country
The Great Wall of the Qin stretches from Lintao to Liaodong
The Great Wall of the Han is the longest of all walls, from Mamitu near Yumenguan to Liaodong
The extent of the Ming Empire and its walls
Part of the Great Wall of China (April 1853, X, p. 41)
The Great Wall in 1907
A more rural portion of the Great Wall that stretches through the mountains, here seen in slight disrepair
Identical satellite images of a section of the Great Wall in northern Shanxi, running diagonally from lower left to upper right and not to be confused with the more prominent river running from upper left to lower right. In the image on the right, the Great Wall has been outlined in red. The region pictured is 12 x.
Great Wall of Han dynasty near Yumenguan.
Ming dynasty Great Wall at Jinshanling
thumb|Remains of Beacon tower near Yumenguan, 2011
"The First Mound" – at Jiayu Pass, the western terminus of the Ming wall
The Great Wall near Jiayu Pass
Ming Great Wall remnant near Yinchuan
The Great Wall remnant at Yulin
The Great Wall at Badaling
The Juyongguan area of the Great Wall accepts numerous tourists each day
Gateway of Gubeikou Fortress
Environmental protection sign near Great Wall, 2011
Ming Great Wall at Simatai, overlooking the gorge
Mutianyu Great Wall. This is atop the wall on a section that has not been restored
The Old Dragon Head, the Great Wall where it meets the sea in the vicinity of Shanhai Pass
The Great Wall at dawn
Inside the watchtower
Badaling Great Wall during winter

Dynasties founded by non-Han ethnic groups also built their border walls: the Xianbei-ruled Northern Wei, the Khitan-ruled Liao, Jurchen-led Jin and the Tangut-established Western Xia, who ruled vast territories over Northern China throughout centuries, all constructed defensive walls but those were located much to the north of the other Great Walls as we know it, within China's autonomous region of Inner Mongolia and in modern-day Mongolia itself.

While portions north of Beijing and near tourist centers have been preserved and even extensively renovated, in many other locations the wall is in disrepair.

Ming dynasty and the Northern Yuan in the early 15th century. The Mongols lost some lands in China proper after the Ming defeated Tögüs Temür in 1388.

Northern Yuan

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Dynastic regime ruled by the Mongol Borjigin clan based in the Mongolian Plateau.

Dynastic regime ruled by the Mongol Borjigin clan based in the Mongolian Plateau.

Ming dynasty and the Northern Yuan in the early 15th century. The Mongols lost some lands in China proper after the Ming defeated Tögüs Temür in 1388.
Location of the Oirats
The tumens of the Mongolian Plateau and relict states of the Mongol Empire by 1500
Realm of Altan Khan in 1571
Temple at Erdene Zuu monastery established by Abtai Khan in the Khalkha heartland in the 16th century.
The White House of Tsogt Taij (White Castle) was built in 1601.
Major Mongol and Jurchen rulers prior to the Jurchen unification
Chahar-Jurchen War, 1619–1634
The various regimes on the Mongolian Plateau after the proclamation of Qing dynasty
Dzungar–Qing Wars, 1687–1757

In 1368, a Ming army advanced on the Yuan capital Khanbaliq or Dadu (present-day Beijing).

1333–1370), the last ruler of the Yuan, fled north to Shangdu (located in present-day Inner Mongolia) from Dadu upon the approach of Ming forces.

Ruins of Shangdu

Shangdu

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Ruins of Shangdu
Ruins of Shangdu
Shangdu (here spelled Ciandu, as Marco Polo spelled it) on the French map of Asia made by Sanson d'Abbeville, geographer of King Louis XIV, dated 1650. It also shows a Xandu east of Cambalu, where English maps placed it. Like some other European maps of the time, this map shows Cambalu and Pequin as two different cities, but they were in fact the same city, now called Beijing. When this map was made, Shangdu had been in ruins for almost three centuries.
Even though Matteo Ricci and Bento de Góis had already proven that Cathay is simply another name for China, the English cartographer John Speed in 1626 continued the tradition of showing "Cathaya, the Chief Kingdome of Great Cam" to the northeast of China. On his map, he placed Xandu east of the "Cathayan metropolis" Cambalu

Shangdu, also known as Xanadu (Mongolian: Šandu), was the summer capital of the Yuan dynasty of China before Kublai decided to move his throne to the former Jin dynasty capital of Zhōngdū , which was renamed Khanbaliq, present-day Beijing.

Shangdu is located in the present-day Zhenglan Banner, Inner Mongolia.